Minggu, 04 Juni 2023

Scaffolding Learning for Student Learning Success
Scaffolding learning can be interpreted as a technique of providing learning support at an early stage in a structured way, to encourage students to be able to learn independently….

Among the general public, the term scaffolding or scaffolding seems to be more understood as a term related to building construction techniques, namely efforts to install bamboo/timber/iron beams as a temporary support when constructing a building, especially buildings in concrete construction. When the concrete construction is considered to be able to stand firmly, the bamboo/timber block/iron arrangement will also be revoked. In the context of learning, the use of the term scaffolding seems to be considered relatively new and is increasingly popular along with the emergence of the idea of ​​active learning oriented to constructivism learning theory developed by Lev Vygotsky, the pioneer of Social Constructivism.

In simple terms, scaffolding learning can be interpreted as a technique of providing structured learning support, which is carried out at an early stage to encourage students to be able to learn independently. Providing learning support is not carried out continuously , but as students' abilities increase, the teacher must gradually reduce and release students to study independently. If students have not been able to achieve independence in their learning, the teacher returns to the support system to help students make progress until they are truly able to achieve independence. Thus, the essence and working principle is not much different from scaffoldingin the context of constructing a building. Scaffolding learning as an assisted -learning technique can be done when students plan, implement and reflect on their learning tasks.

Jamie McKenzie mengemukakan 8 (delapan) karakteristik pembelajaran scaffolding: (1) provides clear directions; (2) clarifies purpose; (3) keeps students on task; (3) offers assessment to clarify expectations; (4) points students to worthy sources; (5) reduces uncertainty, surprise and disappointment; (6) delivers efficiency; (5) creates momentum.

Operationally, scaffolding learning can be taken through the following stages:Carry out an initial assessment of the ability and level of development of each student to determine the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD), namely areas of student development that still have potential and opportunities to be improved and optimized through the help of teachers, friends, or certain learning environments, including the use of technology.
Describe tasks and learning activities in detail so that they can help students see the zones that need to be scaffolded .
Presenting a clear and gradual structure/study task according to the level of student development, which can be done through: explanation, encouragement (motivation), and giving examples ( modeling ).
Encourage students to complete learning tasks independently.

Meanwhile, Applebee and Langer identified 5 (five) scaffolding learning steps , namely:Intentionally ; grouping complex parts that students want to master into specific and clear parts and forming a unified whole to achieve complete competence.
Appropriateness ; focusing on providing assistance to aspects that students have not mastered optimally.
Structure ; provide models so that students can learn from the models displayed. The model can be given through a thought process, verbalized in words, or through actions. Then, students are asked to explain what they have learned from the model.
Collaboration ; collaborate and respond to assignments done by students.
Internalization: strengthening the ownership of knowledge that students have so that they can master it well and become part of themselves.

From these steps, the core of scaffolding learning actually lies in the structure stage and the success rate of its application will largely be determined by determining the Zone of Proximal Development that will be assisted.

On the other hand, Alibali (2006) provides more technical advice regarding the application of scaffolding learning , as shown in the following table:
Advance organizer

Tools used to introduce new material and assignments to help students learn a topic: Venn diagrams to compare information by contrast, flowcharts to describe processes, organizational charts to describe hierarchies, mnemonics to help remember, rubrics to provide expected assignments .
Cue Cards

Cards that have been prepared to be distributed to students/groups of students when discussing a particular topic. The cards contain vocabulary (important terms) that need to be understood, basic sentences about the material that students must complete, formulas.
Concept and mind maps

Concept maps or mind maps made by students based on their knowledge

Provide examples , specimens, illustrations, problems (questions).

Provide more detailed information in the form of written instructions about the tasks students must do, provide an oral explanation of how the process works

Provide handouts containing assignments and information related to the material, accompanied by a space (column) for comments or notes for students

Giving suggestions and directions to divert students' steps” see page 31! ”, “ press escape! ”. continue to the next page ”

Give physical (gesture) or verbal cues to help remember prior knowledge or assumptions that students already have. Physical: body movements such as pointing, nodding head, blinking. Verbs: " Come on! ”, “ Continue! ”, “ Tell me!”, “What will you do! ”, “What do you think about it?”
Question Cards

Provide cards that contain questions about the material being taught or special assignments given to students/groups of students to ask and answer each other about the material being taught.
Question Stems

Incomplete sentences that must be completed in order to encourage students to think more deeply by using interrogative sentence commands " What happens if .... ( What if ...)

Telling complex and abstract material into situations that are more familiar to students to inspire and motivate students.
Visual Scaffolds

Emphasizing attention to an object, through relevant gestures; providing charts and graphs, using methods of highlighting visual information (italics, different colors, boldface, blink)


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