The Development of Indonesian Society in the New Order Period
A. THE PROCESS OF POPULATION GROWTH AND MOBILITY AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF INTELLECTUAL SOCIETY DURING THE NEW ORDE GOVERNMENT
a. BACKGROUND TO THE NEW ORDER
1. The existence of the 30 S/PKI Movement
2. The vacancy of the leadership of the Army
3. Demonstrations by students, youths and students in front of the DPR-GR building who filed demands (Tritura: Dissolution of the PKI, Cleaning of the Dwikora Cabinet and Lower the price of goods)
d. Cabinet changes (Dwikora-One hundred ministers)
e. Student Arif Rahman Hakim was shot
Finally, on March 11, 1966 the President issued an Order containing the restoration of security and security guarantees for President Soekarno. With Suharto's reign in power, a new chapter began, namely the New Order.
b. DEVELOPMENT OF THE POWER OF THE NEW ORDER In essence, the New Order was an order for the entire life of the people, nation and state which was placed on the purity of the implementation of the Pancasila
and the 1945 Constitution or as a correction to the abuses that occurred in the past .
Public. The answer to this demand is contained in 3 provisions as follows:
a. Confirmation of the Supersemar carrier's actions disbanding the PKI and its mass organizations (TAP MPRS No. IV and No. IX / MPRS / 1966
b. Prohibition of Communism/Marxism-Leninism in Indonesia (TAP MPRS No. XXV / MPRS / 1966)
c. Streamlining return to constitutional order based on Pancasila and rule of law (TAP MPRS No. XX / MPRS / 1966)
On 3 February 1967 the DPR-GR advised Suharto to hold a Special Session, so that on 20 February 1967 President Soekarno handed over power to Suharto
a. Simplification of the Party
b. Purifying free and active foreign policy again
c. Stopping confrontation with Malaysia and forming ASEAN cooperation
d. Returning to membership in the United Nations
c. POLICIES OF THE NEW ORDER GOVERNMENT
After successfully restoring security, the government carried out short and long term national development through Pelita which is inseparable from the Development Trilogy, namely
a. Equitable distribution of development and its results leading to the creation of social justice for all people
b. High economic growth
c. Healthy and dynamic national stability The
implementation of development will not run smoothly without an equal distribution of development that establishes 8 equal distribution channels, namely:
a. Equitable fulfillment of people's basic needs, especially clothing,
food and housing.
b. Equal opportunity to obtain education and health services
c. Equitable distribution of income
d. Equal distribution of employment opportunities
e. Even distribution of effort
f. Equal opportunity to participate in development, especially for the younger generation and women
g. Even distribution of development throughout the country
h. Equal opportunity for justice.
d. THE PROCESS OF STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF THE STATE IN THE NEW ORDER PERIOD
Since the New Order came to power, many changes have been made by the Indonesian people, the steps they took were to create political-economic stability. The aim of his struggle is to uphold the governance of the state which is based on the pure implementation of Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution.
The first cabinet formed was the AMPERA Cabinet with the task of creating political and economic stability as a requirement for carrying out national development called the DWI DHARMA AMPERA CABINET. The programs include:
a. Improving people's lives, especially clothing and
b. Carrying out elections
c. Implementing a Free and Active Foreign Policy
d. Continuing the struggle against imperialism and colonialism in all its forms.
These four programs are called Catur Karya Ampera Cabinet.
e. THE PROCESS OF POPULATION GROWTH AND MOBILITY IN THE NEW ORDER PERIOD
a. Population growth and mobility
According to Edward Ullman there are 3 factors that influence the emergence of urban interactions, namely:
1. There are areas that complement each other
2. There are opportunities for interaction
3. There is ease of transfer / transfer in space
In relation to the interaction of the city, population mobility can be interpreted as a population movement either territorially or geographically. The reciprocal relationship between cities and towns as well as between cities and villages can lead to the emergence of new phenomena which include economic, social and cultural aspects. This phenomenon can be positive or negative for villages and cities.
b. Growth centers in Indonesia during the New Order era
To find out the emergence of growth centers in Indonesia, there are 2 theories, namely:
1. The central place theory by Walter Christaller
Whereas the center for activity locations that serve the various needs of the population must be located in a central place, namely a place that allows for the maximum number of human participation. The central place can be in the form of a regency, sub-district, provincial or national capital. Each central point has an attraction for residents to live around it with a different reach.
2. Growth Pole Theory by Lerroux
That development that occurs anywhere does not occur simultaneously but appears in certain places with different speeds and identities. Areas that become centers of development are called growth centers or poles. It was from this pole that the development process spread to other areas around it.
c. Factors that cause a location to become a growth center
A location to become a growth center is caused by several things, including:
1. Physical condition of the area
2. Wealth of natural resources
3. Transportation facilities and infrastructure
4. Presence of industry
B. IMPACT OF THE GREEN REVOLUTION AND INDUSTRIALIZATION ON CHANGES IN TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT IN VARIOUS REGIONS DURING THE NEW ORDER
1. The Green Revolution.
The Green Revolution is a grain revolution resulting from scientific discoveries in the form of superior seeds from various varieties of wheat, rice and corn which have increased yields for these commodities in developing countries. The green revolution was born because of the problem of rapid population growth. Population growth must be matched by increased agricultural production.
Efforts to increase agricultural production are encouraged through:
a. Opening of new agricultural land
b. Agricultural mechanization
c. Use of new fertilizers
d. Finding the right method for eradicating pests
2. Development of the Green Revolution in Indonesia
Indonesia's agrarian society makes agriculture an important sector in efforts to increase Indonesia's economic growth. This is based on:
a. Rapidly increasing community needs
b. The level of agricultural production is still very low
c. Agricultural production has not been able to meet all the needs of society.
To increase agricultural production the government seeks:
3. Development of Industrialization
a. Agriculture Industry
• Food crop product processing industry including horticulture
• Plantation product processing
industry • Fishery product processing industry
• Forest product processing
industry • Fertilizer
industry • Pesticide industry
• Agricultural machinery and equipment industry
Industry • Cement
Industry • Iron Steel Industry •
Motor Vehicle Assembling
Industry • Electronics
• Ship Industry • Aircraft Industry