Sabtu, 14 Januari 2023

The origins of the city of PADANG Prov. West Sumatra Indonesia

The city of Padang is the largest city on the west coast of the island of Sumatra as well as the capital of the province of West Sumatra, Indonesia. This city has an area of ​​694.96 km² with geographical conditions in the form of hilly areas with an altitude of 1,853 m above sea level. Based on the 2010 population census, this city has a population of 833,562 people who are dominated by ethnic Minangkabau. The religion adopted by the people in this city is the majority of Islam.

The history of the city of Padang is inseparable from its role as a Minangkabau overseas area, which began as a fishing village in the Batang Arau estuary and then developed into a bustling port city after the entry of the Dutch under the Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie (VOC) flag. The city's anniversary was set on August 7, 1669, which was the day when the Pauh and Koto Tangah people revolted against the VOC monopoly. During Dutch colonialism, the city was a trading center for gold, tea, coffee and spices. Entering the 20th century, the export of coal and cement began to be carried out through the Teluk Bayur port.

Currently, the city of Padang is the center of the economy because it has the highest per capita income in West Sumatra. In addition, this city is also the center of education and health, due to the greater number of tertiary institutions and health facilities compared to other cities or districts in West Sumatra. Among the Indonesian people, the name of this city is widely known as another name for the Minangkabau ethnic group, and is also used to refer to their special cuisine which is commonly known as Padang Cuisine.

There is no definite data on who gave this city the name Padang. It is estimated that this city was originally in the form of a very wide field or plain so it was called Padang. In the Minang language, the word "padang" can also mean sword. According to the local tambo, this city area was formerly part of the overseas area founded by Minangkabau migrants from the Minangkabau Highlands (darek). Their first place of settlement was a village on the southern outskirts of Batang Arau in what is now Seberang Padang. Like other Minangkabau overseas areas, initially the area along the west coast of Sumatra was under the influence of the Pagaruyung Kingdom. However, at the beginning of the 17th century, this area became part of the sovereignty of the Aceh Sultanate.

The city of Padang was visited by British sailors in 1649, then began to develop since the presence of the VOC (Vereenigde Oost Indische Compagnie) in 1663 which was accompanied by migration of the Minangkabau population from the Luhak area. In addition to having a beautiful estuary, the VOC was interested in building new ports and settlements on the west coast of Sumatra to facilitate access to trade with the interior of Minangkabau. Furthermore, in 1668, the VOC succeeded in expelling the influence of the Aceh Sultanate and instilling its influence along the west coast of Sumatra, as is known from Regent Jacob Pits' letter to King Pagaruyung which contained a request to resume trade relations and distribute gold to this city. In further developments, on August 7, 1669 there was an upheaval by the Pauh and Koto Tangah people against the VOC monopoly. Although the VOC suppressed this event, this event was later enshrined as the year the city of Padang was born.


Several other European nations also took turns taking power in the city of Padang. In 1781, as a result of the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War, the British managed to control this city. However, after the signing of the Paris Agreement in 1784 the city was returned to the VOC. In 1793 this city was plundered and controlled by a French pirate based in Mauritius named François Thomas Le Même, whose success was appreciated by the French government at that time by giving him an award. Then in 1795, Padang City was again taken over by the British. However, after the wars of the Napoleonic era, in 1819 the Dutch reclaimed this area which was later confirmed through the London Treaty, which was signed on March 17, 1824.

In 1833, Resident James du Puy reported that an earthquake with an estimated magnitude of 8.6–8.9 on the Richter scale occurred in Padang which caused a tsunami. Previously in 1797, it was also estimated by experts that there had been an earthquake measuring 8.5–8.7 on the Richter scale, which also caused a tsunami in the coastal city of Padang and caused damage to the Air Manis beach area.

In 1837, the Dutch East Indies government made Padang the center of government for the West Coast region of Sumatra (Sumatra's Westkust), whose territory includes present-day West Sumatra and Tapanuli. Furthermore, this city became a gemeente area since April 1, 1906 after the issuance of the ordinance (STAL 1906 No.151) on March 1, 1906.

By the entry of the Japanese occupation army on March 17, 1942, the city of Padang had been abandoned by the Dutch because of their panic. At the same time Soekarno was detained in this city because the Dutch at that time wanted to take him along and flee to Australia.[22] Then the commander of the Japanese Army for Sumatra met with him to discuss the future of Indonesia.[23] After Japan was able to control the situation, this city was then used as an administrative city for development affairs and public works.

News of Indonesian independence on August 17, 1945 only reached the city of Padang around the end of August. However, on October 10, 1945, Allied troops entered the city of Padang via the Teluk Bayur port, and then the city was occupied for 15 months.

On March 9, 1950, the City of Padang was returned to the hands of the Republic of Indonesia after previously being a state of the RIS through a decree of the President of the Republic of Indonesia States (RIS) number 111. Then, based on Law Number 225 of 1948, the Governor of Central Sumatra at that time through a decree number 65/GP-50, on August 15, 1950 stipulated the expansion of the city of Padang. On May 29, 1958, the Governor of West Sumatra through Decree Number 1/g/PD/1958, de facto determined Padang to be the capital city of West Sumatra province, and de jure in 1975, which was marked by the issuance of Law Number 5 of 1958. 1974 concerning the principles of governance in the regions. Then, after accommodating all the aspirations and needs of the local community, the central government issued Government Regulation Number 17 of 1980,

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