Complete History of RA Kartini, Read Here

Complete History of RA Kartini


Raden Adjeng Kartini was someone from the Javanese aristocratic or aristocratic class, daughter of Raden Mas Adipati Ario Sosroningrat, regent of Jepara. She is the daughter of the first wife, but not the main wife. His mother was named MA Ngasirah, daughter of Nyai Haji Siti Aminah and Kyai Haji Madirono, a religion teacher in Telukawur, Jepara. From her father's side, Kartini's lineage can be traced back to Hamengkubuwana VI.
Kartini's father
Kartini's father was originally a wedana in Mayong. Colonial regulations at that time required a regent to have a nobleman's wife. Because MA Ngasirah was not a high aristocrat, her father remarried Raden Adjeng Woerjan (Moerjam), a direct descendant of the King of Madura. After the marriage, Kartini's father was appointed regent in Jepara to replace RA Woerjan's biological father, RAA Tjitrowikromo.
Kartini, Kardinah, Roekmini
Kartini is the 5th child of 11 biological and half siblings. Of all the siblings, Kartini is the eldest daughter. His grandfather, Prince Ario Tjondronegoro IV, was appointed regent at the age of 25. Kartini's older brother, Sosrokartono, was an expert in languages.
School Period and Adolescent Activities
Little Kartini
Until the age of 12, Kartini was allowed to attend ELS (Europese Lagere School). Here, among others, Kartini studied Dutch. But after the age of 12, he had to stay at home because he could be secluded.
Because Kartini could speak Dutch, she started teaching herself at home and wrote letters to correspondence friends who came from the Netherlands. One of them is Rosa Abendanon who supports him a lot. From European books, newspapers and magazines, Kartini was interested in the progress of European women's thinking. Her desire arose to advance indigenous women, because she saw that indigenous women were at a low social status.


src="https://gunawank.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/kartini-11.jpg?w=80&h=120" style="border: 1px solid rgb(176, 176, 176); display: inline ; float: right; height: auto; margin: 0px 6px 2px; max-width: 97%; padding: 5px; text-align: right;" title="kartini 1" width="80">Kartini read a lot of Semarang De Locomotief newspaper under Pieter Brooshooft, she also received leestrommel (a magazine package distributed by bookstores to subscribers). Among them are quite heavy cultural and scientific magazines, as well as the Dutch women's magazine De Hollandsche Lelie. Kartini then sent her writings several times and they were published in De Hollandsche Lelie. From her letters it appears that Kartini reads everything with great attention, while taking notes. Sometimes Kartini mentions one of the essays or quotes several sentences. His concern is not only about women's emancipation, but also general social problems. Kartini saw women's struggle for freedom, autonomy and legal equality as part of a wider movement. Among the books Kartini read before she was 20, there was the title Max Havelaar and the Love Letters by Multatuli, which she had read twice in November 1901. Then De Stille Kraacht (Supernatural Powers) by Louis Coperus. Then Van Eeden's high-quality work, the mediocre Augusta de Witt, the feminist works by Mrs. Goekoop de-Jong Van Beek and an anti-war romance by Berta Von Suttner, Die Waffen Nieder (Put Weapons). Everything is in Dutch. His concern is not only about women's emancipation, but also general social problems. Kartini saw women's struggle for freedom, autonomy and legal equality as part of a wider movement. Among the books Kartini read before she was 20, there was the title Max Havelaar and the Love Letters by Multatuli, which she had read twice in November 1901. Then De Stille Kraacht (Supernatural Powers) by Louis Coperus. Then Van Eeden's high-quality work, the mediocre Augusta de Witt, the feminist works by Mrs. Goekoop de-Jong Van Beek and an anti-war romance by Berta Von Suttner, Die Waffen Nieder (Put Weapons). Everything is in Dutch. His concern is not only about women's emancipation, but also general social problems. Kartini saw women's struggle for freedom, autonomy and legal equality as part of a wider movement. Among the books Kartini read before she was 20, there was the title Max Havelaar and the Love Letters by Multatuli, which she had read twice in November 1901. Then De Stille Kraacht (Supernatural Powers) by Louis Coperus. Then Van Eeden's high-quality work, the mediocre Augusta de Witt, the feminist works by Mrs. Goekoop de-Jong Van Beek and an anti-war romance by Berta Von Suttner, Die Waffen Nieder (Put Weapons). Everything is in Dutch. Kartini saw women's struggle for freedom, autonomy and legal equality as part of a wider movement. Among the books Kartini read before she was 20, there was the title Max Havelaar and the Love Letters by Multatuli, which she had read twice in November 1901. Then De Stille Kraacht (Supernatural Powers) by Louis Coperus. Then Van Eeden's high-quality work, the mediocre Augusta de Witt, the feminist works by Mrs. Goekoop de-Jong Van Beek and an anti-war romance by Berta Von Suttner, Die Waffen Nieder (Put Weapons). Everything is in Dutch. Kartini saw women's struggle for freedom, autonomy and legal equality as part of a wider movement. Among the books Kartini read before she was 20, there was the title Max Havelaar and the Love Letters by Multatuli, which she had read twice in November 1901. Then De Stille Kraacht (Supernatural Powers) by Louis Coperus. Then Van Eeden's high-quality work, the mediocre Augusta de Witt, the feminist works by Mrs. Goekoop de-Jong Van Beek and an anti-war romance by Berta Von Suttner, Die Waffen Nieder (Put Weapons). Everything is in Dutch. which in November 1901 he had read twice. Then De Stille Kraacht (Supernatural Powers) by Louis Coperus. Then Van Eeden's high-quality work, the mediocre Augusta de Witt, the feminist works by Mrs. Goekoop de-Jong Van Beek and an anti-war romance by Berta Von Suttner, Die Waffen Nieder (Put Weapons). Everything is in Dutch. which in November 1901 he had read twice. Then De Stille Kraacht (Supernatural Powers) by Louis Coperus. Then Van Eeden's high-quality work, the mediocre Augusta de Witt, the feminist works by Mrs. Goekoop de-Jong Van Beek and an anti-war romance by Berta Von Suttner, Die Waffen Nieder (Put Weapons). Everything is in Dutch.
Period of Marriage and Death
Kartini and Husband
Her parents told Kartini to marry the regent of Rembang, KRM Adipati Ario Singgih Djojo Adhiningrat, who already had three wives. Kartini married on November 12, 1903. Her husband understood Kartini's wish and Kartini was given freedom and supported the establishment of a women's school east of the gate of the Rembang district office complex, or in a building that is now used as the Pramuka building.
Her first and last child, RM Soesalit, was born on 13 September 1904. A few days later, 17 September 1904, Kartini died at the age of 25. Kartini is buried in Bulu Village, Bulu District, Rembang.
Kartini School (Kartinischool), 1918.
Kartini's School
Thanks to Kartini's persistence, a Women's School was founded by the Kartini Foundation in Semarang in 1912, and later in Surabaya, Yogyakarta, Malang, Madiun, Cirebon and other areas. The name of the school is "Kartini School". The Kartini Foundation was founded by the Van Deventer family, a prominent figure in the Ethical Politics.
RA Kartini's Letters
After Kartini died, Mr. JH Abendanon collected and recorded letters that RA Kartini had sent to her friends in Europe. Abendanon at that time served as Minister of Culture, Religion and Crafts of the Dutch East Indies. The book is entitled Door Duisternis tot Licht which literally means "From Darkness to Light". This book of collections of Kartini's letters was published in 1911. This book was printed five times, and in the last printing there were additional Kartini's letters.
In 1922, Balai Pustaka published it in Malay with the title Habis Dark Rising Terang: Boeah Mind, which is a translation by Empat Brothers. Then in 1938, Out of Darkness Comes Light version of Armijn Pane, a New Poet writer. Armijn divides the book into five discussion chapters to show changes in Kartini's way of thinking over the course of his correspondence. This version was printed eleven times. Kartini's letters in English have also been translated by Agnes L. Symmers. In addition, Kartini's letters have also been translated into Javanese and Sundanese languages.
The publication of Kartini's letters, an indigenous woman, greatly attracted the attention of the Dutch community, and Kartini's thoughts began to change the Dutch public's view of native women in Java. Kartini's thoughts contained in her letters also became an inspiration for Indonesian national awakening figures, including WR Soepratman who composed a song entitled "Our Mother Kartini".
Thinking
In Kartini's letters, her thoughts were written about the social conditions at that time, especially about the condition of indigenous women. Most of her letters contain complaints and lawsuits, especially regarding the culture in Java which is seen as an obstacle to women's progress. He wants woman to have the freedom to gain knowledge and study. Kartini wrote down her ideas and aspirations, as written: Zelf-ontwikkeling and Zelf-onderricht, Zelf-vertrouwen and Zelf-werkzaamheid and also Solidariteit. All of this is based on Religieusiteit, Wijsheid en Schoonheid (namely Divinity, Wisdom and Beauty), coupled with Humanitarianism (humanity) and Nationalism (love for the motherland).
Kartini's letters also contain her hopes for outside help. In her introduction to Estelle “Stella” Zeehandelaar, Kartini expressed her wish to be like European youth. She describes the suffering of Javanese women due to the constraints of adat, namely not being able to sit freely in school, having to be secluded, being married to a man they don't know, and having to be willing to have a partner.
Other critical views expressed by Kartini in her letters are criticisms of her religion. He questioned why the scriptures had to be recited and memorized without being required to understand them. He expressed the view that the world would be more peaceful if there were no religion, which is often the reason for humans to disagree, separate, and hurt each other. “…Religion must protect us from committing sins, but how many sins have people committed in the name of religion…” Kartini questioned religion as justification for men to do polygamy. For Kartini, the suffering of Javanese women was complete, whose world was only limited to the walls of their house.
Kartini's letters reveal much about the obstacles that must be faced when a woman aspires to be a more advanced Java. Even though he has a father who is classified as advanced because he has sent his daughters to school even though they are only up to 12 years old, the door to go there is still closed. Kartini loved her father very much, but it turned out that this love for her father also became a big obstacle in realizing her dreams. The father in the letter also expressed so much love for Kartini. He is said to have finally allowed Kartini to study to become a teacher in Betawi, even though previously he had not allowed Kartini to continue her studies in the Netherlands or to enter medical school in Betawi.
Kartini's desire to continue her studies, especially in Europe, was indeed expressed in her letters. Several pen friends supported and tried to realize Kartini's wishes. When Kartini finally canceled her wish, which had almost come true, it was revealed that her pen friends were disappointed. The intention and plan to study in the Netherlands finally switched to Betawi after being advised by Mrs. Abendanon that that was the best for Kartini and her sister Rukmini.
In mid-1903, when he was about 24 years old, his intention to continue his studies to become a teacher at Betawi disappeared. In a letter to Mrs. Abendanon, Kartini stated that she had no intention anymore because she was about to get married. “…In short, I don't want to use this opportunity anymore, because I'm about to get married…” Even though at that time the Dutch teaching department had already opened the door for Kartini and Rukmini to study in Betawi.
Just before her wedding, there was a change in Kartini's assessment of Javanese customs. He became more tolerant. She thought that marriage would bring its own advantages in realizing the desire to establish a school for native women at that time. In her letters, Kartini stated that her husband not only supported her desire to develop Jepara carving and schools for native women, but also mentioned that Kartini could write a book.
This change in Kartini's thinking implies that she has shed more of her ego and become a human who prioritizes transcendence, that when Kartini almost got her dream of going to school in Betawi, she preferred to make sacrifices to follow patriarchal principles that she had been opposed to, namely marrying the Duke of Rembang.
Hero Title and Commemoration of Kartini Day
President Soekarno issued Presidential Decree of the Republic of Indonesia No. 108 of 1964, dated May 2, 1964, which established Kartini as a National Hero of Independence and at the same time determined Kartini's birthday, April 21, to be commemorated every year as a big day which became known as Kartini Day.
Dutch Street NamesIn Utrecht RA Kartini Street or Kartinistraat is one of the main streets, in the shape of a 'U' which is larger in size than the streets bearing the names of other struggle figures such as Augusto Sandino, Steve Biko, Che Guevara, Agostinho Neto.
In Venlo, South Holland Province, RA Kartinistraat has an 'O' shape in the Hagerhof area, around which are the street names of female figures Anne Frank and Mathilde Wibaut.
In the Amsterdam Zuidoost area, or better known as Bijlmer, Jalan Raden Adjeng Kartini is written in full. Around her are the names of women from around the world who have contributed to history: Rosa Luxemburg, Nilda Pinto, Isabella Richaards.
In Haarlem, Jalan Kartini is adjacent to Jalan Mohammed Hatta, Sutan Sjahrir and goes directly to Jalan Chris Soumokil, the second president of the Republic of South Maluku.

Source: https://gunawank.wordpress.com