Ali bin Abi Talib Radhiyallahu 'anhu: Life History, and His Complete Biography..
The fourth (last) caliph of al-Khulafa' ar-Rashidun (four great caliphs); the first person to convert to Islam among children; cousin of the Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wassalam who later became his son-in-law. His father, Abu Talib bin Abdul Muttalib bin Hasyim bin Abd Manaf, was the older brother of the Prophet's father, Abdullah bin Abdul Muttalib. His mother's name was Fatimah bint As'ad bin Hasyim bin Abd Manaf. When he was born he was given the name Haidarah by his mother. His father later changed his name to Ali.
When he was 6 years old, he was taken as a foster child by the Prophet Shallallahu Alaihi Wassalam, just as the Prophet Shallallahu Alaihi Wassalam was once fostered by his father. there was a time when Muhammad Shallallahu Alaihi Wassalam was appointed as a messenger, Ali was just 8 years old. He was the second person to accept the preaching of Islam, after Khadija bint Khuwailid, the wife of the Prophet Shallallahu Alaihi Wassalam. Since then he has always been with the Messenger of God, obeying him, and many witnessed the Messenger of God receiving revelations. As the foster child of Rasulullah Sallallahu Alaihi Wassalam, he gained a lot of knowledge about divine secrets and all religious issues theoretically and practically.
When the Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wassalam moved to Medina with Abu Bakr as-Siddiq, Ali was ordered to stay in the house of the Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wassalam and sleep in his bed. This was intended to deceive the Kuraish, so that they would think that the Prophet sallallaahu alaihi wassalam was still in his house. At that time the Quraysh planned to kill the Prophet sallallaahu alaihi wassalam. Ali was also assigned to return a number of items entrusted to their respective owners. Ali was able to carry out this risky task as well as possible without feeling the slightest fear. In this way, Rasulullah Sallallahu Alaihi Wassalam and Abu Bakr safely left the city of Mecca without being noticed by the Kuraysh.
After hearing that Rasulullah Sallallahu Alaihi Wassalam and Abu Bakr had arrived in Medina, Ali followed there. In Medina, he was married to Fatimah az-Zahra, the daughter of Rasulullah Sallallahu Alaihi Wassalam, who at that time (2 H) was 15 years old. Ali married 9 women and had 19 sons and daughters. Fatimah is the first wife. From Fatimah, Ali had two sons and two daughters, namely Hasan, Husein, Zainab, and Umm Kulsum who later married Umar bin Khattab.
After Fatimah died, Ali remarried successively with:
Umm Bamin bint Huzam from Bani Amir bin Kilab, who gave birth to four sons, namely Abbas, Ja'far, Abdullah, and Usman. Laila bint Mas'ud at-Tamimiah, who gave birth to two sons, namely Abdullah and
Abu Bakr. Asma bint Umair al-Kuimiah, who gave birth to two sons, namely Yahya and Muhammad. As-Sahba bint Rabi'ah from Bani Jasym bin Bakar, a widow from Bani Taglab, who gave birth to two sons, Umar and Ruqayyah; Umamah bint Abi Ass bin ar-Rabb, daughter of Zaenab bint Rasulullah Shallallahu Alaihi Wassalam, who gave birth to one child, namely Muhammad. It was Khanlah bint Ja'far al-Hanafiah, who gave birth to a son, namely Muhammad (al-Hanafiah). Umm Sa'id bint Urwah bin Mas'ud, who gave birth to two children, namely Umm al-Husain and Ramlah. Mahyah bint Imri' al-Qais al-Kalbiah, who gave birth to a child named Jariah.
Ali is known to be very simple and zahid in everyday life. There was no visible difference in his domestic life between before and after his appointment as caliph. This simple life was not only applied to himself, but also to his sons and daughters.
Ali is known as a mighty warlord. His courage shook the hearts of his opponents. He has a sword (inheritance from the Prophet Shallallahu Alaihi Wassalam) named "Zul Faqar". He participated in almost all the wars that occurred during the time of the Prophet Shallallahu Alaihi Wassalam and was always a mainstay in the front line.
He is also known to be intelligent and has mastered many religious matters in depth, as illustrated by the words of the Prophet sallallaahu alaihi wassalam, "I am the city of knowledge while Ali is the gate." Therefore, his advice and fatwas were always listened to by previous caliphs. He was always placed in the position of kadi or mufti. When Rasulullah Sallallahu Alaihi Wassalam died, Ali waited on his body and took care of the funeral, while the other friends were busy thinking about the matter of replacing the Prophet Shallallahu Alaihi Wassalam. After Abu Bakr was elected as the successor caliph to the Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wassalam in administering the country and the Islamic ummah, Ali did not immediately pledge allegiance to him. He only pledged allegiance to it several months later.
At the end of Umar bin Khattab's reign, Ali was one of those appointed to be a member of the Majlis ash-Shura, a forum that discussed the issue of replacing the caliph. This forum consists of six people. The other five people are Usman bin Affan, Talhah bin Ubaidillah, Zubair bin Awwam, Sa'd bin Abi Waqqas, and Abdur Rahman bin Auf. The results of the deliberations determined Usman bin Affan as the replacement caliph for Umar bin Khattab.
During the reign of Uthman bin Affan, Ali criticized many of his policies which were considered to be too attentive to his family's interests (nepotism). Ali advised him to take a firm stance against his relatives who committed fraud in his name. However, he ignored all this advice. As a result, a bloody incident occurred which ended with Uthman being killed.
Ali's criticism of Uthman, among others, concerns Ubaidillah bin Umar, who according to Ali should be punished with hadd (some type of punishment in jurisprudence) in connection with the murder he committed against Hurmuzan. Utsman was also judged to be mistaken when he did not carry out the flogging against Walib bin Uqbah who was found drunk. Ali did not approve of Uthman's way of punishing Abu Zarrah.
Uthman asked Ali for help when he was in a desperate situation due to protests and riots launched by people who disagreed with him. In fact, when Usman's house was surrounded by rebels, Ali ordered his two sons, Hasan and Husein, to defend Uthman. However, because the rebels were large in number and had gone crazy, Uthman could not be saved.
Immediately after Uthman's murder, the Muslims asked for Ali's willingness to become caliph. They thought that apart from Ali, there was no one else worthy of occupying the caliph's chair after Uthman. Hearing the people's requests, Ali said, "This matter is none of your business. "This is a very important matter, a matter between the Ahl ash-Shura figures and the Badr War fighters."
In a still chaotic atmosphere, Ali finally pledged his allegiance. Pledge of Allegiance was started by great friends, namely Talhah bin Ubaidillah, Zubair bin Awwam, Sa'd bin Abi Waqqas, and other friends. They are followed by many people. Pledge of Allegiance was performed on the 25th of Zulhijjah 33 at the Medina Mosque like the pledge of allegiance of the predecessor caliphs.
Immediately after taking oath of allegiance, Ali took political steps, namely: Dismissing the officials appointed by Uthman, including several governors, and appointing their replacements. Taking the land that Uthman had distributed to his family and relatives without reason of his position as caliph until he was killed in 661.
The third rebellion came from the Khawarij sect, which was originally part of Ali's army in crushing Mu'awiyah's rebellion, but later left Ali's ranks because he did not agree with Ali's attitude in accepting Mu'awiyah's offer of peace. Because they came out of Ali's line, they were called "Khawarij" (those who came out). There are thousands of them. In their belief, Ali is the amirulmukminin and those who agree to take the throne have violated religious teachings. According to them, only God has the right to determine the law, not humans. Therefore, their motto is Id hukma ilia bi Allah (there is no law except for Allah). Ali and some of his troops were considered to have dared to make legal decisions, namely to negotiate with their opponents. The Khawarij group withdrew to Harurah, a village near Kufa. They appointed their own leaders, namely Syibis bin Rub'it at-Tamimi as army commander and Abdullah bin Wahhab ar-Rasibi as religious leader.
In Harurah they immediately assembled a force to attack Ali and those who agreed to tahkim, including Mu'awiyah, Amr bin As, and Abu Musa al-Ash'ari. Ali's failure in tahkim increased their enthusiasm to realize their intentions.
Ali's position became very difficult. On the one hand, he wanted to destroy Mu'awiyah who was increasingly powerful in Syria; on the other hand, the power of the Khawarij would become very dangerous if not immediately crushed. Finally, Ali made the decision to crush the Khawarij forces first, then attack Sham. But Mu'awiyah used Ali's attention to destroy the Khawarij group to take over Egypt.
A fierce battle between Ali's troops and the Khawarij troops occurred in Nahrawan (east of Baghdad) in 658, and ended with victory on Ali's side. The Khawarij group was successfully destroyed, only a small part was able to escape. Their leader, Abdullah bin Wahhab ar-Rasibi, was also killed.
Since then, the Khawarij have become more radical. The defeat at Nahrawan grew resentment in their hearts. Secretly, the Khawarij planned to kill three people who were considered to be the culprits of the division of the Ummah, namely Ali, Mu'awiyah, and Amr bin As. Three people were identified as the killers, namely: Abdur Rahman bin Muljam was assigned to kill Ali in Kufa, Barak bin Abdillah at-Tamimi was assigned to kill Mu'awiyah in Syria, and Amr bin Bakar at-Tamimi was assigned to kill Amr bin As in Egypt. Only Ibnu Muljam succeeded in carrying out his duties. He stabbed Ali with his sword when Ali was going to perform morning prayers at the Kufa Mosque. Ali breathed his last breath after holding the reins of leadership as caliph for approximately 4 years.