Minggu, 04 Juni 2023

4 Basic Principles of 21st Century Learning

If you had time to study the contents of the XXI CENTURY NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL PARADIGM book published by the National Education Standards Agency (BNSP) or read the contents of Pemdikbud No. 65 of 2013 concerning Process Standards, you will find a number of learning principles as a basic reference for the teacher's thinking and acting in developing the learning process .

BNSP formulates 16 learning principles that must be fulfilled in the 21st century educational process. While Pemdikbud No. 65 of 2013 put forward 14 learning principles related to the implementation of the 2013 Curriculum. Meanwhile, Jennifer Nichols simplified it into 4 principles, namely: (1) instruction should be student-centered ; (2) education should be collaborative ; (3) learning should have context ; and (4) schools should be integrated with society .

The four main principles of 21st century learning initiated by Jennifer Nichols can be explained and developed as follows:

1. Instruction should be student-centered

Learning development should use a student-centered learning approach. Students are placed as learning subjects who actively develop their interests and potential. Students are no longer required to listen to and memorize subject matter given by the teacher, but try to construct their knowledge and skills, according to their capacity and level of development of thinking, while being invited to contribute to solving real problems that occur in society.

Student-centered learning does not mean that the teacher gives up control of learning to students completely. Teacher intervention is still needed. The teacher acts as a facilitator who seeks to help link prior knowledge that students already have with the new information they will learn. Giving students the opportunity to learn according to their own way and learning style and encouraging students to be responsible for the learning process they are doing. In addition, the teacher also acts as a guide, who seeks to help students when they encounter difficulties in the process of constructing their knowledge and skills.

2. Education should be collaborative

Students must be taught to be able to collaborate with others . Collaborate with people who differ in their cultural backgrounds and values. In exploring information and constructing meaning, students need to be encouraged to be able to collaborate with their classmates. In working on a project, students need to be taught how to appreciate each person's strengths and talents and how to take on roles and adapt appropriately to them.

Likewise, schools (including teachers) should be able to work together with other educational institutions (teachers) in various parts of the world to share information and experiences with each other about the practices and learning methods they have developed. Then, they are willing to make changes to their learning methods to make them better.

3. Learning should have context

Learning will not mean much if it does not have an impact on students' lives outside of school. Therefore, the subject matter needs to be related to the daily lives of students. Teachers develop learning methods that allow students to connect with the real world ( real word ). The teacher helps students to find value, meaning and belief in what they are learning and can apply it in their daily life. The teacher conducts student performance assessments that are associated with the real world.

4. Schools should be integrated with society

In an effort to prepare students to become responsible citizens, schools should be able to facilitate students to be involved in their social environment. For example, holding community service activities, where students can learn to take roles and carry out certain activities in a social environment. Students can be involved in various development programs in the community, such as: health, education, environmental programs, and so on. Apart from that, students also need to be invited to visit orphanages to practice their empathy sensitivity and social care.

With the power of technology and the internet, today's students can do so much more. The social movement space for students is no longer only around the school or where they live, but can reach layers of society in various parts of the world. Education needs to help students become responsible digital citizens.


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