ISLAMIC EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY PAPERS
EDUCATORS AND STUDENTS
Muhammad Zalnur, M.Ag
FACULTY OF ISLAM
MUHAMMADIYAH UNIVERSITY WEST SUMATRA
EDUCATORS AND STUDENTS
IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF ISLAMIC EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY
Educators and students are important components in the Islamic education system. These two components interact with each other in the learning process to realize the desired educational goals. Therefore, educators play a very big role as well as determine where the potential of students will be developed. Likewise students, they are not just objects of education, but at certain moments they will become the subject of education. This proves that the position of students is not just passive like an empty cup ready to receive water anytime and anywhere. However, students must be active, creative and dynamic in interacting with their teachers, as well as in efforts to develop their knowledge. The concept of educators and students in the perspective of Islamic education has its own characteristics that are in accordance with the characteristics of Islamic education itself. These characteristics will distinguish the concept of educators and students in other educational views. This is because the underlying is the Al-Qur'an and Sunnah.
Now on this occasion the author would like to present a discussion entitled "Educators and Students".
II. Formulation of the problem
A. Educator Philosophical Analysis
B. Student Philosophical Analysis
I. Educator Philosophical Analysis
A. Definition of Educator
Educators are people who educate. In Arabic, there are several terms that have the meaning of educator, namely ustadz, mudarris, mu'allim, and mu'addib. Abuddin Nata stated that the plural word ustadz is asātidz which means teacher (teacher), professor (academic title), level in the intellectual field, trainer, writer, and broadcaster. The word mudarris means teacher (teacher), instructor (trainer), lecture (lecturer). While the word mu'allim which also means teacher (teacher), instructor (trainer), and trainer (guide). Meanwhile, the word mu'addib means educator or teacher at an Al-Qur'an educational institution.
Although there are various differences in terms, what is clear is that the basic meaning of each of these terms is contained in the concept of "educator" in Islamic education. Thus "educator"not only as a person who conveys material to students (transfer of knowledge), but more than that he is also tasked with developing students' abilities optimally (transformation of knowledge) and instilling values (internalitation of values) based on Islamic teachings. Strictly speaking, an educator plays a major role in optimally developing various positive potentials of students so that the goals of ideal Islamic education can be achieved. According to Ramayulis, there are at least four kinds of educators in Islamic education. First, Allah SWT as an educator for His servants and all His creatures. Second, the Prophet Muhammad SAW as His messenger has received revelations from Allah and is then tasked with conveying the instructions contained therein to all human beings. Third, parents as educators in the family environment for their children. Fourth, teachers as educators in formal education environments, such as schools or madrasas. And the educators that the author will present here are educators in the fourth form.
B. Educator Duties
Ramayulis divides the duties of an educator into two, namely: In general, the task of the educator is to carry out the mission of rahmatan li al-'ālamīn, namely a mission that invites humans to submit and obey God's laws in order to obtain salvation in this world and the hereafter. In particular, there are three kinds of educator tasks. First, as a teacher (instructional) in charge of planning teaching programs and implementing programs that have been prepared, and evaluating after the program is implemented. Second, as an educator (educator) who directs students to a level of maturity with human personality, in line with God's purpose for creating humans. Third, as a leader (managerial), who leads and controls himself, students and related communities. This third task concerns directing, supervising, organizing, controlling, participating in the program being carried out.
While Hujjatul Islam, Imam al-Ghazali, as quoted by Samsul Nizar, that the main task of educators is to perfect, clean, purify, and bring the human heart to taqarrub ila Allah. In the Qur'an it is also mentioned that the task of educators in the context of educators as waratsatul an-biya', indeed serves as mu'allim as well as muzakky. This is in accordance with the task of the Apostle in His word in the letter Al-Baqarah: 151
"Just as (We have perfected Our favor to you) We have sent you a Messenger from among you who recited Our verses to you and purified you and taught you Al Kitab and Al-Hikmah, and taught you what you did not yet know.
C. Characteristics / Competence of Educators
Al-Abrasy put forward several characteristics of educators;
1. An educator is ascetic, meaning that he carries out his duties not solely because of the material, but educates to seek the pleasure of Allah.
2. An educator must be clean in body, far from sin and mistakes, clean in soul, free from sin, jealousy, hostility, and other despicable traits.
3. An educator must be sincere in carrying out his duties and have other commendable qualities, such as being humble, honest, gentle, and so on.
4. An educator must like to forgive others, especially the mistakes of his students, then he is also able to hold back, hold back anger, be broad-minded, be patient and have self-respect.
5. An educator must love his students as he loves his own children and think about their situation as he thinks about the condition of his children.
6. An educator must know the character/character of his students.
7. An educator must master the lessons he gives.
While An-Nahlawi mentions several characteristics of an educator, namely:
1. Has a rubbaniyah character and nature which is manifested in his goals, behavior, and mindset.
2. Be sincere; carry out their duties as educators solely to seek the pleasure of Allah and uphold the truth.
3. Be patient in teaching various knowledge to students
4. Honest in conveying what he knows
5. Always equip yourself with knowledge, willingness to continue to explore and study it further
6. Able to use various teaching methods according to the principles of using educational methods
7. Able to manage class and students, firm in acting and proportional
8. Knowing the psychological condition of students
9. Respond to various conditions and developments in the world that can affect the soul, beliefs or thinking patterns of students
10. Be fair to students
From the above characteristics it can be understood that educators in the view of Islam have a high and honorable position. However, the task they have to carry out is not easy, because Islam requires that educators do what they are going to teach in advance.
II. Philosophical Analysis of Learners
A. Understanding Students
In Arabic, there are at least three terms that show the meaning of students, namely murid, al-tilmīdz, and al-thālib. Murid comes from the word 'arada, yuridu, iradatan, murid which means one who wants (the willer). This understanding shows that a learner is a person who wants to gain knowledge, skills, experience, and a good personality to equip his life to be happy in this world and the hereafter by means of serious learning.Meanwhile, al-tilmīdz has no roots and means student. This word is used to refer to students who study in madrasas. While al-thālib comes from thalaba, yathlubu, thalaban, thālibun, which means people who are looking for something. This shows that students are people who seek knowledge, experience, and skills and the formation of their personality for their future provision so that they are happy in the world and the hereafter.
Then, the use of these three terms is usually differentiated based on the level of students. Student for elementary school, al-tilmīdz for high school, and al-tālib for college. However, according to Abuddin Nata, a more general term for students is al-muta'allim. This last term includes the meaning of all people who study at all levels, from elementary to tertiary level.
Apart from the differences in the terms above, what is clear is that students in the perspective of Islamic education are both objects and subjects in the educational process. He is a person who studies to find knowledge. Because in Islam it is believed that knowledge only comes from Allah, a student must try to get closer to Allah by always purifying himself and obeying His commands. However, to obtain knowledge that comes from God, a student must learn from someone who has been given knowledge, namely a teacher or educator. Because students have a relationship with knowledge in the context of efforts to have knowledge, a student must have morals towards his teacher. Of course, these morals still refer to the values contained in the Al-Qur'an and Hadith.
B. Duties and Obligations of Students
Al-Abrasyi mentions that there are twelve such obligations, namely:
1. Before studying, students must clean their hearts because studying is worship.
2. Learning is intended to fill his soul with fadhilah and draw closer to Allah, not to be arrogant
3. Willing to leave family and homeland and even go to faraway places to visit teachers
4. Don't change teachers often, unless it's for long/ripe considerations
5. Respect the teacher because of Allah and always please him.
6. Don't do activities that can be difficult for the teacher unless you have permission.
7. Do not open the teacher's disgrace and always forgive him if he is wrong.
8. Earnestly seek knowledge and prioritize more important knowledge.
9. Fellow students must establish a brotherhood that is full of affection.
10. Get along well with the teachers, as before greeting.
11. Students should always repeat their lessons at times that are full of blessings
12. Determined to learn throughout life and appreciate every knowledge.
While Imam al-Ghazali, who was also developed by Said Hawa, argues that a learner has several zhahir (real) tasks that he must do, namely:
1. Prioritizing the purification of the soul over despicable morals and despicable qualities because knowledge is the worship of the heart, the prayer of the soul, and the inner approach to God
2. Reducing its association with worldly activities because it can be busy and distracting
3. Not arrogant and arbitrary towards teachers
4. One who pursues knowledge at an early stage must guard against listening to disputes among many people. That is, in the early stages he should study a path of knowledge, after he has mastered it then he listens to various schools of thought or opinions
5. A student of knowledge does not leave a single branch of commendable sciences
6. Do not simultaneously pursue various branches of knowledge, but pay attention to sequences and start from the most important
7. He should enter a branch of knowledge unless he has mastered the previous branch of knowledge, because that knowledge is neatly arranged sequentially
8. Let a student of knowledge know the causative factors with which knowledge he can know a more noble knowledge
9. The goal of a learner in studying in the world is to adorn himself and beautify his inner self with virtue, while in the hereafter to get closer to Allah SWT and improve himself so that he can be close to the highest creatures from among the angels and people who are brought closer to him. God
The duties and obligations above should ideally be owned by every student, so that the knowledge he demands can be mastered and the blessings of knowledge he gets. In addition to these duties and obligations, students are also expected to prepare themselves both physically and mentally so that the educational goals they aspire to can be achieved optimally, effectively and efficiently.
From the description of educators and students in the perspective of Islamic educational philosophy above, several conclusions can be drawn. First, an educator is not only tasked with educating students' intellectuals (transfer of knowledge), but educators are also tasked with developing intellectual abilities (transformation of knowledge) and instilling Islamic values in students' personalities (internalization of values). Therefore, an educator is required to have the ability according to his field as well as being uswatun hasanah for his students.
Second, in the concept of Islamic education, students can be the object as well as the subject of education. Because, students must be active and dynamic in the learning process; rather than being passive like an empty cup that is ready to accept pouring knowledge from the teacher just like that without critical power.
Third, students who basically want knowledge really need an educator. So students must show a good attitude and respect their educators so that the knowledge they gain is not limited to intellectual knowledge an sich, but the most important thing is the ability to internalize the values of knowledge in their personality and practice it in everyday life.
Nata, Abdul. 2005. Philosophy of Islamic Education. Jakarta: Primary Media Style