Minggu, 04 Juni 2023

Collaborative Learning and Cooperative Learning
Between Collaborative Learning and Cooperative Learning : In Indonesian, the words collaboration and cooperation tend to be interpreted in the same sense….

Between Collaborative Learning and Cooperative Learning

In Indonesian, the words collaboration and cooperation tend to be interpreted in the same meaning, namely cooperation . According to John Myers (1991) the word collaboration comes from Latin with a focus on process, while cooperation comes from America which places more emphasis on results. Meanwhile, according to Ted Panitz (1996), the term collaboration refers to a philosophy of personal interaction and lifestyle, while cooperation describes an interaction structure designed to facilitate the achievement of a particular result or goal.

Collaboration assumes the importance of cooperation (cooperative) which is built based on the consensus of its members, not individual competition among group members. Within the group there will be a distribution of roles, duties and authority of each member of the group. Each group member tries to respect each other and contribute his abilities to group activities.

When an individual (read: teacher) applies this philosophy to the classroom, family or other community groups for the benefit of learning, that is what is called collaborative learning. So, collaborative learning is basically a personal philosophy, and not just a technique in classroom learning (Ted Panitz, 1996).

Wikipedia (2013) formulates Collaborative Learning as a situation where there are two or more people learning together, by utilizing each other's resources and skills (asking each other for information, evaluating each other's ideas, monitoring each other's work, etc.). Meanwhile, cooperative learning (Cooperative Learning) in general can be interpreted as a learning process designed to help students to be able to interact and work together collectively, through structured tasks to achieve learning objectives. Cooperative learning is developed into various techniques, such as: Think Pair Share, Jigsaw, STAD, TGT and so on.

The tradition of collaborative learning originates from England, English teachers try to explore ways to help students play a more active role in the learning process, especially in reviewing literature. The teacher analyzes each student's conversation while studying or responding to a literature section. Meanwhile, cooperative learning developed in America based on John Dewey's thoughts on the importance of social learning and Kurt Lewin's thoughts on group dynamics. (John Myers , 1991).

To see the differences and similarities of these two learning concepts, Matthews, et.al. (1995) details it as shown in the following table:
Cooperative Learning
Collaborative Learning
Students receive social skills training in small groups.
There is a belief that students already have the necessary social skills to achieve learning objectives
Structured activities designed by the teacher and each student has a specific role.
Students organize and negotiate their own business.
The teacher observes, listens and intervenes in groups if necessary.
Activities are not monitored by the teacher. When there are questions addressed to the teacher, the teacher guides students to find the necessary information.
Students turn in assignments at the end of the lesson for evaluation.
Students save the draft to be completed in the next work.
The teacher conducts individual and group student performance assessments
Students carry out performance assessments individually or in groups, based on small group consensus, class (plenary), as well as consideration of the scientific community in general

In addition to having differences, these two learning concepts also have similarities, namely:

  • Emphasizes the importance of active learning
  • The role of the teacher as a facilitator
  • Learning is a shared experience between students and teachers
  • Improve high-level cognitive skills
  • More emphasis on student responsibility in the learning process
  • Involve situations that allow students to express their ideas in small groups.
  • Assist students in developing social skills and team building.

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