Minggu, 15 Januari 2023

Origin of Mandailing : History and Clans

MANDIAILING is now being widely discussed by the public following the marriage of the daughter of RI President Joko Widodo (Jokowi), Kahiyang Ayu to Bobby Nasution, a young man born in Medan who comes from the Mandailing ethnicity.

What is Mandailing and what is the origin of its clan?

History of Mandailing and its origins. Photo/Regency of Madina

The author does not intend to open a polemic regarding the existence of the Mandailing and Batak ethnic groups in North Sumatra considering the social structure in North Sumatra (North Sumatra) is so complex. Even though there are many tribes, religions, languages, customs, and sub-ethnics and groups, the people of North Sumatra still live in harmony and become a miniature of Indonesia.

Broadly speaking, the Mandailing is one of the tribes that can be found in the north of Sumatra Island or more specifically in the south of North Sumatra Province. This tribe has blood ties, ancestry, language, script, social system, arts, customs and habits that are different from the Batak and Malay.

The generalization of the word Batak towards the Mandailing ethnicity is generally unacceptable to the descendants of the region's originals. Although some still recognize themselves as part of the Batak tribe.

Abdur-Razzaq Lubis in his book “Mandailing-Batak-Malay: A People Defined and Divided. In: 'From Palermo to Penang: A Journey into Political Anthropology', University of Fribourg, 2010, argues that Dutch colonialism in Sumatra caused the Mandailing to become part of the Batak tribe based on intersectional rules made to classify and create typologies.

As a result, the Mandailing tribe merged into one which was named the Mandailing Batak Tribe in Indonesia and the Mandailing Malay Tribe in Malaysia.

Regarding the history of Mandailing, M Dolok Lubis in his book "Mandailing; History, Customs and Architecture of Mandailing" explains that the existence of Mandailing has been taken into account since the 14th century by including the name Mandailing in the Palapa Gajah Mada oath in the 13th verse of Kakawin Negarakertagama by Prapanca as the expansion area of ​​Majapahit around 1287 Caka (1365) to several areas outside Java.

Centuries before Prapanca, a highly cultured community had grown in Mandailing (based on historical records of Rajendra Cola's attack from India in 1023 AD to the Panai Kingdom) in the upper Barumun river or along the Batang Pane river starting from Binanga, Portibi on Gunung Tua to the valleys of the mountains. Sibualbuali in Sipirok. This is indicated by the presence of people with the surname Pane in Sipirok, Angkola and Mandailing.

Mandailing humanist, Z Pangdinding Lubis in his book 'The Story of the Origin of the Clans in Mandailing'. The name Mandailing is said to come from the word Mandegulung (Minangkabau language, meaning missing mother). The word Munda disappeared, the word Mandalay (the name of a city in Burma) and the word Mandala Holing (the name of the kingdom in Portibi, Old Mountain) Munda is the name of a nation in North India, which fled to the South in 1500 BC due to the pressure of the Aryans. Some of the Munda people entered Sumatra through the Barus port on the West Coast of Sumatra.

Mandailing has a history of clan origins which are believed to date back to the 9th or 10th century. The majority of clans in Mandailing are Lubis and Nasution. The ancestor of Marga Lubis, named Angin Bugis, came from South Sulawesi.

Angin Bugis or Sutan Bugis sailed and settled in Hutapanopaan (now Kotanopan) and developed his descendants, up to a child with the title Namora Pande Bosi III. The Hutasuhut clan is the next generation of descendants of Namora Pande Bosi III, who came from a different mother and settled in the Guluan Gajah area.

The Harahap and Hasibuan clans are also descendants of Namora Namora Pande Bosi III who settled in the Portibi area, Padang Bolak. The Pulungan clan originates from Sutan Pulungan, who is the fifth descendant of Namora Pande Bosi with his first wife who came from Angkola.

Meanwhile, the bearer of the Nasution clan is Baroar Nasakti, the child of Batara Pinayungan (from the Pagaruyung kingdom) and Lidung Bulan (Sutan Pulungan's younger sister) who lives in Penyabungan Tonga.

The ancestor of Marga Rangkuti and Parinduri was Mangaraja Sutan Pane who came from the Panai kingdom, Padang Lawas. Sutan Pane's descendant, Datu Janggut Marpayung Aji was nicknamed 'the feared Nan', and changed to Rangkuti who lived in Huta Lobu Mandala Sena (Aek Marian).

The descendants of Datu Janggut Marpayung Aji spread to several places and one of them went to the Tamiang area, carrying the Parinduri clan. The ancestors of the Batubara, Matondang and Daulay clans were named Parmato Sopiak and Datu Bitcu Rayo (two leaders of a group of Malays) came from Batubara, Asahan.

Apart from the clan people, the Mandailing area was inhabited by three other tribes, long before the 10th century, namely the Sakai tribe, the Hulu Muarasipongi tribe and the Lubu Siladang tribe. The Sakai tribe lives in the upper reaches of small rivers, and some are also found in the Dumai and Duri areas (Riau) and Malaysia.

The Hulu Muarasipongi tribe is thought to have come from Riau, while their language and customs are similar to those of Riau and Padang Pesisir. The Lubu Siladang tribe lives on the slopes of Mount Tor Sihite, their language and customs are different from those of the Mandailing and Malays.

Another opinion says that

the Mandailing tribe in North Sumatra was born under the influence of the Padri who ruled the Minangkabau in Tanah Datar. As a result, this tribe is influenced by Islamic culture. This tribe is also spread across Malaysia, in Selangor and Perak to be precise. This tribe also has a connection with the Angkola Tribe (South Tapanuli).

Mandailing-Angkola culturalist Basyral Hamidy Harahap stated that generally the ancestors of Mandailing migrated to the Peninsula because of the Padri War (1816-33). Some seek religious knowledge, do business, open a new huta harajoan (monarchy), bring themselves because of disagreements among families or avoid Dutch colonialism.

Like most people in the world, the Mandailing people are patrilineal, that is, they follow the lineage of their father's lineage. Therefore, only men can continue the surname of their parents.

Like the Arabs and Chinese, the Mandailing people have knowledge of their genealogy to several descendants as well as the history of their ancestors.

Customary Structures and Social Systems

In carrying out its customs and customary law, Mandailing uses a traditional system structure called Dalihan Natolu (three furnaces). The Mandailing community adheres to a social system consisting of Khanggi, (a group of people with the same clan), Mora (a group of relatives who give girls) and Anak Boru (a group of relatives who receive girls).

These three elements are always together in every implementation of traditional activities, such as Horja (work/party), namely three types namely, (1) Horja Siriaon is a joyful activity including birth ceremonies (tubuan anak), entering a new house (Marbongkot bagas na imbaru) and marrying children (haroan boru); (2) Horja Siluluton (death ceremony) and (3) Horja Siulaon (gotong royong).

The government system in Mandailing, before the arrival of the Dutch was a government led by traditional elders. Namely the king and Namora Natoras as holders of power and custom. Kings in Mandailing consist of several types, namely Panusunan (highest king), Ihutan (under Panusunan), Pamusuk (king of one huta, subject to Panusunan and Pamusuk), Sioban Ripe (under king Pamusuk) and Suhu (under Pamusuk and Sioban Ripe, but not found in all Huta).

All the Panusunan kings in Mandailing came from one descendant, namely the Lubis clan in Mandailing Julu and the Nasution clan in Mandailing Godang, each of whom was fully sovereign in their territory. Namora Natoras consists of Namora (a person who is the head of each group of relatives of the king who is the king's kahanggi), Natoras (a person who is the oldest of a group), temperature (a person who is in the same clan as King Panusunan / Pamusuk but is not a descendant of the King) and Bayo -bayo Nagodang (those who are not of the same clan as the king, who come together at certain times to the huta).

This social system shows that the Mandailing people really respect and value their parents. However, parents who are respected are not necessarily arrogant. But it actually protects all relatives, relatives and even other people who are nothing to them in carrying out every activity in the forest.

Mandailing clans

According to Abdoellah Loebis, a writer from Mandailing, the clans in Mandailing Julu and Pakantan are Lubis (which is divided into Lubis Huta Nopan and Lubis Singa Soro), Nasution, Parinduri, Batu Bara, Matondang, Daulay, Nai Monte, Hasibuan, Pulungan.

The clans in Mandailing Godang are also Nasution which is divided into Nasution Panyabungan, Tambangan, Borotan, Lantat, Jior, Tonga, Dolok, Maga, Pidoli, and others.
Lubis, Hasibuan, Harahap, Batu Bara, Matondang (Hasibuan descendant), Rangkuti, Mardia, Parinduri, Batu na Bolon, Pulungan, Rambe, Mangintir, Nai Monte, Panggabean, Tangga Ambeng and Margara. (Rangkuti, Mardia and Parinduri come from the same clan.)

According to Basyral Hamidy Harahap, in the Angkola and Sipirok areas there are the clans of Pulungan, Baumi, Harahap, Siregar, Dalimunte and Daulay. There are also the clans of Harahap, Siregar, Hasibuan, Daulay, Dalimunte, Pulungan, Nasution and Lubis in Padang Lawas.

Apart from Mandailing Natal (Madina), the Mandailing tribe is also widely spread in South Tapanuli Regency, Padang Lawas Regency, North Padang Lawas Regency, Padangsidimpuan City. The first group to arrive in the area were Pulungan and Nasution.

Over time, now the population of the Mandailing people has spread widely throughout Indonesia and abroad. They are easily recognized because of the clan identity attached to their name.

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