Kamis, 28 Desember 2023

Surat al-Fatihah holds many valuable lessons. This letter, which only consists of seven verses, has summarized various principles and guidelines in Islamic teachings. A letter that must be read every time you pray. In this letter, Allah ta'ala introduces Himself to His servants. In it, God taught them their life duties in the world. In it, God taught them to rely on and hope in Him, love and fear Him. In it, God shows them the path that will lead them to happiness. In the following, we will present useful quotes from this letter with reference to the Qur'an, as-Sunnah, as well as the statements of the ulamasalaf. Hopefully this simple writing will be useful for those who compile it and those who read it.

First Benefit: Obligation to love Allah

In the verse 'Alhamdulillahi Rabbil 'alamin' contains al-Mahabbah/love. Shaykh Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab, may God have mercy on him, explained, "The verse contains love, because God is the One who gives favors. While the One who gives favors is loved according to the degree of favors given by him. (Syarh Ba'dhu Fawa'id Surah al-Fatihah, p. 12)

As we know that love is the main driver of worship to Allah Ta'ala. Because of love, a servant wants to submit and obey the commands and prohibitions of Allah Ta'ala. On the other hand, due to the little and weak love, the submission and obedience of a servant to his Lord will also become thinner. Shaykh Salih al-Fauzan said, "Every giver of pleasure is entitled to be praised according to the degree of pleasure he gives. And this gives birth to the consequence of having to love him. Because human souls are created in a state of loving someone who does good to them. While Allah jalla wa 'ala is the giver of goodness, the giver of pleasure and the giver of priority to His servants. Therefore, the heart will love Him because of His goodness and goodness, a love that is unmatched by any other love. Therefore, love is the greatest type of worship. So alhamdulillah Rabbil 'alamin contains the -teaching- of love." (Syarh Ba'dhu Fawa'id Surah al-Fatihah, p. 12)

Allah Ta'ala says,

And among the people are those who take equals besides God, whom they love as they love God, but those who believe have greater love for God.

"Among humans, there are people who take other than Allah as a rival worship. They love him as they love God. Whereas those who believe are more in their love for God." (QS. al-Baqarah: 165)

Ibnul Qayyim, may Allah have mercy on him, said, "Allah announced that whoever loves other than Allah as much as he loves Allah Ta'ala, then he belongs to those who take other than Allah as partners. This is a partnership in matters of love, not in matters of creation or rububiyyah, because there is no one among the people of this world who has established allies in the matter of rububiyyah, unlike allies in matters of love, so in fact the majority of the people of this world have made other than Allah as allies in love and exaltation.” (Ighatsat al-Lahfan, p. 20)

Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallambersabda,

Three things, whoever is in it, finds the sweetness of faith: that God and His Messenger are more beloved to him than anything else, and that he loves a person who is loved only for the sake of God, and that he He saw that he would return to disbelief just as he would hate to be thrown into the fire.

"There are three things, whoever has them will get the sweetness of faith. That is when he loves Allah and His Messenger more than anything else. When he loves people, it is because of his love for God. And he hates returning to unbelief as one who hates being thrown into hell.” (HR. Bukhari and Muslim from Anas bin Malik, may God be pleased with him)

For this reason, the interweaving of love for other than God will be destroyed, whereas the love built on obedience and love for Him will remain eternal until the next day. Allah Ta'ala says,

Friends on that Day will be enemies to one another, except the righteous.

"On that day those who love each other will be hostile to each other, except those who are pious." (QS. az-Zukhruf: 67)

Shaykh Salih al-Fauzan said, "There is nothing left but the love of pious people, because it is built on the right foundation, it will remain forever in this world and in the afterlife. As for the love between the infidels and polytheists, then it will be cut off and turn into enmity." (Sharh Ba'dhu Fawa'id Surah al-Fatihah, p. 15)

Allah Ta'ala says,

And the day the oppressor bites his hands, he will say, “I wish I had taken a path with the Messenger. Oh, woe, I wish I had not taken so-and-so as a friend. He has led me astray from the Remembrance after that.” When he came to me, Satan was a detractor to man.

"And remember, on the Day of Resurrection, people who are fond of doing injustice will bite both their hands and say, 'Oh, it would have been better if I had followed the path of the Messenger. Oh my, what a shame I am, if only I hadn't made that so and so my close friend. Indeed, he misled me from the warning (the Qur'an) after the warning came to me.' And indeed the devil does not want to give help to humans." (QS. al-Furqan: 27-29)

Second Benefit: The obligation to hope in God

In the verse 'ar-Rahman ar-Rahim' contains hope'/hope. Shaykh Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhabrahimahullah said, "In that verse is contained roja'." (Syarh Ba'dhu Fawa'id Surah al-Fatihah, p. 18). Hope is the energy that will drive a person. With still hope in him, he will move and step, fight and sacrifice. He will pray and continue to pray to his Lord. Such is the character of the chosen servants. Allah Ta'ala says,

Those who call for their Lord, who is the most loyal, which is the closest, and they see his mercy, and they fear the torment

“They - the pious figures worshiped by the polytheists - are actually looking for a way to get closer to Allah; whichever of them is closer to Him, they hope for His mercy and fear His punishment. Indeed, the punishment of your Rabb must always be feared." (QS. al-Israa': 57)

Allah Ta'ala says,

And your Lord said, “Call upon Me, I will respond to you. Indeed, those who are too disdainful to worship Me will enter Hell humiliated.”

"Your Lord said; Pray to Me and I will surely grant your request. Verily, those who pride themselves on worshiping Me, then they will enter Hell in a state of humiliation." (QS. Ghafir: 60)

Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallambersabda,

When one of you supplicates, let him not say, “O God, forgive me if you wish.” Rather, let him be determined in asking and make his desire great, for God is not greater than anything He has given him.

"When one of you prays, he should not say, 'Oh God, forgive me if you wish', but he should be earnest in asking for it and increase his hope, because God does not feel heavy about anything that He will give. " (HR. Muslim from Abu Hurairahradhiyallahu'anhu).

Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallambersabda,

Whoever does not ask God, He will be angry with him.

"Whoever does not ask Allah, then Allah will be angry with him." (HR. Tirmidhi from Abu Hurairahradhiyallahu'anhu, recommended by al-Albani in Sahih wa Dha'if Sunan Tirmidzi[3373])

Hope is not an empty wish, but it is an act of the heart that prompts its owner to strive and be diligent in achieving his desire. Because of that hope, he remains steadfast in his faith, willing to leave what he likes in order to gain God's pleasure, and he will willingly exert all his strength and power in the way of God Almighty. Allah Ta'ala says,

Indeed, those who have believed and those who have emigrated and striven in the path of God - these hope for the mercy of God, and God is Forgiving and Merciful.

"Indeed, those who believe and emigrate and strive in the way of Allah, they are the ones who hope for Allah's mercy, and Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful." (QS. al-Baqarah: 218)

Shaykh Ibn Utsaimin, may God have mercy on him, said, "Know that there is no praiseworthy hope except for those who do good deeds with obedience to God and expect a reward for it, or those who repent of their disobedience and expect their repentance to be accepted. As for mere hope that is not accompanied by practice, then that is ghurur/deception and reprehensible wishful thinking.” (Syarh Tsalatsat Ushul, p. 58)

Third Benefit: Obligation to fear God

In the verse 'Maaliki yaumid diin' contains the teaching to be afraid of God's punishment. Shaykh Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhabrahimahullah said, "It contains khauf/fear." (Syarh Ba'dhu Fawa'id Surah al-Fatihah, p. 18). With this fear, a servant will refrain from breaking the rules of Allah Ta'ala. With this fear, a servant will be willing to leave something he likes for fear of falling into His prohibition and wrath. Because on the Day of Judgement, people will be rewarded for their deeds in the world. Whoever does good deeds, then the reward will be good And whoever does bad deeds, then the reward will be bad.

Allah Ta'ala says,

As for him who fears standing before his Lord and forbids the soul from desires, then Paradise is the refuge.

"As for the person who is afraid of the position of his Lord and refrains from following his desires, then indeed paradise is his abode." (QS. an-Nazi'at: 40-41)

On the Day of Judgement, everyone will bow under His authority. There is no one who is brave and able to oppose His command. At that time the heavens and the earth will be folded. The Messenger of Allah, may God bless him and grant him peace, said,

God Almighty will fold the heavens on the Day of Resurrection, then He will take them with His right hand, then He will say, “I am the King.” Where are the tyrants, where are the arrogant? Then He will fold them up. Of the two lands to his left, then he says, “I am the king.” Where are the mighty, where are the arrogant?

"Allah 'azza wa jalla will fold the sky on the Day of Resurrection, then God will take it with His right hand, then God will say; 'I am the king, where are the cruel people, where are the proud people.' Then God folded the earth with his left hand, then God said; 'I am the King, where are the cruel people, where are the proud people.'" (HR. Muslim from Abdullah bin Umar, may God be pleased with him).

On the Day of Resurrection, wealth and descendants will be of no use, except for those who face God with a clean heart. Allah Ta'ala says,

On the Day when neither wealth nor children will benefit except him who comes to God with a sound heart, and Paradise will be brought near to the righteous, and Hell will be brought to light for the sinners.

"On that day wealth and offspring will not be useful except for those who come to God with a pure heart, and heaven will be brought closer to those who fear God, and hell will be clearly shown to those who have gone astray." (QS. as-Shu'ara': 88-91)

One day when the shaking on that day was so terrible, that a mother neglected the baby she was nursing and every fetus would fall out of her mother's womb. Allah Ta'ala says,

O people, fear your Lord. Indeed, the earthquake of the Hour will be a great thing. The day you see it, every nursing woman will be astonished from what she has breastfed, and every pregnant woman will give birth to her burden. You see people drunk, but they are not drunk, but the punishment of God is severe.

"O mankind, fear your Lord, verily the upheaval of the Day of Resurrection is a very great event. Remember, on that day when you see it, every nursing mother will neglect her nursing child, and every pregnant woman will have a miscarriage, and you will see people in a state of drunkenness, even though they are not actually drunk, but then the punishment God is very hard." (QS. al-Hajj: 1-2)

Fear of God alone is proof of the honesty of a servant's faith. Allah Ta'ala says,

It is Satan who intimidates his friends, so do not fear them, but fear them if you are believers.

"Indeed it is only the devil who scares his guardians, so do not fear them, but fear Me, if you truly believe." (QS. Ali Imran: 175)

Shaykh Salih al-Fauzan said, "When these three things are combined: love, hope, and fear, then that is the foundation of upright faith." (Syarh Ba'dhu Fawa'id Surah al-Fatihah, p. 18).

The three things above - mahabbah, raja' and khauf - are the foundation of Ahlus Sunnah wal Jama'ah belief. Therefore, our scholars say, "Whoever worships God with only love, then he is a Zindiq. Whoever worships Him with fear alone, then he is a Haruri/follower of the Khawarij sect. And whoever worships Him with only hope, then he is a Murji'ah. Whoever worships Him with love, fear, and hope is a muwahhid believer." (Syarh Aqidah at-Thahawiyah tahqiq Ahmad Syakir [2/275] as-Syamilah).

Fourth Benefit: Obligation to monotheize Allah

In the verse 'Iyyaka na'budu wa iyyaka nasta'in' there is a teaching to monotheize Allah Almighty. Shaykh as-Sa'dirahimahullah explained the content of this verse, "The meaning is: We specialize in worship and isti'anahah for You..." (Taisir al-Karim ar-Rahman [1/28]). This is the essence of Islamic teachings, which is to offer all forms of worship to God alone. Because of that purpose God created jinn and man. It is to preach that God sent prophets and messengers to mankind. It is with sincere worship that a servant will be able to become a pious and noble figure by His side. Allah Ta'ala says,

I did not create the jinn and mankind except to worship

"I did not create jinn and humans except that they worship Me." (QS. adz-Dzariyat: 56)

Allah Ta'ala says,

And We did not send before you any messenger except to him that We revealed to him: There is no god but Me, so worship Me.

"We did not send before any messenger except We revealed to him that there is no true worshiper but Me, so worship Me alone." (QS. al-Anbiya': 25)

Allah Ta'ala says,

O people, worship your Lord who created you and those before you that you may become righteous.

"O mankind, worship your Rabb, namely the One who created you and those before you, hopefully you will become pious." (QS. al-Baqarah: 21)

Allah Ta'ala says,

The sight of God

"Indeed, the noblest among you is the most pious." (QS. al-Hujurat: 13)

So whoever directs any form of worship to other than Allah has truly fallen into polytheism. As we believe that Allah is the only one who created this universe, who gives life and death, who controls and regulates this nature, then we should also direct all forms of our worship which are built on feelings of love, hope and fear only to God alone.

Fifth Benefit: The obligation to rely on Him

This is contained in the verse 'wa iyyaka nasta'in'. Because we believe that no one controls benefit and harm except God, no one manages everything except Him, then we must depend and hope only on Him. We cannot ask for help in matters that only God has control over other than Him. The Messenger of Allah, may God bless him and grant him peace, told Ibn Abbas, may God bless him and grant him peace,

O boy, I am teaching you some words: Save, may God protect you. Save, may God find it for you. If you ask, then ask God, and if you seek help, seek help from God. Be aware. Why, if the nation were to gather to benefit you with anything, they would not benefit you except with something that God has already written for you, and if they were to gather to harm you with anything, it would not harm you. And nothing but something that God has written Upon you the pens were lifted and the pages dried

“Young man, I will teach you some sentences. Take care of God, surely God will take care of you. Take care of God, you will surely find Him in front of you. When you ask then ask God. When you ask for help, ask God for help. Know that, if all people unite to give you a benefit then they will not give you that benefit except to the extent of what God has determined for you. And if they unite to harm you with something, then they will not be able to inflict that harm except to the extent of what God has determined to inflict upon you. The pen has been lifted and the page of destiny has dried.” (HR. Tirmidhi, he said; hasan sahih, authenticated by al-Albani in Sahih wa Dha'if Sunan at-Tirmidzi[2516])

Allah Ta'ala says,

And whoever fears God, He will make for him a way out and provide for him from where he does not expect. And whoever trusts in God, He is sufficient for him.

"Whoever fears God, God will provide him with a way out and will provide him with sustenance from unexpected ways. Whoever trusts in God, God will surely suffice him." (QS. at-Thalaq: 2-3)

Those who believe are those who trust in God alone. Allah Ta'ala says,

And put your trust in God, if you are believers.

"Only in God should you trust, if you are truly believers." (QS. al-Ma'idah: 23)

When God's name is mentioned, their hearts tremble. Allah Ta'ala also said,

The believers are only those who, when God is mentioned, are terrified in their hearts, and when His verses are recited to them, it increases them in faith. And in their Lord they put their trust. prayer, and from what We have provided them they spend. These are the true believers. They will have ranks with their Lord, and forgiveness, and a generous provision.

"Indeed, the believers are only those who when the name of Allah is mentioned, their hearts become afraid/tremble, and when His verses are read to them, their faith increases. And they only put their trust in their Lord. Those who establish prayer and spend part of the sustenance that We give them. Those are the true believers, they will get different degrees from their Lord and forgiveness and glorious sustenance." (QS. al-Anfal: 2-4)

By remembering Allah, their hearts become calm. Allah Ta'ala says,

Only in the remembrance of Allah will your hearts find peace

"Remember, by remembering Allah the heart will be calm." (QS. ar-Ra'd: 28)

This is different from people who depend on and hope for other than Allah. Their hearts are calm and happy when they remember worship and worship other than Allah Ta'ala. Allah Ta'ala says,

And when God alone is mentioned, the hearts of those who do not believe in the Hereafter revolt, and when those besides Him are mentioned, then they rejoice.

"When Allah's name alone is mentioned, it will upset the hearts of those who do not believe in the Hereafter, whereas when it is mentioned other than Him, they will suddenly feel happy." (QS. az-Zumar: 45)

Because of tawakal, a servant will be able to enter heaven without reckoning and without punishment. The Messenger of Allah, may God bless him and grant him peace, said,

Seventy thousand of my nation will enter Paradise without reckoning. They are those who do not seek enslavement nor seek volition, and in their Lord they put their trust.

"Seventy thousand people among my ummah will enter heaven without reckoning, they are those who do not ask for ruqyah, have no presumption of bad luck/tathayyur, and only trust in their Lord." (HR. Bukhari from Abdullah bin Abbas, may God be pleased with him).

-continued God willing-


Author: Abu Mushlih Ari Wahyudi

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