In the Quran, Allah has said about 750 times for us to introspect. For example, in the letter Fushshilat verse 53, Allah says:

We will show them Our signs (power) in all regions of the earth and in themselves, until it is clear to them that the Qur'an is true. Isn't it enough that your Lord is a witness over everything? (QS Fushshilat:53)

When we think using science and logic, then we will know that there is only one God and when we examine the Qur'an, then we will know that this is the true word of God.

And this is the advantage, Islam does not distance science, Islam does not exclude scientists as some religions did in the past.

Everything that has been researched today by scientists, has been scientifically proven in the verses of the Qur'an.

So let's now consider the three arguments that would prove the existence of God and refute atheism.

Argument #1: The Second Law of Thermodynamics.
Maybe looking at the terms, we would think that this law is complicated, but it's actually very easy to understand. This law of physics basically expresses the fact that everything in the universe moves from order to chaos.
For example, if we don't take care of our house, the paint will fade, dust will accumulate, and eventually our house will be damaged.

Now if you take this Second Law of Thermodynamics into a logical statement, the whole universe is a big system, so the universe must also be moving from order to chaos. As the scientist said, if a long period of time had passed, there would be chaos.

And every object is composed of atoms. The atom consists of electrons, protons and neutrons. Every atom that is in every object is always moving and rotating. The moving and rotating atoms will eventually run out of energy, so one day the universe will end.

But atheists say the universe is without a beginning and will never end. But this contradicts the Second Law of Thermodynamics, because according to this law, if a long period of time has passed, chaos will ensue and the universe will completely die.

This meant that the sun would not exist, and human existence would never occur. But what happens is the opposite, the sun shines, the planets orbit in their respective orbits, and humans can live well. That means we're not in the "death of the universe" state, right? And since we are not in the dead state of the universe, that means that not enough time has passed. If not enough time has passed, it means that time had a beginning, and the universe also had a beginning. If the universe had a beginning, then everything that began to exist had to have a beginning. And we as Muslims believe that Allah started it.
The planets orbit in their respective paths without ever colliding

Consider the following Surah Al-Baqarah verse 255:

Allah, there is no God (who has the right to be worshiped) but He Who is eternally alive and continuously takes care of (His creatures); not sleepy and not sleeping. To Him belongs what is in the heavens and on earth. Nothing can intercede with Allah without His permission? Allah knows what is before them and behind them, and they know nothing from Allah's knowledge except what He wills. Allah's chair covers the heavens and the earth. And Allah does not find it hard to maintain both of them, and Allah is Most High, Most Great. (Surah Al-Baqarah: 255)

So let me sum it up. Whatever begins to exist, there must be a start, while this world has a beginning. Since we are not in the dead state of the universe, time is finite. If the universe began to exist, then something had started it. And the One who started the universe is the Creator.

Argument #2: Universal Order.
Now in a short analogy, let's say we are sitting down to watch TV in our house. We sit on a chair and the chair must be placed in the correct position. The TV also has to be set facing us, so we can watch it. We also have to have a TV remote that matches our TV brand, so we can change the channel as we like. So as we sit watching TV, how can we not float up, how can we not be pushed down? This means that there is enough gravitational force to hold us up so that we can sit properly. If the gravitational force were even slightly less, then we would float upwards. If there is too much gravity, then our body will be crushed because it supports our weight. So someone has to regulate gravity in the right measure on earth.

The air we breathe today should contain 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen. For example, if the oxygen level is higher or lower, we cannot survive on this earth. Who put oxygen in the right dose so that we, animals and plants can live?

Here's a simple example: For example, if someone brings us a cup of coffee, then the amount of sugar must be right, because we don't like it if there's too much sugar or cream. If the measure is right, then the coffee will taste delicious. Likewise, the distance between the earth and the sun is exactly the right distance. If it were even a little closer, the earth would be very hot and life would become extinct. If it were a little further from the sun, then the earth would be so cold that life would also become extinct. So there are so many precisely sized variables on earth, in our bodies, in our cells, and in the universe, that it is impossible for any of this to have just happened by chance .

Earth's distance to the sun is in a very fitting distance

Argument #3: The Qur'an
Al-Qur'an is the word of God which was revealed to Prophet Muhammad SAW by Allah SWT Al-Qur'an has many miracles in it. The Al-Qur'an has miracles of language , miracles in the form of prophecies including the words of the Prophet Muhammad , there are scientific facts , historical facts , so the Al-Qur'an is a comprehensive book. Now, let's discuss the scientific facts of the Qur'an.

The Qur'an is a book that was revealed 1,400 years ago at a time when there was no modern technology. In fact, Prophet Muhammad SAW could neither read nor write. Allah revealed it to Muhammad SAW when the world was shrouded in darkness. The Qur'an brings light into a gloomy world. When in the previous books it was found that there were many scientific errors because human hands had damaged them, then in the Qur'an there is no contradiction at all. People at that time thought that religion and knowledge were incompatible, but the Qur'an refuted that notion because it contained so many scientific facts that amazed world-renowned scientists. Out of the 6,000 verses of the Quran, 500 relate to scientific facts.

If we ask any scientist or cosmologist out there about the process of the formation of the universe, they will say that the heavens and the earth were in one primordial mass, then there was a big bang 14 billion years ago, and from that explosion the solar system was created. And what is amazing is that all of this has been stated in Surah Al-Anbiyya: 30

And do those who disbelieve not know that the heavens and the earth together were one thing, then We separated them? (QS Al-Anbiyya: 30)

Then from the research of scientists we know that the early stages of the formation of the universe were shaped like smoke/fog. And from there began to form celestial bodies. It turns out that this has been stated in the Koran in the letter Fushshilat: 11.

Then in 1960, humans learned about Red Shift and Blue Shift, a fact that proves that the universe is continuing to expand. All the stars are moving away from each other. They won a nobel prize around 1960 because of this discovery. And again the Quran has said in the letter Adz Dzaariyaat: 47 that Allah created the sky and then He expanded it. All of this was said 1,400 years ago, before any science existed.

And about the shape of the earth, people used to think that the earth was flat. But the Quran says that the shape of the earth is like an ostrich egg in Surah An Naaziaat: 30.

The Quran also discusses how a baby grows in a mother's womb in Surah Al-Mu'minuun: 12-14.

The Quran explains about mountains and the roots of mountains in Surah An-Naba': 6-7. It says that mountains are like tents and have roots. In total there are 500 scientific facts, mentioned in this book written 1,400 years ago.

And there are so many scientists like Dr. Keith Moore, Marshall Johnson, Joe Simpson, Maurice Bucaille, and other scientists, who studied the Quran for a long time, and they all concluded that the book and the verses in it could not have been written by a human being, this must have been from the Creator. They are people who are experts in the field of science, for example Dr. Keith Moore, he's a famous embryologist.

Now a fact that I want to explain is about embryology, how a baby develops in the mother's womb. It is mentioned in Surah Al-Mu'minuun: 12-14 starting from fertilization to the development of the organs of the fetus, which explains in detail the condition when the embryo is around 6-7 days old. The Quran describes the embryo at this period as like a leech, it is in the womb and sucks the nutrition from the mother. What is surprising is that its shape, morphology, and function do resemble a leech. All of this can only be seen with a high-power microscope. Humans with the naked eye could not see these things, moreover 1,400 years ago there were no microscopes. All of this proves that this information could not have come from a human being, as this knowledge was discovered only in the 20th century.

Figure A. = Embryo and Figure B. = Leech. The shape of the human embryo at the age of 6-7 days really resembles a leech.

So after listening to these three arguments, a thinking person can know the existence of God using science, logic, philosophy, history and all fields of knowledge. If God exists, and there are so many religions, how do we know which is the right religion? The answer is that God has sent His final revelation in the Qur'an. So Islam is the right way of life. Islam means submitting to God Almighty and following His instructions. In Islam, one will find a solution to life.

Maybe everyone wants to know, what is the purpose of life? Are we here just to make money, work day and night, or live for more than that? God says in Quran Adz-Dzaariyaat:55 that the purpose of life is to worship Him. So when we do that in a sense of spirituality, then we will find peace and purpose in life. That way someone will find a solution to all his problems. The solution to society, the economy, drugs, homosexuality, family and so on is Islam. God willing, with Islam someone will get peace and purpose in life, and happiness in the form of heaven in the hereafter.