Kamis, 28 Desember 2023

Every Muslim or Muslim woman is almost certain to know and even memorize Surah Al-Fatihah. Educated children from Muslim families from childhood - when they learn to speak - are usually trained to memorize Al-Fatihah. As a result, this is the letter that is most often read and memorized by all humans on Earth since its descent until now, even until the Day of Judgment.

Al-Fatihah means "the opener" comes from the word fatiha-yaftahu which means "to open something to achieve success or victory". As the name suggests, this letter is the opening of the Kitabullah Al-Qur'an which consists of 30 Juz and 114 Surahs. Al-Fatihah only consists of 7 (seven) verses whose content is the essence of the entire Qur'an. That is why it is also called Ummul Quran (mother of the Qur'an) or Ummul Kitab (mother of the Book). Surat Al-Fatihah (The Opening) which was revealed in Mecca is the first surah to be revealed completely among the surahs in the Qur'an and is included in the group of surahs Makkiyyah.

The Specialties of the Seven Verses That Are Recited Repeatedly

Even though almost all Muslims often read and memorize Surah Al-Fatihah, unfortunately it turns out that there are still many Muslims who do not understand the meaning and content of this short (complicated) but great and noble Surah Al-Fatihah. In fact, understanding its contents means also understanding the outline of the teachings of the Koran. Actually, there is no reason not to understand the meaning of Surah Al-Fatihah because we can easily find translations of the Koran, as well as many books that discuss this letter. This is the translation of Surah Al-Fatihah:

By mentioning the name of Allah, the Most Gracious and Most Merciful.All praise be to Allah, Lord of the Universe. Merciful and Merciful. The one who rules on the Day of Retribution. Only You do we worship, and only You do we ask for help.Show us the straight path, . (Al-Fatihah: 1-7)(that is) The path of those whom You have blessed; not (the path) of those who are angry and not (also the path) of those who go astray

Because Surah Al-Fatihah is the mother of all the contents of the Koran, every Muslim is required to read it at every raka'at of prayer. Therefore it is also called As Sab'ul matsaany(seven repeated ones) because the verses are seven and are read repeatedly in each of our prayers, both the five fardhu time and sunnah. Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta'ala stated about this,

And verily We have given you seven verses that are read repeatedly and the great Qur'an.(Al-Hijr: 87)

About the relationship between Surat Al-Fatihah and prayer, the Prophet Muhammad Shallallahu Alaihi Wa Sallam Shollallahu Alaihi Wa Sallam said, "There is no prayer for those who do not read the opening of the Al-Kitab (Surat Al -Fatihah) (HR. Bukhari and Muslim).

Furthermore, in Sahih Muslim from Abu Hurairah radhiyallahu'anhu from the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam, he said, "Whoever performs a prayer without reading the Ummul Qur'an in it will pray lamely - three times - that is, it will not be perfect." So Abu Hurairah asked, "What if we are behind the imam, what?" He answered, "Read for yourselves, for indeed I heard the Messenger of Allah sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam say,

"Allah ta'ala said: 'I divided the prayer (Al-Fatihah) between Me and My servant into two parts. And My servant will get what he asks for.' If the servant recites, 'Alhamdulillahi Rabbil 'alamin', then Allah Ta'ala answers, ' My servant has praised Me'. If he reads, 'Ar Rahmanirrahim' then Allah ta'ala answers, 'My servant praises Me'. If he reads, 'Maliki yaumid din'then God says, 'My servant glorifies Me'. Then God said, 'My servant has surrendered to Me'. If he reads, 'Iyyaka na'budu wa iyyaka nasta'in' then God answers, 'This is a portion for Me and a portion for My servant. And My servant will surely get his request.'. and if he reads,'Ihdinash shirathal mustaqim, shirathalladziina an'amta 'alaihim ghairil maghdhubi 'alaihim wa ladh dhaalliin" then God says, 'This is the right of the servant -Ku and he will get what he asked for.'.”

Surah Al-Fatihah is also called“Asy Syifa” which means Healer. A friend of Rasulullah Sallallahu Alaihi Wa Sallam once treated a sick person who had been stung by poison with this Surah. Alhamdulillah, with Allah's permission, he recovered. Narrated from Abu Said Al-Hudri r.a.: Indeed, some of the companions of the Prophet came to a village of Arabs and the inhabitants The village did not welcome him, they were all the same, when their village head was stung by a poisonous animal, they asked: "Can you treat him?" The friend answered: " Because you don't entertain us, we can treat you as long as there is a reward."So they promised a goat in return. Then the friend read Ummul Qur'an (Al- Fatihah), and he collected his saliva and spat on (the stung wound). Then the village leader recovered and gave him a goat. The companions said: "We did not take it before asking the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa sallam)". So we asked the Prophet and he laughed. And the Prophet said: "How do you know that Surah Al-Fatihah can be used for healing, take the reward and give me a share."

Summary of the Contents of Surat Al-Fatihah

The first verse is called basmallah, namely Bismillahirrahmaanirrahiim(In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful Merciful). This means: I started reading al-Fatihah by mentioning the name of Allah, the Most Gracious and the Most Merciful. Every good work should start by mentioning the name of Allah, such as eating, drinking, slaughtering animals and so on. Allah is the name of the Most Holy Being, which has the right to be truly worshiped, which does not need His creatures, but creatures who need Him. Ar Rahmaan (Most Gracious): one of the names of Allah which means that Allah bestows His gifts on His creatures, while ar Rahiim (Most Merciful) means that Allah is always merciful which causes Him to always bestow His mercy on His creatures.

Alhamdu lillahi robbil 'aalamin (all praise to Allah, the Rabb of all the worlds) . Praising people because of their good deeds which they do of their own accord. So praising Allah means: praising Him for His good deeds. This is different from gratitude, which means: recognizing someone's superiority in the blessings they have been given. We give all praise to Allah because Allah is the source of all goodness that is worthy of praise.

Rabb (God) means: God who is obeyed Who Owns, Educates and Sustains. The pronunciation of rabb cannot be used for anything other than Allah, unless there is a connection, such as rabbul bait(host). 'Alamin (universe): everything created by God which consists of various types and kinds, such as: human nature, animal nature, plant nature, inanimate objects and so on. Allah is the creator of all the worlds.

“O mankind, worship your Rabb who created you and those before you so that you may attain piety. He is the One who made the earth a bed for you and the sky a roof, and He is the One who sends down rainwater from the sky and then thanks to that water Allah produces various fruits as sustenance for you, so do not take partners to Allah even though you know .” (QS. Al Baqarah: 21-22)

'Ar-Rahman Ar-Rahim' (The Most Gracious, the Most Merciful)are two names of Allah which indicate one of the characteristics of Allah namely rahmah (compassion). Ar Rahman is included in the category of Allah's names which can only be used to refer to Allah. While the name Ar Rahim has been mentioned in the Qur'an, it is permissible to use it to refer to other than Him according to the description of the Qur'an regarding the nature of the Prophet Muhammad sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam,

"Indeed there has come to you a Rorigin from among you, he feels heavy for what is making it difficult for you, and he is very eager to give goodness to you, and he is very gentle and loving to the believers." (QS. At Taubah: 128)

Ibn Katsir said when explaining the basmalah interpretation at the beginning of Surah Al-Fatihah, "The conclusion that can be drawn is that some of the names of Allah Ta'ala can be used to name other than Him, and some can only be used to name Himself - such as the name Allah, Ar Rahman, Al Khaliq, Ar Raziq and so on-.”

'Maliki yaumid din' (The King Who Ruled the Day of Retribution) shows the obligation to believe inTawhid< /span> . Allah subhanahu wa ta'ala is the Lord of all things and its Ruler or King. All the kingdoms of heaven and earth and everything in between belong to Him. He is the King who rules the world and the hereafter. Allah 'azza wa jalla said,mulkiyah

"To God belongs the kingdom of the heavens and the earth and everything in them, and He has control over everything." (Al Ma'idah: 120).

"Glory be to God in Whose hands is the kingdom and He is Almighty over all things." (Al-Mulk: 1).

“Say; In whose hands is power over all things, He who protects and nothing can be protected from His torment, if you truly know? Then they will answer, 'Allah'. Say; So from what side are you deceived?" (QS. Al Mu'minun: 88-89)

Belief in Tawhidullah (the oneness of God) is found in the four verses of Al-Fatihah, where it is clearly stated that all praise and thanksgiving for a that blessing is for God, because God is the Creator and source of all the blessings found in this world. Among those blessings are: the blessing of creating, the blessing of educating and growing, because the word Rabbin the sentence Rabbul-'aalamiin< /span>, but also contains the meaning of education, which is educating, organizing, arranging and growing. This shows that all the favors that a person sees in himself and in all the worlds come from God, because He is the Almighty in this world. Education, care and growth by God in this world must be observed and thought about by humans as deeply as possible, so that it becomes a source of various kinds of knowledge that can increase human confidence in the majesty and glory of God, as well as be useful for society.Creator of the Universe not only means

Al-Fatihah strengthens belief in the Hereafter, the day of retribution when humans are responsible for all their actions. What is meant by King Who Rulers the Day of Judgment is that on that day Allah is in charge, everything is subject to greatness while hoping for His blessings and fearing His torment. This implies a promise to reward good deeds and a threat to bad deeds.

Because faith (monotheism) is a fundamental problem, in Surat Al-Fatihah it is not enough to state it with gestures alone, but it is confirmed and complemented by verse 5, namely: Iyyaaka na'budu wa iyyaka nasta'iin (only You do we worship, and only You do we ask for help). This istawhidul Ibadat which is servitude, devotion, and submission that is solely directed to Allah.< a i=6>Na'budu taken from the word abida-ya'buduibadah that is the obedience and submission caused by the submission of the heart and feelings towards the greatness of God, as the God who is worshipped, because of the belief that God has absolute power over him.Nasta'iin (ask for help), taken from the word isti'aanah: expect help to be able to complete a job that cannot be done by oneself.

This great letter also teaches us to pray to God. Praying must begin by praising God with all his attributes of glory, glorifying His Names and then expressing readiness to be united in worship and acknowledging God as a place of supplication. The best prayer is to ask for God's guidance to the straight path which is the path of happiness and how to follow that path to obtain happiness in this world and the hereafter. The meaning of "Hidayah" here is the guidance that is the reason for obtaining safety, happiness in the world and the hereafter, both regarding beliefs and morals, laws and other lessons from the knowledge of God found in the Qur'an. God said,

Indeed this Qur'an gives guidance to a straighter (path) and gives glad tidings to the Believers who do good deeds that for them there is a great reward. ( Al Israa: 17)

And thus We revealed to you the revelation (Al-Qur'an) by Our command. Before you did not know what the Book (Al-Qur'an) was nor did you know what faith was, but We made the Al-Qur'an a light, with which We show whom We will among Our servants. And verily you (Muhammad)truly guide to the straight path. (As-syuraa:52)

The sentence, “Ihdinash shirathal musataqiim” (Show Us to the straight path) became the main request every Muslim to his Lord. A request that is not selfish because it is not for oneself but for the Muslim community that is the Muslim Ummah as a whole. Asking for the best in life is asking for the favor of guidance whose value far exceeds other needs and desires on the face of the Earth.. There is nothing more important than the guidance of life, as stated by the Messenger of Allah Shallallahu Alaihi Wa Sallam to his friend Ali bin Abi Tholib, "And if Allah guides someone because of you, then that is better for you than the world and all its contents" (HR. Muslim)

The Qur'an explains what is meant by Shirotol Mustaqim with the next verse which is "Shirathalladzinaa an'aamta alayhim" (that is the path of those whom You have given favor upon them). What is meant by the people who are given favors in this verse, are the Prophets, the shiddieqiin (those who really believe), the syuhadaa' (the martyrs), the shaalihiin (the pious) as mentioned in in the Qur'an

And whoever obeys Allah and His (His) Messenger, they will be together with those who are blessed by Allah, namely: the prophets, the shiddiiqiin, the martyrs, and the righteous. And they are the best friends. (An Nisaa:69)

Then it was confirmed that the road "groiril maghduubi alayhim waladh-dhooliiin". (Not the way ofthose who are angry and those who go astray). The meaning is not those who do not obtain the light of guidance and walk in ignorance of the truth of Allah, the Messenger, and the teachings of Islam. Whoever they are astray and those whom God is angry with is clearly mentioned by the Qur'an. In the interpretation of Ibn Abbas it is mentioned that the Prophet Muhammad Shallallahu Alaihi Wa Sallam said, "Al yahuudu maghduubun 'alayhim wan nashoro dhooluun" (Jews are angered by God's behavior while Christians are lost)< /span>

Jews with their behavior are an example of those who were cursed and angered by God throughout human history.. due to their evil against preaching from the time of Prophet Moses Alaihis Salaam to our present day... While Christians often make lies against God, as a result their faith in God is messed up balau and mixed with falsehood... The Qur'an repeatedly tells the story of the Prophets and the stories of other ancient people who opposed God. Some of them went astray and some were angered by God... Those stories are meant as an important lesson for Muslims and to be their guide throughout life.

Because it is the parent of the Al-Qur'an, the content of Surat Al-Fatihah is very vast like an ocean that has no edge. What we have summarized here is just a drop from the vastness of God's knowledge in this great letter.
Wallahu a’lam (usb/dakwatuna

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