Definition of data collection
Data collection is carried out to obtain the information needed in order to achieve research objectives. The purpose expressed in the form of a hypothesis is a temporary answer to the research question. This answer still needs to be tested empirically, and it is for this purpose that data collection is needed. The data collected is determined by the variables in the hypothesis. The data was collected by a predetermined sample. The sample consists of a set of units of analysis as research targets.
The variables studied are in the unit of analysis concerned in the research sample. The data collected from each variable is determined by the operational definition of the variable concerned. The operational definition refers to two important things in relation to data collection, namely empirical indicators and measurements.
Method of collecting dataIn a study there are several methods of data collection along with their respective data collection devices including:
ObervasiSutrisno Hadi (1986) suggests that observation is a complex process, a process composed of various biological and psychological processes, the two most important of which are the processes of observation and memory.
In terms of the process of carrying out data collection , observations can be divided into participant observations and non-participant observations, then in terms of the instrumentation used, observations can be differentiated into structured and unstructured observations.
a. Participant observationIn this observation, the researcher is involved with the daily activities of the person being observed, while making observations, the researcher participates in what the data source is doing, and shares his ups and downs. With this observation, the data obtained will be complete, sharp, and up to the level of the meaning of each behavior that appears.
b. Non-participant observationIf the participant observation of the researcher is directly involved with the activities of the person being observed, then in non-participant observation the researcher is not involved and is only an independent observer.
c. Structured observationObservations that have been designed systematically, about what was observed, when and where it was. So structured observation is carried out if the researcher has tested its validity and reliability.
d. Unstructured observationObservations that are not prepared systematically about what is observed. This is done because researchers do not know exactly what will be observed. In making observations, researchers do not use standard instruments, but only in the form of observation signs.
Interview MethodInterview is a data collection technique that is carried out through face-to-face and direct question and answer between data collectors and researchers to informants or data sources.
Interviews in large sample studies are usually only carried out as preliminary studies because it is not possible to use interviews with 1000 respondents, while in small samples the interview technique can be applied as a data collection technique.
The interview guide is used to remind the interviewer about what aspects should be discussed, as well as a checklist whether these relevant aspects have been discussed or asked about. With these guidelines the interviewer must think about how the question will be explained concretely in the question sentence, as well as adjusting the question to the actual context during the interview (Patton in Poerwandari, 1998).
Interviews are divided into structured and unstructured interviews.
a. Structured interviews mean that the researcher knows exactly what information the respondent wants to extract so that a list of questions has been made systematically. Researchers can also use tape recorders, photo cameras, and other materials that can help smooth the interview.
b. Unstructured interviews are free interviews, that is, the researcher does not use an interview guide that contains specific questions to be asked, and only contains important points of the problem that the respondent wants to explore.
Questionnaire (Questionnaire)Questionnaires are a data collection method that is carried out by giving a set of questions or written statements to respondents to answer, questionnaires are a more efficient data collection method when researchers know with certainty the variables to be measured and know what is expected of the respondents. In addition, the questionnaire is also suitable for use when the number of respondents is quite large and spread over a large area. Questionnaires can be in the form of closed or open questions/statements, can be given to respondents directly or sent via post or the internet.
Uma Sekaran (1992) put forward several principles in writing a questionnaire as a data collection method , namely the principles of writing measurements and physical appearance.
The principle of writing a questionnaire involves several factors, namely the content and purpose of the questions, the language used, the type and form of questions, questions that are not ambiguous, don't ask things that have been forgotten, questions that are not directing, the length of the questions and the order of the questions.
a. Question Content and Purpose.
What is meant here is whether the content of the question is a form of measurement or not? if the form of measurement then in making questions must be careful, each question must be a scale of measurement and the number of items sufficient to measure the variable under study.
b. language used
The language used in writing the questionnaire must be adapted to the language skills of the respondents. If the respondent cannot speak Indonesian, then the questionnaire should not be prepared in Indonesian. So the language used in the questionnaire must pay attention to the education level of the respondent
c. Types and Forms of Questions
The types of questions in the questionnaire can be open or closed and the form can use positive or positive sentences.
Open questions are questions that expect the respondent to write down the answer in the form of a description of something. Example: how do you respond to advertisements on TV today? On the other hand, closed questions are questions that expect short answers or expect respondents to choose one of the alternative answers for each available question. Each questionnaire question that expects an answer in the form of nominal, original, interval and ratio data is a closed question form.
d. Non-ambiguous questions
Each question in the questionnaire is double-barreled, making it difficult for respondents to provide answers.
e. Do not ask what has been forgotten
For each question in the questionnaire instrument, it is better not to ask things that the respondent has forgotten, or questions that require a heavy thinking answer.
f. Questions do not lead to
Questions in questionnaires should also not lead to only good or bad answers.
g. Length of questions
Questions in the questionnaire should not be too long, so that it will saturate the respondents in filling out. If the number of variables is large, requiring a large number of instruments, the instruments are made to vary in appearance, the measurement scale model used, and how to fill it.
h. Order of questions
The order of the questions in the questionnaire starts from the general to the specific or from easy to more difficult, or even random. This needs to be considered because psychologically it will affect the enthusiasm of respondents to answer. If at first they were given difficult questions, the respondents would be discouraged from filling out the questionnaire they had received.
i. Measurement principle
The questionnaire given to the respondents is a research instrument, which is used to measure the variables to be studied. Therefore the questionnaire instrument must be used to obtain valid and reliable data about the variable being measured. In order to obtain valid and reliable research data, before the instrument is given to the respondent, it is necessary to test its validity and reliability first.
j. Questionnaire Physical Appearance
The physical appearance of the questionnaire as a data collection tool will affect the response or seriousness of the respondents in filling out the questionnaire. Questionnaires made on opaque paper will receive less attractive responses from respondents, when compared to questionnaires printed on nice and colored paper. However, if the questionnaire is printed on good and colored paper, it will be more expensive.
Document StudyDocumentation study is a data collection technique that is not addressed directly to the research subject. The documents studied can be of various kinds, not only official documents, they can be in the form of diaries, personal letters, reports, meeting minutes, case records in social work, and other documents.
Documents can be divided into:
1. Primary documents
Documents written by people who directly experience an event. An example is an autobiography
2. Secondary documents
Events reported to other people which are then written by this person. An example is a biography.
In collecting data, it is necessary to know the types of methods used, including:
In terms of the process of carrying out data collection, observations can be divided into participant observations and non-participant observations, then in terms of the instrumentation used, observations can be differentiated into structured and unstructured observations.
b. Interview is a technique used by asking directly to the respondent, and there are 2 elements of the interview, namely direct and indirect interviews
c. Questionnaire questionnaire
There are several things that must be considered in writing a questionnaire, namely the content and purpose of the questions, the language used, the type and form of questions, questions that are not ambiguous, don't ask things that have been forgotten, questions that are not directing, the length of the questions and the order of the questions.
d. Document study
Documentation study is a data collection technique that is not addressed directly to the research subject.
The author realizes that there is some material that is still lacking in writing this paper, because of that the author is very open to criticism from readers so that the preparation of the next paper is even more perfect.
Thus our writing regarding Typing and Data Collection Methods , hopefully it can be useful for readers.
 Sugiyono, Quantitative Qualitative Research Methods and R & D, Bandung: Alfabeta, 2012, Pg 145
 http://raachmaa.blogspot.com/2014/04/pengertian-dan-tipe-tipe-data-methode .html 25/5/15. 11.10 a.m
 https://odebhora.wordpress.com/2011/12/17/teknik-pengummpulan-data 5/25/15, 10.23 WIB