Minggu, 08 April 2018

Understanding Waste, Type, Impact, Management and Sources of Waste

Waste is discharged from a production process both industrial and domestic (household). While in the Act No. 18 of 2008 on Waste Management, it is mentioned that waste is the residual activity of human daily or natural process in the form of solid or semi-solid in the form of organic or inorganic substances are biodegradable or can not decompose which is considered to be useless and discarded environment.

Trash comes from several places, namely:

Garbage from residential areas in a settlement is usually waste generated by a family living in a building or dormitory. Types of waste generated are usually organic, such as food waste or wet waste, dry, plastic ash and others.

Garbage from public places and trade places of public places is a place that allows many people to gather and do activities. These places have considerable potential in producing waste including trading places such as shops and markets. Types of waste generated generally in the form of food scraps, rotten vegetables, dry waste, ash, plastics, paper, and cans and other garbage.

The various trashes mentioned above are only a fraction of the sources of waste that can be found in everyday life. This shows that human life will never escape from the waste. Especially the buildup of waste that takes place in public places such as in markets.

Types of Waste

Types of garbage dumps around us are quite diverse, some of which are household waste, industrial waste, market waste, hospital waste, agricultural waste, plantation waste, livestock waste, garbage / offices / schools, and so on.

Based on the origin, solid waste can be classified into 2 (two) as follows:

Organic waste, is waste generated from biological materials that can be degraded by microbes or biodegradable. This waste can easily be deciphered through a natural process. Household waste is largely organic. Including organic waste, such as kitchen waste, food scraps, wrapping (other than paper, rubber and plastic), flour, vegetables, fruit peels, leaves and twigs. In addition, traditional markets also contribute much organic waste such as vegetable waste, fruits and others

Inorganic waste is waste generated from non-biological materials, either in the form of synthetic products or the process of processing technology of mining materials. Inorganic waste is divided into: metal trash and its processed products, plastic waste, paper waste, glass and ceramic waste, detergent waste. Most of the inorganic can not be decomposed by nature / microorganisms as a whole (unbiodegradable). Meanwhile, others can only be described for a long time. This type of garbage at the household level such as plastic bottles, glass bottles, plastic bags, and cans, (Gelbert et al, 1996).

Based on the form or form known three kinds of waste or waste, namely: liquid waste, solid waste, and waste gas. Examples of liquid waste is water laundry, soap water, remaining cooking oil, etc. Examples of solid waste are snack packs, used tires, drinking water bottles, etc. Examples of gaseous waste are carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), HCl, NO2, SO2 etc.

The negative impacts of solid waste that are piled up in large amounts can not be expounded in a long time will pollute the soil. The categorized garbage here is a material that is not used anymore (refuse) because it has taken the main parts with the processing into an unpopular part and economically no price.

According to Gelbert et al (1996) there are three impacts of waste on people and the environment:

a. Impact on health

Inadequate location and waste management (uncontrolled waste disposal) is a suitable place for some organisms and attracts a variety of animals such as flies and dogs that can infect the disease. Potential health hazards that can be generated are as follows:

Diarrhea, cholera, typhoid disease spread rapidly because viruses from waste with improper management can mix with drinking water. Dengue fever (haemorhagic fever) can also increase rapidly in areas where waste management is inadequate.

Fungal diseases can also spread (eg skin fungus).

Diseases that can spread through the food chain. One example is a disease that is caused by a tapeworm (taenia). This worm previously entered into the farming of livestock through food in the form of food scraps / garbage.

b. Environmental impact

The sewage fluid entering into the drainage or river will contaminate the water. Various organisms are included k fish can die so that some of the speci fi c will disappear, this results in the changing biosphere ecosystem. Decomposition of waste disposed into water will produce organic acids and organic liquids such as methane. In addition to smelling less savory, this gas at high concentrations can explode. Impacts on Social and Economic Conditions The impacts are as follows: Inadequate waste management causes low levels of public health. The important thing here is the increase in financing (to treat the hospital). Other infrastructure can also be affected by inadequate waste management, such as the high cost required for water treatment. If waste facilities are insufficient or inefficient, people will tend to dump their trash on the road. This resulted in roads needing more frequent cleaning and repairing. Waste Management With 3R Concepts According to the Department of Public Works of Semarang City (2008), the definition of 3R waste management in general is the effort to reduce waste disposal, through Reuse, Reduce, and recycle (Recycle) .Reuse (reuse) that is reuse of waste directly, both for the same function or other functions. Reduce (reduce) that is reducing everything that causes garbage.Recycle (recycle) after experiencing the processing. Reduce waste from sources of inbreeding, in need of efforts to reduce waste from upstream to downstream, efforts that can be done in reducing waste from waste sources (from upstream) is to apply the principle of 3R. Waste Processing Techniques Waste is part of something that is not used, is unpopular or something to be disposed of, generally derived from activities carried out by humans (including industrial activities), but not biological (because human waste is not included therein) and is generally solid. Sources of waste can vary, such as: from households , markets, stalls, offices, public buildings, industries, and roads. Based on their chemical composition, the waste is divided into organic waste and inorganic waste. Research on solid waste in Indonesia shows that 80% is organic waste, and it is estimated that 78% of the waste can be reused. Waste management is all the activities undertaken in handling waste since it is inflicted up to the final disposal. Broadly speaking, activities in waste management include waste generation, garbage collection, transfer and transport, processing and final disposal
sumber: kajianpustaka

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