Rabu, 15 November 2023

Come on, read, this is the meaning of character education, scope, elements, substance and methods of cultivating character education.

The competency-based curriculum currently being developed still places character education as education that is integrated with other subjects in learning. Integrating learning content is not an easy job for most teachers. Therefore, certain strategies are needed so that moral education learning runs effectively.

Conceptually, moral education is a conscious effort to prepare students to become complete human beings with noble character in all their roles now and in the future. In addition, character education is an effort to form, develop, improve, maintain and improve the behavior of students so that they are willing and able to carry out their life tasks in a harmonious, harmonious and balanced manner.

Operationally, character education is an effort to equip students through guidance, teaching and training activities during their growth and development as provisions for their future. The aim is for them to have a clean conscience, have good behavior, and maintain decency in carrying out their obligations towards God and towards their fellow creatures.

It is feared that, with inappropriate integration, character education in learning will experience a shallowing of meaning, at least a shallowing of concepts. It could be that learning about manners becomes nothing more than just education in ethics or manners. In fact, ethics or manners are only part of character education.
Nowadays, people often use the term etiquette or ethics, which is interpreted the same as manners, good manners, and politeness. These three terms are always associated with polite attitudes and behavior. In this context, ethics is connected with norms of politeness, manners of behavior, social rules and good behavior.

The form of integration of character education in learning needs to be clarified. Among other things, the implementation of character education should not only be in the cognitive domain, but should have a positive impact on the affective and psychomotor domains in the form of students' attitudes and behavior in everyday life.

1.2 Problem Formulation
1. What is the scope of material and substance of Character Education?
2. What are the elements of Character Education?
3. How are moral values ​​instilled at the formal education level?

1.3 Purpose of Writing
1. To find out the scope of material and substance of Character Education.
2. To find out the elements of Character Education.
3. To find out the values ​​of Characteristics at the formal education level.


image: compasiana

2.1 Scope of Material and Substance of Character Education

Etymologically, the term budi pekerti, or in Javanese it is called budi pakerti, is interpreted as budi meaning thought, and pakerti meaning action. Thus, budi pakerti can be defined as actions guided by the mind; actions which are the realization of the contents of the mind; or actions controlled by the mind.

Characteristics contain the values ​​of human behavior which will be measured according to their goodness and badness through the measurement of religious norms, legal norms, manners and manners, cultural norms/customs of society. Character education will identify positive behavior that is expected to be manifested in students' actions, words, thoughts, attitudes, feelings and personalities. Noble character can create an attitude of good manners, an attitude and actions that show respect, reverence, and order according to good customs that show civilized behavior.

The scope of character material according to Milan Rianto, (2001: 4-10) can be broadly grouped into three moral values, namely as follows.
1. Morals towards Almighty God
1) God as Creator
Humans, animals, plants, and all the things around us are creatures created by Almighty God. We must believe in the God who created this universe, which means we must acknowledge and believe that the Almighty God exists.
We must believe and fear Him with confidence and be obedient and obedient in carrying out all His commands and avoiding all His prohibitions. All religions have an understanding of piety, in general piety means obeying orders and avoiding all His prohibitions. So we must remember and be alert and careful not to disobey His commands.
2) God as Giver (loving, merciful)
God Almighty is the most giving, loving and merciful. As long as we believe in its existence, in its power and greatness, God will give us whatever we ask for. In religious teachings it is stated "Ask Me, I will surely give you". Therefore, don't get bored of praying and begging, don't give up quickly, but must keep trying with all your might. Every time you do a job, don't forget to read God's sentence "Bismillahirahmanirahhim" to get good, satisfying and safe results. When finished, convey our gratitude, for example by saying "Alhamdulillalahirabilalamin"
3) God as Giver of Rewards (good and bad)
Apart from God being the Giver, He will always reward us for what we do wherever and whenever. If we do good, God will definitely reward us with goodness and multiple rewards, but on the other hand, if we do bad or evil, God will reward us with punishment and sin.
According to religious norms, if we violate God's commands then we will receive punishment from God because we are sinful. Therefore, let us do good and worship according to the teachings of our respective religions. This attitude is very good for the life of society, nation and state.
The state of community life will be better when all religious people implement their religious teachings with full awareness, piety and sincerity.

2. Morals towards fellow humans
1) Towards Yourself
Every human being must have an identity. With identity, a person is able to appreciate himself, know his abilities, strengths and weaknesses.
2) Towards Parents
Parents are individuals assigned by God to give birth, raise and educate. So it is fitting for a child to respect and love his parents and be obedient and obedient to them. Some attitudes and things that we need to pay attention to and do with parents are as follows.
(1) Ask for permission, greet him when going to and coming home from school, even better if he kisses his hand.
(2) Tell us if we are going somewhere and for how long.
(3) Use and maintain the furniture or items in our house.
(4) Don't ask for too much money and don't be extravagant.
(5) Helping with work at home, for example cleaning the house, cooking and taking care of plants.
3) Towards older people
Be respectful, appreciative, and ask for advice, opinions, guidance, and guidance. Because people who are older than us, have more knowledge, experience and abilities than us. Wherever we meet, give greetings and come to the place of people who are older than us. If we have suggestions and opinions, convey them calmly, orderly, and not offend their feelings.

4) Towards Others
Carrying out good manners with peers is a bit difficult because they are equal friends and meet us every day, so we often forget to treat them according to good manners and manners. Attitudes that need to be considered include the following:
(1) Greet when you meet
(2) Don't make fun until you cross the line
(3) Don't be prejudiced
(4) Do not offend him
(5) Do not slander without evidence
(6) Always maintain his good name
(7) Help him if he gets into trouble
Apart from that, we also have to socialize with all friends regardless of descent, ethnicity, religion or social status.
5) Towards other people who are younger
Don't be because we are older and treat our younger friends arbitrarily. In fact, we who are older should protect, look after and guide him. Give them good guidance, advice or suggestions/opinions so that it will be useful for their future lives. Fight our bad qualities and don't show bad traits/behavior to people younger than us, for fear that they will imitate that behavior.

3. Morals towards the Environment
a. Alam
(1) Flora
It is impossible for humans to survive without the support of an appropriate, harmonious natural environment as needed. For this reason, we must comply with the rules and norms in order to maintain the sustainability and harmony of the relationship between humans and the natural surroundings. Plants (flora) are very useful for human life, for example vegetables, fruit and rice.
In fact, there are quite a few plants that can be used for medicine. Forests must be preserved because many products can be obtained from forests, for example wood, rattan, etc. Not a few plantations also produce prosperity and welfare for the population, for example tea, coffee, palm oil, chocolate plantations, etc.
(2) Fauna
The land of Indonesia is blessed by God with various fauna. This enriches the beauty and prosperity of the population. Some animals are kept, bred, some are still wild. Farms that produce a lot and are profitable include cows, buffalo, goats.
b. Social-Society-Groups
Humans as social creatures cannot live without the help of other people. Whatever the situation or ability, you definitely need the help of others. Relations between humans and humans in society or groups must be harmonious, harmonious and balanced. We must respect, appreciate and help each other to achieve goodness.

2.2 Elements of Character Education

The emphasis on character and knowledge education in schools must be balanced, namely placing more emphasis on needs and aspects of human development. To help see this, it would be necessary to look at cognitive development and moral development. By looking at the stages of moral development and cognitive development, one can see the balance of emphasis on character education and knowledge. Basic education must emphasize and prioritize the cultivation of values ​​rather than teaching.
Basic values ​​such as respect for other people, religiosity, sociality, gender, justice, democracy, honesty, independence, fighting power, responsibility, respect for the environment, must be given according to the child's level of understanding.

The higher the level of formal education, academic teaching, the larger the portion. At lower levels of education, basic values ​​are introduced, and the process of instilling them is repeated continuously up to the secondary school level. Stage by stage it is leveled and must be able to lead children to the process of understanding, understanding and forming life values. The more teachers introduce values ​​and have high scientific awareness, the more confident they will be that what teachers adhere to and believe in is something good, valuable and worth always fighting for. These values ​​are both life values ​​and academic (scientific) values. Apart from paying attention to children's cognitive development, it is also necessary to pay attention to children's empathy and emotional intelligence. In detail, these four elements are, children's cognitive development, children's moral development, empathy and emotional intelligence.

1. Piaget's Cognitive Development
Piaget divided a person's cognitive development into four stages, namely sensory motor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational.
In simple terms, in the development stage of thinking, several things can be seen that can influence value education, namely;
1) The child's development from the stage of imitation and reflex, to acting consciously on their own.
2) Development from concrete to abstract thinking.
3) Development from egocentric to social thinking.

2. Kohlberg's Level of Moral Development
Lawrence Kohlberg, an expert and practitioner in moral education, based his views on research carried out in stages on a group of children over 12 years. From this research it can be said briefly that human moral development occurs in stages that move forward and at increasingly higher levels. Kohlberg divides a person's moral development into three levels, namely the pre-conventional level, conventional level, and post-conventional level.

3. Empathy
Empathy is the ability to know and feel the circumstances experienced by other people. The basis of empathy is awareness. This understanding is important as part of the process of instilling life values. By empathizing, people are able to understand and understand other people's feelings, even though this does not mean they agree. To achieve the ability to empathize, people must first have awareness and understanding of their own feelings.
Interpersonal relationships become better because of the appreciation of other people's feelings. Empathy will move a person to become emotionally involved without abandoning the rational elements of life values.

4. Emotional Intelligence
Emotional Intelligence (emotional quotient) is a combination of emotional and social abilities. Someone who has emotional intelligence will be able to face problems that occur in life because usually people who have emotional intelligence have awareness of their emotions.

Able to foster motivation within himself because he is always motivated to carry out activities well and wants to achieve the goals he desires, and can express his feelings well and has very strong self-control.

2.3 Instilling Character Values ​​at the Formal Education Level

Characteristics are human life values ​​that are truly implemented, not just because of habit, but based on understanding and self-awareness to be good. Values ​​that are realized and implemented as character traits can only be obtained through a process that runs throughout human life. Character is obtained through the process of internalization of what one knows, which takes time so that good character is formed in human life.

Bearing in mind that cultivating attitudes and life values ​​is a process, this can be provided through formal education that is carefully planned and designed. Planned and designed regarding the values ​​that will be introduced, methods and activities that can be used to offer and instill these values. The values ​​offered and instilled in students must be implemented in stages in accordance with the tasks of the child's psychological development.

In the early stages of the process of instilling values, children are introduced to the order of living together. The order of life in society does not always coincide with the order that exists in the family. In the early stages, children are introduced to reasoning, stage by stage. The higher a child's level of education, the deeper the elements of understanding, argumentation and reasoning. These life values ​​that are introduced and instilled are a reality that exists in our society.

The following are several values ​​that can be chosen and offered to children through formal education. The values ​​offered are considered based on an understanding of the needs and problems that exist in today's society.
a) The need for unitary values ​​and issues to answer the tendency to divide.
b) Gender values ​​and issues are the need to respect women as beings and equal members of society as men.
c) Environmental values ​​and issues to answer the need to respect, protect, love and develop the natural environment which tends to be exploited without paying attention to balance for life.
d) Concern about truth and justice which appears to be still far from the expectations of people's lives. This does not mean that this is the only value of life, but of all that is offered, it is still open to other values. The life values ​​offered according to Paul Suparno, et al., (2002:63-93) are as follows.
1) Religiosity
a. Be grateful for life and believe in God.
b. Tolerant attitude.
c. Study religious teachings.
2) Sociality
a. Appreciation of the positive order of living together.
b. True and good solidarity.
c. True friendship.
d. Organize well and correctly.
e. Create healthy and useful events.
3) Gender
a. Respect for women.
b. Wider activity opportunities for women.
c. Appreciate women's leadership.

4) Justice
a. True appreciation and other people fundamentally.
b. Use rights and carry out obligations correctly and in a balanced manner.
c. Justice based on conscience.
5) Democracy
a. Appreciate and accept differences in living together with mutual respect.
b. Dare to accept the reality of victory or defeat.
6) Honesty
a. Stating the truth as respect for others.
7) Independence
a. Courage to make clear and correct decisions together.
b. Get to know your abilities.
c. Build self-confidence.
d. Accept your uniqueness.
8) Fighting power
a. Cultivate the will to achieve goals.
b. Don't give up easily.
9) Responsibility
a. Dare to face the consequences of life choices.
b. Develop a balance between rights and obligations.
c. Developing life together positively.
10) Respect for the natural environment
a. Using nature according to needs in a reasonable and balanced manner.
b. Loving life.
c. Recognize the natural environment and its applications.


3.1 Conclusion

Instilling life values ​​to form good character in human life can be done through formal education levels. The vehicle for instilling values ​​in formal education can be carried out through various fields of study, both integrated and separated, it is not always a burden and is carried out by Religious Education and Civics. Each field of study can play a role in the process of instilling values ​​to form good character. Apart from that, activities outside the field of study such as extracurricular activities are also open to the process of instilling values.

The formation and instillation of life values ​​in learning activities requires involvement and cooperation from all parties. Especially for a teacher or educator for the training process. Exemplary consistency in thinking and behavior in everyday life. This demand does not mean that a teacher must be an angel or a perfect human being, but rather that humans have a consistent attitude in their attitude to life, meaning they are open to improvement, open to receiving criticism and input. Exemplary to want to develop.

3.2 Suggestions

Regarding the content of the values ​​to be instilled, a teacher who also acts as an educator is required to be creative. Be creative in finding possibilities to offer life values ​​to students. Be creative and take the initiative to diligently manage existing developments and demands without abandoning the core teachings of life. This also means that a teacher must continuously learn about the meaning of life itself.

source: cicang

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