Sabtu, 14 Januari 2023

Seconds of the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence

The Proclamation of Independence of the Republic of Indonesia , namely on Friday , August 17, 1995 AD, or August 17, 2605 according to the Japanese year, which was read by Ir. Soekarno accompanied by Drs. Mohammad Hatta is located at Jalan Pegangsaan Timur 56 - Central Jakarta. The following are important events before the proclamation was read.

On August 6, 1945 an atomic bomb was dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima by the United States which began to lower the morale of Japanese soldiers around the world. A day later the Indonesian Independence Preparatory Investigation Agency BPUPKI, or "Dokuritsu Junbi Cosakai", changed its name to PPKI (Committee for Indonesian Independence Preparation) or also called Dokuritsu Junbi Inkai in Japanese, to further emphasize the desire and goal of achieving Indonesian independence. On August 9, 1945, the second atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki causing Japan to surrender to the United States and its allies. This moment was also used by Indonesia to declare its independence.

Soekarno, Hatta as PPKI leader and Radjiman Wedyodiningrat as former BPUPKI chairman were flown to Dalat, 250 km northeast of Saigon, Vietnam to meet Marshal Terauchi. They were reported that the Japanese troops were on the verge of defeat and would give independence to Indonesia. Meanwhile in Indonesia, on August 10, 1945, Sutan Syahrir had heard the news over the radio that Japan had surrendered to the Allies. The undergroundwarriors prepare to proclaim the independence of Indonesia, and reject the form of independence given as a Japanese prize.

On August 12, 1945, Japan through Marshal Terauchi in Dalat, Vietnam, told Soekarno, Hatta and Radjiman that the Japanese government would soon grant independence to Indonesia and the proclamation of independence could be carried out in a few days, depending on how the PPKI worked. Despite this, Japan wanted Indonesian independence on August 24.

Two days later, when Soekarno, Hatta and Radjiman returned to their homeland from Dalat, Sutan Syahrir urged Soekarno to immediately proclaim independence because he considered the results of the meeting in Dalat a trick by Japan, because Japan had to surrender at any time to the Allies and in order to avoid divisions in the the nationalist camp, between those who are anti and pro-Japan. Hatta told Syahrir about the results of the meeting in Dalat. Sukarno was not convinced that Japan had surrendered, and the proclamation of Indonesian independence at that time could cause great bloodshed, and could have very fatal consequences if the Indonesian fighters were not ready. Soekarno reminded Hatta that Syahrir had no right to declare independence because that was the right of the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence (PPKI).

On August 14, 1945 Japan surrendered to the Allies. The Japanese army and navy were still in power in Indonesia because Japan had promised to return power in Indonesia to the Allies. Sutan Sjahrir, Wikana, Darwis and Chaerul Saleh heard this news on BBC radio. After hearing rumors that Japan would bend its knees, the younger group urged the older group to immediately declare Indonesia's independence. The older ones didn't want to rush anything, however. They didn't want bloodshed during the Declaration of Independence. Consultations were carried out within the framework of the PPKI. The youth group did not approve of the meeting, considering that the PPKI was a body formed by the Japanese. They want independence from our own nation's efforts, not a gift from Japan.

Soekarno and Hatta went to the Japanese military authorities ( Gunsei ) to obtain confirmation at his office in Koningsplein (Medan Merdeka). But the office is empty.
Soekarno and Hatta together with Soebardjo then went to the office of Rear Admiral Maeda , on Jalan Medan Merdeka Utara (Maeda's house on Jl Imam Bonjol 1). Maeda welcome them with congratulations on their success in Dalat . He replied he had not received confirmation and are still waiting for instructions from Tokyo . After returning from Maeda, Soekarno and Hatta immediately prepared for a meeting of the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence (PPKI) at 10 am August 16 the next day at the Jalan Pejambon No. 2 office to discuss everything related to the preparations for the Proclamation of Independence.

A day later, the pressure fluctuations that required the takeover of power by Indonesia were mounting, launched by youths from several groups. The PPKI meeting on August 16 at 10 am was not held because Soekarno and Hatta did not appear. The meeting participants did not know that the Rengas Dengklok incident had occurred.

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