Minggu, 15 Januari 2023

History of the Indonesian Navy, Duties, Organization and Strengths

The history of the TNI-AL began on September 10, 1945, when the government established the Maritime People's Security Agency (BKR Laut). BKR Laut was pioneered by sailors who had served in the Koninklijke Marine (Dutch Navy) and Kaigun during the Japanese colonial period.

The formation of the Indonesian military organization known as the People's Security Army (TKR) also spurred the existence of the Marine TKR, hereinafter better known as the Indonesian Navy (ALRI), with all its strengths and capabilities. A number of Naval Bases were formed, ships inherited from the Japanese Maritime Bureau were empowered, and crew members were recruited to fulfill the demands of duty as marine guards for the newly formed Republic. Simple strength did not stop the Indonesian Navy from carrying out Sea Crossing Operations in order to spread the news of the proclamation and organize armed forces in various places in Indonesia. Besides that, they also made voyages to break through the Dutch sea blockade in order to get help from abroad.

During 1949-1959 ALRI succeeded in perfecting its strength and increasing its capabilities. In the field of organization, the Indonesian Navy formed the Fleet, the Marine Corps which at that time was known as the Naval Command Corps (KKO-AL), Naval Aviation and a number of Regional Maritime Commands as the sea aspect territorial defense command.

In the 1990s the Indonesian Navy received additional strength in the form of Parchim class corvettes, 'Frosch' class tank landing ships (LST), and Kondor class minesweepers. This addition of strength is considered to be far from the needs and demands of the task, especially during this multidimensional crisis which demands increased operations but very limited support. Internal reforms within the TNI have had a major influence on the demands for sharpening the tasks of the Indonesian Navy in the field of defense and security at sea such as the reorganization and validation of the Armada which is arranged into flotillas of warships in accordance with the similarity of functions and the expansion of the Marine Corps organization by forming units at the level of the Marine Troops division. -I in Surabaya and an independent Brigade level in Jakarta.

Duties of the Navy

In accordance with Law Number 34 of 2004 concerning the TNI Article 9, the Navy is in charge of:

1. carrying out the duties of the TNI in the field of defense;
2. enforce the law and maintain security in the sea area under national jurisdiction in accordance with the provisions of national law and ratified international law;
3. carrying out naval diplomacy tasks in order to support the foreign policy policies set by the government;
4. carry out TNI duties in the development and development of maritime dimension forces;
5. carry out empowerment of maritime defense areas.


The TNI-AL is under the TNI Headquarters. The senior officer of the Navy, the Chief of Staff of the Indonesian Navy, is a four-star high-ranking officer with the rank of Admiral in charge of the Navy under the Commander of the Indonesian National Armed Forces.

chief of staff

The highest position in the Indonesian Navy is the Chief of Staff of the Indonesian Navy, which is usually held by a four-star Admiral. Currently the Indonesian Navy is led by Admiral Tedjo Edhy Purdijatno.


In the Indonesian Navy, as in other branches, ranks consist of officers, non-commissioned officers and privates. The highest rank in the Navy is Grand Admiral with five stars. Until now, no Navy officer has been awarded this rank.

Main Command of the Indonesian Navy

Western Fleet Command

The West Region of the Republic of Indonesia Fleet Command or abbreviated as Koarmabar is one of the Main Commands of the Indonesian Navy. This command is headquartered on Jl Gunung Sahari, Central Jakarta, while its base is in Tanjung Priok, Jakarta. The current Koarmabar Commander is Rear Admiral TNI Moeklas Sidik. He was appointed on 16 February 2006 to replace TNI Rear Admiral Tedjo Edhy Purdijatno.

Eastern Fleet Command

The Eastern Fleet Command of the Republic of Indonesia or abbreviated as Koarmatim is one of the Main Commands of the Indonesian Navy. This command is headquartered in Surabaya, East Java. The current Commander of the Koarmatim is Rear Admiral Waldi Murad who graduated from the 1973 Navy Academy (AAL). He was appointed on 21 October 2005 to replace Rear Admiral Didik Heru Purnomo who only served for more than four months.

Military Maritime Command

The Military Cross Sea Command or abbreviated as Kolinlamil is one of the Main Commands of the Indonesian Navy. This command is headquartered in Tanjung Priok, North Jakarta. Kolinlamil was formed on July 1, 1961 under the name Military Sea Transport Department (DALMIL). The current commander in chief of Kolinlamil is Rear Admiral TNI Bambang Supeno who has served since 11 February 2008.

Kolinlamil is the Main Command (Kotama) for Development and Operations. In the field of coaching, Kolinlamil is directly under KASAL, while in the field of operations, he is directly under the Commander of the Indonesian National Armed Forces.

Marine Corps

The Republic of Indonesia Marine Corps is the striking and landing force of the Indonesian Navy. Broadly speaking, the Marine Corps is tasked with seizing enemy coastal positions, securing vital TNI-AL objects and carrying out other national defense tasks.

Based on the recently drafted TNI-AL strength development plan for the 2005-2024 period, the strength of the Marine Corps (Kormar) will be increased both in terms of structure and physical strength. Currently the number of marine personnel is around 17,000 people, giving rise to a joke among the military itself that with the number of islands in Indonesia which are also approximately 17,000, each marine personnel is tasked with securing one island. This number in the future will be increased to 60,000 personnel.

In the development plan, there will be three Marine Corps (Pasmar), namely a main unit attached to each marine area command (Kowilla), 2 independent Marine Brigades, 1 Marine Training Command and 5 Marine Bases plus 11 Marine Base Defense Battalions.

Naval Education and Development Command

Kobangdikal is one of the main commands in the Indonesian Navy. Since May 12, 2007, it has changed its name from the Naval Education Command (Kodikal) to the Naval Education and Development Command (Kobangdikal).

Naval Academy

The Naval Academy (abbreviated as AAL) is an educational school for the Indonesian Navy in Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia. The Naval Academy prints Indonesian Navy officers. Organizationally, the Naval Academy is within the organizational structure of the Navy, which is led by a Governor of the Naval Academy.


KRI Karel Satsuit Tubun in 2006.

Names of ships owned by the TNI-AL always start with KRI, short for Warship

Republic of Indonesia. In addition, there are also ships that begin with KAL, short for Navy Ships. A numbering system was adopted to differentiate each Ship. Ship names vary, starting from the names of Heroes, Bay, to animals.

Each ship is armed with one or more of the various types of weapons available according to its class, ranging from 12.7mm machine guns, cannons, cannons to guided missiles.

Currently, the Indonesian Navy has around 68,800 soldiers, including 18,500 marine personnel and 1090 aviation/air personnel. The strength of the TNI AL in outline is as follows:

Indonesian warship flag.

Ships of the Republic of Indonesia (KRI) totaling 132 ships, KRI, divided into three power groups:

1. Strike Force (Striking Force) consists of 40 KRI who have strategic weapons:
1. 2 Cakra class submarines.
2. 6 Ahmad Yani class
frigates 3. 3 Fatahillah class frigates
4. 1 Ki Hajar Dewantara class frigates
5. 4 SIGMA class corvettes (Ship Integrated Geometrical Modularity Approach)
6. 16 Parchim class anti-submarine corvettes
7. 4 fast rocket boats ( KCR) Mandau class.
8. 2 Ajak-class fast torpedo boats (KCT).
9. 2 mines (BR) Rengat Island class.
2. Patrol Force (Patrolling Force) totaling 46 KRI.
3. The Supporting Force numbered 48 KRI, consisting of:
1. 8 transport tanks (AT) class Teluk Langsa
2. 4 tank transports (AT) class Teluk Semangka
3. 2 transport tanks (AT) Banten Bay class
4. 8 transport tanks (AT) Frosch class
5. 1 headquarters (MA) Multatuli class
6. 6 condor class mine sweeper (PR)
7. 5 liquid oil assistance (BCM)
8 1 floating workshop (BA) Jayawijaya class
9. 3 tug aid (BTD)
10. 3 general assistance (BU)
11. 1 personnel transport assistance (BAP) Tanjung Kambani class
12. 3 hydro-oceanographic assistance (BHO) Rondo Island class
13. 1 hydro-oceanographic aid (BHO) Dewa Twins class
14. 2 training ships.

The Indonesian Navy in the future will have 3 helicopter carriers. This aircraft carrier is still under construction by PT. PAL

Support patrol boat

Navy Ships (KAL) are patrol boats that function to support the Indonesian Navy Base (Lanal) in carrying out maritime security patrol duties and other support tasks.


The aircraft totaled 82 units, consisting of 52 fixed wings and 30 rotary wings.

Ground troops

The Marine Corps combat equipment totals 437 combat vehicles (ranpur), but 307 ranpur are over 30 years old, 37 ranpur are 21-30 years old, the remaining 103 ranpur are 1-10 years old.

Main Naval Base

Lantamal numbering was changed sequentially from Lantamal I to XI according to location from west to east on 1 August 2006 along with the inauguration of the Teluk Bayur Naval Base (Lanal), Padang City, West Sumatra to become the Main Naval Base (Lantamal) II.

The strength of the Indonesian Navy is spread across several Main Naval Bases (Lantamal) which are under the two main fleet commands, namely:

1. West Region Fleet Command
1. Main Base I (Lantamal I) in Belawan, oversees 2 Naval Bases, covering Sabang and Dumai. One Sabang Naval Air Base (Lanudal), and two maintenance and repair facilities (Fasharkan) in Sabang, Belawan. The Lantamal is planned to be moved to Lhokseumawe, Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam.
2. Main Base II (Lantamal II) in Padang oversees Lanal Sibolga and Bengkulu. Prior to August 1, 2006, Lantamal II was the designation for Lantamal III Jakarta.
3. Main Base III (Lantamal III) in Jakarta, oversees 6 Naval Bases, covering Palembang, Cirebon, Panjang, Banten, Bandung and Bangka Belitung. In addition, it has one maintenance and repair facility in Pondok Dayung, Jakarta. Fasharkan Pondok Paddle now has the capability to make patrol boats of the 28-35 meter KAL type. Prior to August 1, 2006, Lantamal III was the designation for Lantamal V Surabaya.
4. Main Base IV (Lantamal IV) in Tanjung Pinang oversees 6 Naval Bases, namely Batam, Pontianak, Tarempa, Ranai, Tanjung Balai Karimun, and Dabo Singkep. Tanjung Pinang Lantamal has one maintenance and repair facility (Fasharkan) in Mentigi which has the capability to build 12, 28 and 35 meter patrol boats (KAL). In addition, it has 2 Naval Air Bases (Lanudal) located in Matak, Natuna Islands, and in Tanjung Pinang/Kijang. Prior to August 1, 2006, Lantamal IV was the designation for Lantamal VI Makassar.
2. Indonesian Fleet Command for Eastern Region
1. Main Base V (Lantamal V) in Surabaya oversees five Naval Bases, covering Tegal, Cilacap, Semarang, Yogyakarta, Malang, Banyuwangi, and Benoa. Prior to August 1, 2006, Lantamal V was the designation for Lantamal X Jayapura.
2. Main Base VI (Lantamal VI) in Makassar, in charge of Kendari, Palu, Balikpapan, Kotabaru and Banjarmasin Naval Bases. Prior to 1 August 2006, Lantamal VI was the designation for Lantamal VIII Bitung.
3. Main Base VII (Lantamal VII) in Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, oversees the Mataram, Maumere, Kupang, Tual and Aru Naval Bases. Has 1 Air Base, in Kupang. Prior to 1 August 2006, Lantamal VII was the designation for Lantamal IV Tanjung Pinang.
4. Main Base VIII (Mako Lantamal VIII) in Bitung City, Manado, North Sulawesi, oversees the Tarakan, Nunukan, Tahuna, Toli-Toli and Gorontalo Naval Bases as well as one Naval Air Base in Manado. Lantamal VIII before 1 August 2006, is the designation for Lantamal IX Ambon.
5. Main Base IX (Lantamal IX) in Ambon oversees Ternate Naval Base. Prior to August 1, 2006, Lantamal IX was the designation for Lantamal VII Kupang.
6. Main Base X (Mako Lantamal X) in Jayapura, oversees Sorong, Biak, Timika and Merauke Naval Bases as well as one Maintenance and Repair Facility in Manokwari capable of producing KAL 12 and 28 meters.
7. Main Base XI (Lantamal XI) in Merauke, Papua (planned)

Expansion plan

Based on the strength development plan for the 2005-2024 period, the operational structure of the TNI-AL will be changed where the two existing fleet commands (Western Fleet Command and Eastern Fleet Command) will be merged into one fleet led by a three-star admiral.

This fleet will oversee three marine area commands (Kowilla), namely West Kowilla with planned headquarters in Tanjung Pinang, Riau, Central Kowilla with headquarters in Makassar and East Kowilla with headquarters in Sorong. The division of operational commands is based on the characteristics of the waters which require different patterns of operations and equipment as well as to facilitate shifting of troops or logistics. However, based on a letter from the TNI Commander, the plan to expand the TNI AL organization was rejected, it has not been determined when it will be approved.

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