Rabu, 27 Desember 2023

Common sense

Human common sense is able to recognize correct beliefs. Even the Qur'an is full of rational arguments for establishing the correct faith. For example, how Allah ta'alaconvinces humans of his creation with rational arguments that cannot be refuted.

Allah ta'ala said (which means), “Were they created without anything or were they who created (themselves)?” (Qs. At Thur : 35). Ibn Abbas said, "What does this mean is, does human being exist, created without anyone creating?" of course it's impossible. Or did they create themselves? This is more unlikely. So there is no other choice except the existence of the One who created them, namely Allah Ta'ala.1

So that's why we often find that the ulama argue with reason in refuting the heretics. As happened in Abu Hanifah's story, that some atheists asked him about the existence of Allahta'ala as the creator, so he said, "I thought about a thing, someone told me about a ship in the ocean carrying goods without a captain or person looking after it, but once the ship was able to go home and sail by itself through the very large waves safely." So they said, "it is impossible for a sensible person to say something like this".

He said, "Woe to you, everything that exists both in heaven and on earth with all kinds of things in it, everything is in a perfect and orderly state without anyone creating it?!" then they were surprised, and returned to the truth and converted to Islam.2

However, the ability of common sense to understand matters of faith is only limited to matters of a global nature (mujmal)3. The details of the science of faith (tafshil) can only be known throughnash divine revelation . For example, God's majesty can be known intellectually by looking at the majesty of His creation. However, the details of Allah's names and attributes ta'ala are only known through revelation. Likewise with the existence of the doomsday. Common sense knows that there will be a doomsday, but the details of events on the doomsday are only known through revelation, and so on. Because human reason is not capable of reaching the essence of supernatural things (yuhaarul uquul). But that doesn't mean that the supernatural things mentioned are impossible from reason (yuhaalul uquul). When authentic texts from the Qur'an and Sunnah appear to conflict with reason, reason must submit to the Qur'an and Sunnah. because the Qur'an and Sunnah are qath'i (definitely) non-existentihtimaal (likely) to be wrong, while human reason is very likely to be wrong.4

Clean nature

Man was created in a state of nature5. Human nature knows the existence of God as the Creator. Humans also know by nature that they are weak beings who need God. Even by nature, humans need servitude, because indeed humans were created as slaves. And it is sunnatullah whoever does not enslave himself to Allah, he will be a servant other than Allah. And so it is with nature to grow in one's soul the urge to do good. That is why the fitrah is one of the arguments of Ahlussunnah to establish the creed. Of course, the nature is still clean and has not been contaminated by slander or lust.

As an example of how ahlussunnah establish belief with fitrah is that human nature shows that God is above. This is proven by the human instinct when praying to always face his heart upwards. So that's why - as told by Shaykh Muhammad bin Thohir Al Maqdisi6- when Shaykh Abu Ja'far Al Hamdzani was present at Abul Ma'aali Al Juwaini's meeting, an Ash'ariyah scholar who denies the attributeUluw (that God is above). At that time he was giving a sermon, he said "Allah existed before the throne existed, and even now God is in his former place (meaning to deny that God is in the sky) Then Abu Ja'far Al Hamdzani also said, "O ustadz please tell us about fitrah in our hearts? That there is no sensible person who says, "Ya Allah" unless he gets his heart facing upwards, not facing right or left, how do we remove this from our hearts? Hearing this, Imam Juwaini slapped his own cheek and got down from the pulpit saying, "Hamdzani has confused me Hamdzani has confused me".

However, like reason, human nature is not enough to be able to understand the details of the ahlussunnah wal jama'ah creed. Therefore, it is necessary for the Messengers to be sent with revelations in the form of the Qur'an and Sunnah to confirm the beliefs established by human nature, and to detail the existing beliefs. Like the Ahlu Sunnah belief that Allah is above the Throne. Human nature and reason state that Allah is above, but the existence of Allah who is above the Throne is only known through revelation from Allah ta'ala.

Wallahu ‘Alam bis Shawab



1 Mentioned by imam Al Baghowi inMa'alimut Tanzil (7/392), quoted fromMa'arijul Qobul, Hafidz Al Hakimi, (Dar Ibnul Jauzi, Cet. 8; 1432 H) (1/123)

2 Dinukil dari Ma’arijul Qobul (1/135)

3 Syarah Akidah At Tohawiyah, hal.123

4 Muqoddimah Wa Qowaid Fie Manhajis Salaf, hal. 102

5 See a more complete explanation of the meaning of fitrah and the mistakes of the ulama in it in Ma'arijul Qobul, (1/101-115)

6 Quoted by Ibn Abil Izz in Syarah Aqidah Tohawiyah, Pg. 46

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Author: Abdullah Hazim

Article Muslim.Or.Id

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