Complete History of Pancasila Birth Day in Indonesia, 01 June
There are at least three dates related to Pancasila's birthday, namely June 1, 1945, June 22, 1945 and August 18, 1945. However, during the reign of President Suharto, Pancasila's birthday was celebrated every June 1. After the 1998 Reformation, there were many lawsuits about the actual birthday of Pancasila.
Until 2011, there was still debate among members of the MPR RI about the actual birthday of Pancasila ( Pelita, 24/5/2011 ). Deputy Speaker of the Indonesian People's Consultative Assembly, Hajriyanto Tohari, revealed the basis for the three dates. June 1, 1945 is the date when the word "Pancasila" was first uttered by Ir. Soekarno (at that time he had not yet been appointed President of the Republic of Indonesia) at the BPUPKI (Investigating Agency for Preparatory Work for Indonesian Independence) meeting. The word "Pancasila" reappeared in the Jakarta Charter dated June 22, 1945.
The formulation which was later found in the final formulation of Pancasila which is known by Indonesian citizens also appears in the Preamble or Preamble to the 1945 Constitution which was ratified on August 18, 1945 as the constitution of the Republic of Indonesia. But in this Preamble there is no word "Pancasila". The formulation in the Preamble also differs from the formulation proposed by Ir. Soekarno on 1 June 1945 and the formulation contained in the Jakarta Charter 22 June 1945.
When Japan was increasingly pressured in World War II, the Government of the Japanese Army Occupation in Java through Saiko Syikikan Kumamici Harada officially announced the establishment of the BPUPKI (Investigating Agency for Preparatory Efforts for Indonesian Independence) on March 1, 1945. Dr. KRT Rajiman Widyodiningrat was appointed as Chairman. Ir. Soekarno, who at that time had become a prominent figure in the independence movement, agreed to the appointment because he considered that by becoming a member, Ir. Sukarno himself would be more free to move. BPUPKI consists of two sections, namely the Negotiations Section chaired by Rajiman and the Administration Section chaired by RP Suroso with MR AG Pringgodigdo as the representative.
Initial formulation: Pancasila 1 June 1945
BPUPKI held two meetings. The first session was opened on 29 May - 1 June 1945 at the Cuo Sangi In building and on 10 - 16 July 1945. The first session established the Pancasila State Principle and the second session determined the draft 1945 Constitution. In the first session, precisely on May 29, 1945, Mr. Mohamad Yamin delivered a speech which contained the necessary principles as the basis of the state. At the hearing on May 31, Prof. Dr. Soepomo also explained the basics of the state.
On June 1, 1945, Ir. Soekarno proposed the following thoughts:
The basis of the state, namely the foundation upon which an Independent Indonesia was founded, must be firm and firm so that it cannot be easily shaken. That the foundation of the country should be the soul, the deepest thoughts, the deepest desire for the building of an independent Indonesia that is eternal and everlasting. The basis of the Indonesian state should reflect the personality of Indonesia with absolutely Indonesian characteristics and at the same time be able to unite the entire Indonesian nation which consists of various tribes, sects and population groups. (Rahayu Minto, ?:37)
In the speech, Ir. Soekarno also put forward and proposed five principles or principles that should be used as the basis for an independent Indonesian state, namely:
Internationalization or peri humanity
Consensus or democracy
The word "Pancasila" appears in the speech:
The basis of the state that I propose. The five numbers. Is this the Five Dharmas? No! The name Panca Dharma is inappropriate here. Dharma means duty, we are talking about foundation. Its name is not Panca Dharma, but I named it at the direction of a friend of ours who is a linguist (Muhammad Yamin) whose name is Pancasila. Sila means principle or basis and it is on these five principles that we establish an eternal and eternal Indonesian state. (Minto, ibid.)
Initial Formulation of Pancasila: 22 June 1945
BPUPKI formed two working committees, namely the Drafting Committee of the UUD, which succeeded in drafting the RI RUUD, and another committee which became known as Committee 9. Committee 9 consisted of 9 members and compiled the Jakarta Charter which was then considered for inclusion in the draft Preamble or Preamble UUD 1945. The five principles proposed by Committee 9 have differences from the precepts proposed by Ir. Sukarno on June 1, 1945:
Godhead, with the obligation to carry out Islamic law for its adherents.
Just and civilized humanity.
The unity of Indonesia.
Population led by wisdom in deliberations/representations.
Social justice for all the people of Indonesia.
justify;">In the Jakarta Charter, there is absolutely no word "Pancasila".
Initial Formulation of Pancasila: August 18, 1945
After two meetings, BPUPKI was disbanded. The Japanese Army Occupation Government then formed the PPKI (Committee for Indonesian Independence). On August 17, 1945, the Proclamation was read by Ir. Soekarno, accompanied by Mohamad Hatta, at Ir. Soekarno at Jalan Pegangsaan Timur 56 Jakarta. The next day, the PPKI convened and made several decisions, namely:
Ratify and establish the Preamble of the 1945 Constitution.
Ratify and stipulate the 1945 Constitution.
Elect and appoint PPKI Chairperson and Deputy Chairperson to become President and Vice President respectively.
The President's work was temporarily assisted by a Central Indonesian National Committee (KNIP).
On August 19, 1945, PPKI decided to divide the territory of the Republic of Indonesia into 8 provinces where each province was further divided into residencies. PPKI also stipulates the formation of government departments.
In the text of the Preamble of the 1945 Constitution which was enacted on August 18, 1945, the five principles that later became known as "Pancasila" were fully included in paragraph IV in the same order as they were known hereafter.
The Initial Formulation of Pancasila: The 1949 RIS Constitution
After the KMB was signed by the RI and the Netherlands in The Hague, RI became part of a larger country called RIS or the United States of Indonesia. The RIS has its own constitution drawn up in the city of Scheveningen. This constitution consists of 96 articles and came into effect on December 27, 1949. The five principles listed in the Preamble to the 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia are also listed in the Preamble to the 1949 RIS Constitution, also in Paragraph IV, but with a shorter formulation and still without the word "Pancasila" :
Belief in the one and only God.
The Initial Formulation of Pancasila: The 1950 Constitution
On August 17, 1950, RIS was officially disbanded after President Soekarno announced the establishment of the NKRI (Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia). A committee chaired by Prof. Mr. Dr. Soepomo drafted the 1950 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia which consisted of 147 articles. The five Pancasila principles are still listed in the 1950 Constitution in the same order and editorial as those listed in the 1949 RIS constitution.
Initial Formulation of Pancasila: Presidential Decree 1959
After returning to being a unitary state, the Republic of Indonesia held general elections in 1955. From the results of these elections, a state high body called the Constituent Assembly was formed. One of the Constituent Assembly's tasks was to form a new Constitution to replace the 1950 Constitution. This task was not carried out successfully, so President Soekarno issued a Presidential Decree 1959. One of the provisions of the Presidential Decree was the re-enactment of the 1945 Constitution. The five principles of Pancasila are still listed in paragraph IV.
Pancasila During the New Order
During the New Order government, the government's attitude towards Pancasila was ambiguous. In 1970, the New Order government through Kopkamtib banned the commemoration of June 1 as the birthday of Pancasila (Asvi Warman Adam, 2009:26). However, in subsequent developments the New Order government actually developed Pancasila by introducing Eka Prasetya Panca Karsa, which became material in the P4 upgrading which was mandatory for all agencies, both government and private.
Since the reign of the New Order, the history of the initial formulations of Pancasila has been based on historical tracing by Nugroho Notosusanto through the book Authentic Proclamation Texts and Authentic Formulations of Pancasila (Center for ABRI History, Department of Defense-Security, 1971). Adam (2009:27) reveals, Nugroho states that there are four Pancasila formulations, namely the formulation submitted by Mohammad Yamin on May 29, 1945, the formulation submitted by Ir. Soekarno on June 1, 1945, the formulation submitted by Committee 9 which was submitted on June 22, 1945, and the formulation contained in the Preamble to the 1945 Constitution which was enacted on August 18, 1945. Nugroho believes that the Pancasila formulation is the formulation contained in the Preamble 1945 Constitution.
AB Kusuma (via Adam, 2009:28) through a paper entitled Tracing the Historical Documents of the Investigation Agency for Preparatory Efforts for Independence, revealed that based on a note found back in 1989, it was not true that Mohamad Yamin was the first to disclose the basic formulation of the state. Kusuma acknowledged that Ir. Soekarno was the digger of Pancasila. The Committee of Five chaired by Mohammad Hatta also recognized Ir. Soekarno as the person who first gave a speech about Pancasila.
Historians have yet to agree on the true birthday of Pancasila, even though the Indonesian government officially commemorates June 1 as the birthday of Pancasila. However, the official state commemorations that have been held since the 1998 Reformation have not yet had a strong legal basis because there is no Presidential Decree or Presidential Decree that regulates the determination of June 1 as the birthday of Pancasila.