Minggu, 15 Januari 2023


Swimming has been known since prehistoric times. Paintings from the Stone Age have been found in the "cave of swimmers" near Wadi Sora (or Sura) in southwest Egypt.

Written references dating back to 2000 BC, including Gilgamesh, Iliad, and Odyssey, the Bible (Ezekiel 47:5, Testament 27:42, Isaiah 25:11, Beowulf, and other sagas). In 1538 Nicolas Wynman, German professor of languages, wrote the first swimming book, "Colymbetes". European swimming competitions began around 1800, mostly using the breaststroke.

Freestyle, later called the trudgen, was introduced in 1973 by John Arthur Trudgen, modeled on Native Americans. Swimming became part of the first modern Olympic games in 1896 in Athens. In 1902 the trudgen was updated by Richard Cavill, using the flutter kick. In 1908, the world swimming association, the International Federation of Amateur Swimming (FINA/Federation Internationale de Natation de Amateur) was formed. The butterfly was first a variation of the breaststroke, until it was finally accepted as a separate style in 1952.

Ancient Times

Paintings from the Stone Age have been found in the "cave of swimmers" near Wadi Sora (or Sura) in Southwestern Egypt near Libya. These images appear to show breaststroke or dog paddling, although it is possible that they may show movements related to ritual processions which have nothing to do with swimming. This cave is also depicted in the film English Patient.

Egyptian wax stamps dating between 4000 and 9000 BC show four swimmers who are believed to have swam a variation of the freestyle. Other references to swimming are also found in Babylonian reliefs on Assyrian frescoes which show a variation of the breaststroke. The most famous paintings have been found in the Kebir desert and are dated to around 4000 BC.

Nagoda bas-reliefs also show swimmers dating from 3000 BC. The Mohenjo Daro Indian Palace from 2800 BC has a swimming pool measuring 30 m x 60 m. The Minoan palace of the Minos of Knossos in Crete also featured a bath. Ancient Egyptian tombs from 2000 BC showing a variation of freestyle.

Depictions of swimmers have also been found in the Hittites, Minoans, and other Middle Eastern peoples, the Incas in the Tepantitla House at Teotihuacan, and in mosaics at Pompeii. Written references date back to 2000 BC, including Gilgamesh, the Iliad, the Odyssey, the Gospels (Ezekiel 47:5, Testament 27:42, Isaiah 25:11), Beowulf, and other sagas, although the style is never explained. There are also several mentions of swimmers in the Vatican, Borgian and Bourbon codices.

The Greeks did not participate in swimming at the ancient Olympic Games, but practiced the sport, often building swimming pools as part of their baths. One statement that was usually offensive in Greek was to say of someone that he didn't know how to run or swim. The Etruscans at Tarquinia (Italy) show pictures of swimmers in 600 BC, and ancient tombs in Greece show pictures of swimmers 500 BC.

Sicilian Greeks had been taken captive on a ship by the Persian king Xerxes I in 480 BC. Upon learning of an impending attack on the Greek navy, he stole a knife and jumped overboard. During the night and using a reed snorkel, he swam back to the ship and cut the ropes.

It is also claimed that swimming skills saved the Greeks at the Battle of Salamis, when the Persians all drowned when their ships were destroyed. Julius Caesar was also known as a good swimmer. A number of reliefs from 850 BC in the Nimrud Gallery of the British Museum show swimmers, mostly in a military context, frequently using swimming aids. In Japan swimming was one of the honorable skills of the Samurai, and historical records describe a swimming competition in 36 BC, held by the emperor Suigui (spelling unclear), which was first known as a swimming competition. Germanic folklore describes swimming, which was successfully used in the war against the Romans. Swimming competitions are also known from that time.

Middle Ages to 1800

Swimming was originally one of the seven agility skills possessed by warriors in the Middle Ages, including swimming in armor. However, since swimming was practiced naked, it became less popular as society became more conservative, and it was opposed by the church in the late Middle Ages. For example, in the 16th century, a German court registered in the Vechta a ban on naked public swimming for children.

Leonardo da Vinci made a preliminary sketch of a buoy. In 1538 Nicolas Wynman, German professor of languages, wrote the first swimming book "Colymbetes". The goal is not for exercise, but more to reduce the danger of drowning. Nonetheless, the book contains a very good and methodical approach to learning breaststroke, including swimming aids such as a pressurized bladder, reed ties, or lifebelt. Around the same time, E. Digby from England also wrote a book on swimming, suggesting that humans can swim better than fish.

In 1603 the first swimming organization was formed in Japan. Emperor Go-Yozei of Japan stated that school students should be able to swim. In 1696, the French writer Thevenot wrote "The Art of Swimming", explaining that the breaststroke was very similar to the modern breaststroke. This book has been translated into English and will serve as a standard reference for swimming for many years to come.

In 1708, the first known rescue group "Chinkiang Association for Saving Life" was formed in China. In 1796 a swimming club (which still exists) was founded in Upsala, Sweden. Benjamin Franklin is credited with inventing swimming fins at the age of ten, in 1716. In 1739 Guts Muts (also spelled Guts Muth) from Schnepfenthal, Germany, wrote "Gymnastik für die Jugend" (Sport for youth), including for especially about swimming.

In 1974 Kanonikus Oronzio de Bernardi of Italy wrote two volumes of books on swimming, including floating exercises as a prerequisite for learning to swim. In 1798 Guts Muts wrote another book "Kleines Lehrbuch der Schwimmkunst zum Selbstunterricht" (Small textbook on the art of swimming for self-study), recommending the use of a "fishing rod" to assist in learning to swim.

His book describes a three step approach to learning to swim that is still used today. First, get the students used to the water, second, practice swimming moves outside the water, third, practice swimming moves in the water. He believed that swimming was an important part of any education.

Other rescue groups were founded in 1767 (1768?) in Amsterdam by the Dutch, 1772 in Copenhagen, and 1774 by Great Britain. In 1768 a humanitarian group was formed in the United States. The Haloren, a group of salt makers in Halle, Germany, excelled at swimming by setting a good example for others by teaching their children to swim at a very young age.
History of the Emergence of Swimming Styles

In the development of the world of swimming, the first style that exists is the style that is done like a dog or dogpaddle. Paintings from the Stone Age have been found in a swimmer's cave near Wadi Sora (or Sura) in southwest Egypt, near Libya. Inside the cave there are pictures of people swimming using freestyle or those that resemble dogs, maybe they imitated the animal's swimming style at that time. Regarding evidence that in ancient times there was freestyle, according to Badruzaman (2007: 18) argues that: "A wax stamp dated between 400 and 900 BC shows four swimmers who are believed to have swam with variations of freestyle." Then still on the same page he said that: “Other references to swimming are also found in Babylonian reliefs on Assyrian frescoes showing the freestyle variation.” The best known painting of freestyle swimming has been found in the Kebir desert which is estimated to be 4000 BC.

There are people who are instrumental in the process of improving style in swimming, namely J. Athur. After he was renewed by Richard Cavill. As stated in the book Swimming Theory Module I written by Badruzaman. In 1873, J. Athur Trudgen introduced a new style to British swimmers, because he had seen the Indians use the hand-over-hand method which affected their swimming speed (Badruzaman, 2007: 18). Then on the same page, Baruzaman (2007: 18) argues that: "Freestyle, which was then called the trudgen, was introduced in 1973 by John Arthur Trudgen, imitating it from native Americans. In 1902 the trudgen was updated by Richard Cavill, using the flutter kick."

Historically, the backstroke was first contested at the 1912 Olympics in Stockholm. At that time, swimming competition was divided into three events, namely breaststroke, backstroke, and freestyle at both national and international levels. People at that time used the backstroke by using both arms rotating simultaneously or double over arms and using frog style leg movements. The person credited with improving the frog style is Adolf Kiefer. As told by Badruzaman (2007: 19), that: "In 1934 a swimmer named Adolf Kiefer made improvements to the style so that it increased speed well, therefore this style was increasingly popular."

The history of breaststroke swimming begins in the Stone Age, as evidenced by pictures of swimmers in caves near Wadi Sora, which is in the southwestern region of Egypt. This breaststroke swimming movement may resemble animal movements, namely the frog style. Bust paintings are found on Babylonian bas-reliefs and on Assyrian frescoes.

The development of swimming has started scientifically with the creation of a book entitled Colymbetes by Nicolas Wynman in 1538, a German professor. Actually the book was made to be used for flood victims. However, the book is quite systematic in explaining how to swim a good breaststroke movement. Then, "in 1696 the French book author named Melchisedech Thevont wrote the book Art of Swimming" (Badruzmaaan, 2007: 20). In his book he describes the modern breaststroke. This book popularized breaststroke swimming. In the 1800s the European swimming championships held before the Olympics, most participants followed the breaststroke. In 1844 a swimming championship was held which took place in America.

According to history, the first person to swim using breaststroke as far as 21.26 miles to cross the English Channel was Captain Matthew Webb in 1875. This strait is the link between England and France. Captain Matthew Webb in crossing the strait recorded a time of 21 hours 45 minutes. There is something unique about the 1904 Summer Olympics in St. Louis, who separated the sport of breaststroke swimming separately from other swimming styles, namely by making a swimming distance of 440 yards or 402 meters for the participants.

1928 was the scientific period because this year was the beginning of research on swimming by David Armbruster. It was at this time that the idea emerged to change from breaststroke to butterfly style. He is a swimming coach at the University of Iowa who documents swimmers in the water. He found a problem written in his research on breaststroke, Daid Armbruster stated that: "Swimmers experience a decrease in their movement speed when moving their arms forward in the water." After research, in 1934 he himself found a new method to adjust the forward arm forward way out of the surface of the water. But this model is still difficult to increase the speed of movement.

Another researcher who was also a swimmer and still from his alma mater at the University of Iowa, Jack Seig in 1935 developed a swimming style technique in which his leg movements resembled the movements of a fish's tail and modified head movements in diving. Because these two people have the same background, in the end they combined this movement by producing a new variation in the breaststroke called the butterfly with the movement of the legs resembling the movement of a dolphin's tail.

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The history of marathon swimming according to Greek legend, in ancient times there was a man named Leander who was the originator of marathon swimming who often swam across the Hellespont (now the Dardanelles strait) to meet his lover named Hero. Then in 1926 Gertrude Ederle was the first woman to do this marathon swimming by setting a record with a time of 14 hours 31 minutes.

Various Kinds of Swimming Style

1. Chest Style

Swimming using the breaststroke itself has been practiced by many swimming athletes or people who are swimming in a pool for exercise. The chest style uses a stable body position and the head can be out of the water for a long time while swimming in this style. This breaststroke itself is swimming in the water with the chest position facing the water surface and which is different from the freestyle, this swimming style is the position of your body or your body is always in an upright state.

With the movement of both legs kicking the water outward while your hands are straightened in front. Then both hands are opened to the side like making a movement through the water so that your body can move forward faster. It is very effective if you want to swim as a beginner in the water with this swimming style choice, your pace in the water can be easier and also the movements are not too difficult to do. As well as taking a breath when the mouth or face stares outward at the surface of the water after one or two hand and foot movements hitting the water.

This swimming style is considered the slowest swimming style when used in swimming competitions and it has also been recognized by the international swimming federation. However, we can still do this swimming style if we want to do swimming individually because the movements are easy to do and quite effective. Indeed, in swimming, breaststroke is a swimming style that beginners can use to swim in a pool or beginners can also use freestyle swimming.

2. Butterfly style

With this style it allows the position of our body or chest to face the surface of the water which is then followed by your two arms pressed together and moved outwards before being swung forward. At the same time, meanwhile both of your legs are simultaneously kicking downwards and upwards like the movement of the fins of a fish or a dolphin that is swimming. To do the breathing, blow hard air through your mouth and nose before your head appears on the surface of the water and when your head has emerged above the surface of the water, inhale the air for your breath in the water using your mouth.

This butterfly swimming style itself is the most recent swimming technique which was created around 1933. And this swimming style is not suitable for beginners to do it and it may take quite a long time to master it because it takes time to learn the coordination of the movements of both hands and feet. so that your legs can produce perfect movements in the water and the movements that are carried out are not in vain so that it consumes energy and stamina in swimming in the water. It is more advisable for beginners to use freestyle or breaststroke because the techniques are easier and faster to understand in practice in the water.

Swimming using the butterfly style requires strength that is quite strong and greater than the swimmers because the speed in doing the butterfly style is obtained from the swinging movements of both hands which are carried out simultaneously. With previous experience that has occurred, the fastest swimmers who use the butterfly swimming style can go faster in the water than swimming using the freestyle. And when compared to other swimming styles, swimmers who use the butterfly style are unlikely to be able to cover up bad body movement techniques by spending more energy.

3. Freestyle

The free swimming style allows the position of the chest on your body facing the surface of the water and then followed by your two hands alternately being moved far forward using a paddling motion, while your two legs are alternately also thrown or whipped with an up and down motion up and down. lower. And if you swim using freestyle, position your face facing the surface of the water so that freestyle can be done optimally and precisely.

For self-breathing, it is done when your arms are moved out of the surface of the water, and at that moment your body is tilted and your head is turned towards the surface of the water to inhale air through your mouth. Swimmers are free to choose to turn their heads left or right when taking air through their mouths. If you want to go fast in swimming in the water, using this freestyle can be your choice if you want to swim at a fairly fast pace in the water.

Freestyle itself is a swimming style that is not tied to one particular style in doing so and you can do freestyle yourself with a variety of movements in swimming that can help you or swimmers go well in the water. So this movement in freestyle can be used by everyone, be it people who are beginners or those who are already trained.

4. Backstroke

Your body position when wearing or using this swimming style allows your back to face the water surface and your face position above the water surface so you don't have to worry about catching your breath when swimming using this swimming style. But the drawback is that you can't look ahead when you're swimming. Athletes or people who have been trained in participating in swimming competitions when using this backstroke category, swimmers estimate the wall from the edge of the pool by counting the number of their swimming movements.

The movement of the arms and legs is almost the same as the freestyle movement, but the difference is the position of your body that is stretched out above the surface of the water. The movement is that both of your hands are alternately moved towards your waist like a paddling motion. We don't need to take into account how to breathe, because your face is already above the water level, so we only need to think about how we regulate our breath to stay stable when swimming using this backstroke.

When competing the attitude of using the backstroke is different compared to using the breaststroke, freestyle, and butterfly where everything is done on the initial starting beam, the difference is that if the swimmers in the competition with this backstroke technique, the swimmers start from inside the pool, not from the top of the initial starting beam. His position is that the swimmer faces the pool wall with both hands holding the handle, namely the iron grip on the pool wall, then the swimmer's knees are bent between his two hands while both feet rest on the pool wall.

This swimming style like the backstroke is very well known and has existed since ancient times where it was first competed in the 1900 Paris Olympics and you need to know that this swimming style, namely the backstroke, is the oldest swimming style that was contested after the freestyle.

The modern Olympic era after 1896

The Olympic Games were held in 1896 in Athens. Men's only competitions (see also swimming at the 1896 Summer Olympics). Six events were planned, but only four were actually held: 100 m, 500 m and 1200 m freestyle and 100 m for sailors. The first gold medal was won by Alfred Hajos from Hungary with a time of 1:22.20 for the 100 m freestyle.

Hajos also won the 1200 m event, and was unable to win the 500 m, which was won by Paul Neumann of Australia. Another swimming competition of the 100 m for sailors included three Greek sailors in the Gulf of Zea near Piraeus, starting in rowboats. The winner was Ioannis Malokinis with a record time of two minutes and 20 seconds. The 1500 m race is also held.

In 1897 Captain Henry Sheffield created a life can or rescue cylinder, now known as the life-support device in Baywatch. The tip makes it glide faster on the surface of the water, although it can cause injury. The second Olympic Games held in Paris in 1900 featured 200 m, 1000 m, and 4000 m freestyle, 200 m backstroke and 200 m team events (see also Swimming at the 1900 Summer Olympics).

There were two additional unusual (although quite common at the time) swimming competitions, the obstacle course of swimming the Seine (swimming with the current), and the underwater swimming competitions. The 4000 m freestyle was won by John Arthur Jarvis in under one hour, the longest Olympic swimming race ever held. Backstroke was also introduced at the Olympic games in Paris, as was water polo. Osborne Swimming Club from Manchester beat club teams from Belgium, France and Germany with great ease.

The Trudgen style was developed by an Australian swimmer and swimming teacher of British descent named Richard (Fred, Frederick) Cavill. Like Trudgen, he watched natives from the Solomon Islands, using freestyle. Unlike Trudgen, though, he saw a kick kick, and studied it closely. She uses this new flutter kick instead of the breaststroke or scissor kick from the Trudgen.

He used this move in 1902 at the International Championships in England to set a new world record by swimming out all Trudgen swimmers over the 100 yards in 0:58.4 (some sources say it was his son in 0 :58.8). he taught the style to his six children, each of whom later became a championship swimmer.

The technique became known as the Australian freestyle until 1950, when it was shortened to just freestyle, technically known as the front crawl. The 1904 Olympics in St. St. Louis races covered the 50 yards, 100 yards, 220 yards, 440 yards, 880 yards and one mile freestyle, 100 yards backstroke and 440 yards breaststroke, and the 4*50 yards relay freestyle (see also Summer Olympic Swimming in 1904). ).

This event differentiated between breaststroke and freestyle, so that there are now two defined styles (breaststroke and backstroke) and freestyle, in which most people swim Trudgen. The race also represents a competition for the long jump, in which the distance without swimming, after jumping into a swimming pool, is measured.

In 1907 the swimmer Annette Kellerman from Australia visited the United States as an "underwater ballerina", another version of synchronized swimming, diving into glass tanks. She was arrested for displaying indecency, in which her swimsuit exposed her arms, legs and neck.

Kellerman changed her swimsuit to long sleeves, longer pants, and a collar, but kept the tight fit that exposed the shape of the body underneath. He then starred in several films, one of which was about his personal life. In 1908, the world swimming association the International Federation of Amateur Swimming (FINA/Federation Internationale de Natation de Amateur) was formed.

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