Unemployment Definition, Types, and Causes

Unemployment Definition, Types, and Causes

In general, the definition of unemployment is a person who does not work at all or are in search of work or working less than two days during the week prior to dismissal and trying to get a job. Currently, the number of unemployment in Indonesia is very large, it is no wonder that the poverty rate in Indonesia is also high.

The main problem of high unemployment in Indonesia occurred because the number of jobs available is not comparable to the magnitude of the job seekers. Unfortunately, most Indonesian people do not dare to take the decision to berwira business by reason of fear of risk, lack of sufficient capital, the fear of loss of jobs. In fact, by taking steps berwira business, unemployment and poverty can be reduced.

Types of Unemployment
Unemployment grouped into several kinds as follows:

1. Types of Unemployment Based on Total Hours

a. Underemployment, is a workforce that does not work optically for some particular reason.
b. Unemployment, jobseekers are looking for work
c. Underemployment, it is the workers who work under normal working hours

2. Types of Unemployment Based on the Factors Cause
According Sadono Sukirno, based on the causes of unemployment can be differentiated as follows ..

Frictional unemployment, unemployment is happening because there are as many as two or three per cent of the workforce was seen then the economy has reached full employment.
Cyclical unemployment, is unemployment that occur because of temporary difficulties in bringing together job seekers and vacancies, resulting from geographical conditions, information, and from a long recruitment process.
Structural unemployment, is unemployment that occurs due to changes in economic structure are generally countries are trying to develop the economy in the agricultural industry pattern.
Unemployment technology, it is unemployment that occurs due to the use of machinery and technological advances. It is caused by a shift from human labor to machines and chemicals.
3. Types of Unemployment Based Characteristics Characteristics

Open unemployment, is unemployment that occurs because of lower vacancies and increase manpower. As a result, the economy of the greater number of workers who can not find jobs.
Hidden unemployment, is unemployment that occurs due to excess labor used. Examples: waitress more than necessary and the family farmer with a large family members working on a very small area of ​​land.
Seasonal unemployment, unemployment is happening because of the climatic conditions usually agriculture and fisheries sector due to the rainy season rubber tappers and fishermen can not do the job and was forced to idle. In the dry season farmers can not work on land 
Unemployment unemployed, unemployed who worked one to two days a week or one to four hours a day.

Causes of Unemployment

From the description above can be concluded that there are several causes of unemployment can occur. Various causes of unemployment are as follows:

Because the population is a lot of field work a little while. Resulting, reduced labor demand.
HR (human resources) that education and low skills and is unable to compete and marginalized.
Labor force who do not meet the requirements demanded by the world of work.
More modern technology has not diseimbangin with equal ability.
Employers are always chasing profits by melakakukan the savings.
Their jobs are affected by the seasons.
There is economic instability, political, and security of a country.
source: maybekti