Kamis, 23 Maret 2023

                 CHAPTER I

A.     Background
            In today's modern era, the progress of science and technology is very rapid and touches all aspects of human life, including in the field of education and teaching. Today's government, especially the Ministry of National Education, is trying to improve the quality of education as outlined in the law. SISDIKNAS No. 20 of 2003 that:
 "Education is a conscious and planned effort to create a learning atmosphere and learning process so that students actively develop their potential to have religious spiritual strength, self-control, personality, intelligence, noble character, and the skills needed by themselves, society, nation and state. [1] To achieve this goal, the government has made efforts to improve the quality of education starting from the basic education level to the tertiary level. Apart from that, efforts were also made such as upgrading teachers in subject areas, procuring textbooks, and adding facilities and infrastructure for teaching and learning activities.
             Improving the quality of education is largely determined by the teacher as an educator in achieving the expected educational goals. In other words, the teacher occupies the central point of education. In order for the teacher to be able to carry out his duties properly, he must first understand matters related to the teaching and learning process as well as the educational process in general. Thus the very important role of the teacher is to activate and streamline the learning process in schools including the use of appropriate teaching methods.
             The use of appropriate teaching methods is an alternative to overcoming the problem of low student absorption of certain subjects, in order to improve teaching quality. The application of a teaching method must be reviewed in terms of its effectiveness, efficiency and suitability with the characteristics of the subject matter and the condition of the students which include abilities, learning speed, interests, time owned and the socio-economic conditions of students as objects. As Rostiyah said that:
"Each type of teaching method must be appropriate or appropriate to achieve a certain goal. So for different purposes the teacher must hold different presentation techniques at the same time to achieve his teaching goals. [2]
             One of the methods applied to involve students actively, in order to support the smooth running of the teaching and learning process is to use the recitation method. In the recitation method it is expected to be able to provoke student activity in the teaching and learning process. This is because students are required to complete the tasks assigned by the teacher and must be accounted for. [3]  In the success of the teaching and learning process in addition to the teacher's duties, students also play a decisive role in achieving educational goals. Because no matter how good the teacher's presentation of the subject matter, students do not have attention in terms of learning, so what is expected is difficult to achieve. According to Slameto as follows:
"In order for students to succeed in their studies, it is necessary to do the assignments as well as possible. The tasks include doing homework, answering self-made practice questions, handbook questions, daily tests/examinations, general tests and exams. [4]
              Learning with teaching methods that are appropriate to the material being taught will increase student learning motivation. An example is giving assignments at the end of each lesson in the hope that student learning activities can be increased, so that student learning achievement can also increase. In improving student learning achievement, it is not only the teacher's role that is needed but the students themselves who are required to play an active role in the teaching and learning process. One of the important things that students have in improving their learning achievement is mastery of learning material. Students who lack mastery of the subject matter will have lower scores when compared to students who are more proficient in the subject matter. To master the subject matter, students are required to have activities that are not just remembering,
           It should be realized that what the teacher expects from his students is that the learning material received by students can be mastered properly. Therefore, one of the ways taken is that the tasks given by the teacher are not only done in narrow and time-limited classes, but need to be continued at home, in the library, in the laboratory and the results must be accounted for.
B.      Problem Formulation
1.       What is meant by the learning method of Islamic Religious Education?
2.       What is the relevance of the PAI method with learning objectives?
3.       What is the relevance of the PAI method with teaching materials?
4.       What is the relevance of the PAI method with evaluation?
5.       What is the relevance of the PAI method to students and situations?
C.     Purpose of Writing
1.       To find out what is meant by the learning method of Islamic Religious Education?
2.       To find out how the relevance of the PAI method is to the learning objectives?
3.       To find out how the relevance of the PAI method to teaching materials?
4.       To find out how the relevance of the PAI method with evaluation?
5.       To find out how the relevance of the PAI method is to students and situations?

A.     The Nature of the PAI Method
1.       Definition of Methods in Islamic Education
            Method is a way that is used to achieve the goals that have been set. In teaching and learning activities, the method is needed by the teacher and its use varies according to the goals to be achieved after teaching ends. A teacher will not be able to carry out his duties if he does not master any of the teaching methods that have been formulated and put forward by psychologists and education experts. [5]
            The formulation of the notion of method is usually juxtaposed with the notion of technique, in which the two are interrelated. The Islamic education method is a general procedure in delivering material to achieve educational goals based on certain assumptions about the nature of Islam as a supersystem. Meanwhile, Islamic education techniques are concrete steps when an educator carries out teaching in the classroom. Muhammad Athiyah al-Abrasyi defines the method as a path that is traversed to gain understanding in students. Abd al-Aziz defines methods as ways of obtaining information, knowledge, views, thinking habits, and love for knowledge, teachers, and schools. [6]
           Apart from the opinions above, Ginting also believes that the method is generally defined as a way of doing something. In particular, the learning method can be interpreted as a distinctive way or pattern of utilizing various basic principles of education as well as various techniques and other related sources so that the learning process occurs in the learner himself. [7]
         From the several opinions regarding the understanding of the method above, it can be said that the use of Islamic education methods that needs to be understood is how an educator can understand the nature of the method and its relevance to the main goal of Islamic education, namely the formation of a faithful person who is always ready to serve Allah SWT. Besides that, educators also need to understand the actual instructional methods addressed in the Al-Qur'an or those deduced from the Al-Qur'an, and can provide motivation and discipline in learning.
2.       Procedures for Making Methods of Islamic Education
           The steps taken by educators prior to the creation of Islamic education methods were to pay attention to the preparation of teaching materials ( lesson plans ) which included understanding the objectives of Islamic education, mastering subject matter, and understanding educational theories in addition to teaching theories. Besides that, educators must understand the principles of teaching as well as its models and evaluation principles, so that in the end Islamic education takes place quickly and precisely.
The procedure for making an Islamic education method is to pay attention to the factors that influence it which include: [8]     
1. The purpose of Islamic education                                                       
2. Students
3. Situation
4. Facilities
5. Personal educator
          Not always one method is always good at different times. Whether or not it depends on several factors which may be in the form of situations and conditions, or according to taste, or also because the method itself does not intrinsically meet the requirements as an appropriate method, everything is determined by the party who created and implemented the method as well as the object that is the target. .
3.       Principles of Islamic Religious Education Learning Methods
Following are the principles of the Islamic Religious Education learning method:
a.        Its intention and orientation is to bring closer the relationship between humans and God and fellow creatures. Approach to Allah is accompanied by monotheism, oneness of Allah, there is no God but Allah. This monotheism is the spirit for Muslim activities. The principle of monotheism is what distinguishes it from other methods. Application of any method is accepted as long as it strengthens faith and devotion to Allah. Integration (integrative, tauhîd). There is a unity between faith-science-charity, faith-islam-ihsan, dhikr-fikr (heart and mind), dhahir-inner (spirit-body), world-hereafter, past-now-to come.
b.       Focus on the truth. The material presented is correct, delivered in the right way, and with the right intentions.
c.        Honesty (sidq and amanah). The various methods used must uphold honesty (academic). Lies and lies (kidzb) in any form are prohibited. Educator's exemplary. There is unity between science and charity. Educators who teach are required to be role models for their students. The words "I only teach" are not allowed. The prayer teacher, he must also pray. There is a dispensation (rukhshah) if the educator is unable according to syar'i, for example he teaches about the pilgrimage while he does not have the funds for the pilgrimage so he cannot afford the pilgrimage.
d.       Based on value. The method of Islamic education is still based on al-akhlâq al-karîmah, the main mind. The Islamic education method is value-laden, not value-free, for example the learning process must pay attention to prayer times (mandatory).
e.        In accordance with the age and ability of the child's mind (biqadri uqûlihim).
f.        In accordance with the needs of students (child center), not to fulfill the wishes of educators, let alone for projects.
g.       Take lessons in every pleasant or sad case or incident (ibrah). [9]
4.       Principles of Implementation of Islamic Education Methods
The principles of implementing Islamic education methods can basically be formulated as follows: [10]
a.        Principles of Motivation
This motivational principle is important to be created by an educator so that all students' attention is focused on the lesson being delivered in class. Efforts that can be made by a student are holding healthy distractions, using sensory tools that are appropriate to the nature of the material, and holding healthy competition by giving wise prizes and punishments.
b.       Activity Principle
In the process of teaching and learning education students must be given the opportunity to take an active part, both spiritually and physically, in the teaching that will be given, individually and collectively. This principle avoids verbality for students.
c.        Apperception Principle
Apperception is a symptom of the soul that is experienced when a new effect enters a person's consciousness that is intertwined with old effects that are already owned accompanied by a management process, so that it becomes a wider effect. The basis of apperception aims to connect the lesson material that will be given with what the students already know.
d.       Modeling Basics
In this principle educators provide variations in teaching methods by realizing the material being taught in real terms, both in original and imitation form so that students can observe clearly and teaching is more focused on achieving the desired results.
e.        The Principle of Deuteronomy
The principle which is an attempt to determine the level of progress or success of students' learning in terms of knowledge, skills, and attitudes after attending previous teaching.
f.        Correlation Principle
In every teaching, educators must connect a lesson material with other lesson material, so as to form a close chain. The principle of correlation will generate associations and apperceptions in awareness and at the same time arouse students' interest in the subject.
g.       Principle of Concentration
The principle that focuses on a particular subject matter from the entire subject matter to carry out educational goals and pay attention to students in all its aspects. This principle can be pursued by providing interesting problems such as problems that have just emerged.
h.       Principle of Individualization
The principle that pays attention to individual differences, both innate and environmental which includes all personal learners, such as physical differences, character, intelligence, talent and the environment that influences them. The application of this principle is that educators can study each student personally, especially about intelligence, strengths, weaknesses, and give assignments to the best of their abilities.
i.         Principle of Socialization
The principle that pays attention to the creation of a social atmosphere that can evoke a spirit of cooperation between students and educators or fellow students and the surrounding community, in receiving lessons so that they are more efficient and effective.
j.         Evaluation Principle
The principle of paying attention to the results of assessing the abilities of students as feedback for educators in improving teaching methods. The principle of evaluation is not only intended for students, but also for educators, namely the extent of their success in carrying out their duties.
k.       Principle of Freedom
The principle that gives freedom of desire and action for students with limited freedom that refers to positive things. This principle contains three aspects, namely self-directednees, self-discipline, self-control. This principle suggests making decisions about one's actions based on a measure of wisdom, and being able to make choices based on personal values, and the existence of self-direction so that the system developing self-control.
l.         Environmental Principles
The principle that determines the method is based on environmental influences due to interactions with the environment. Even though students are born with traits, those traits are still general in nature which must be developed through environmental interactions, so that traits and the environment need each other, bearing in mind that traits are the possible limits that can be achieved from the environment.
m.     Globalization Principles
The principle as a result of the influence of totality psychology, namely students interact with the environment as a whole, not only intellectually, but also physically, socially, and so on.
n.       Basic Interest Centers
Implementation of centers of interest in Islam with a scope consisting of materials on the relationship between humans and God, humans and humans, and humans and the universe.
o.       The principle of exemplary
In certain phases students have a tendency to learn through imitation of the habits and behavior of those around them. Specifically for educators, the exemplary principle is effectively used in these phases.
p.s.       Principle of habituation
Habituation is a practical effort in fostering and forming students. Efforts to habituate themselves are carried out considering that humans have forgetful and weak natures.

B.      Relevance of the PAI Method
1.       Relevance to learning objectives
           The goal to be achieved, if the goal is to develop cognitive areas, then the concrete method is not appropriate to use, but the right method is used, such as the question and answer method, giving assignments, discussions, etc. If the objective is affective area then the appropriate method is used like; exemplary method, Qawlan (baligha, bashira, nazhira, al haq, layyinan, maisyura, ma'rufan). If the goal is the psychomotor area, then a suitable method is like; props method, simulation.
So the writer's conclusion here is that the method to be used must first look at the learning objectives to be achieved. Some of the above methods are still focused on one goal, if the goals to be achieved include all three aspects then this is in accordance with the teacher's creativity in collaborating these methods.

2.       Relevance with teaching materials
            Teaching materials are basically all materials designed specifically for learning purposes, teaching materials are in the form of a set of materials arranged systematically so as to create an environment or atmosphere that allows students to learn well. In general, the form of teaching materials can be grouped into four, namely;
a.        Printed materials , including handouts, books, modules, student worksheets, brochures, leaflets, wall charts, photos or drawings  ;
b.       Teaching materials for listening (audio), teaching materials designed using media with (audio) such as cassettes, radio, vinyl records, and audio compact disks;
c.        Audio-visual teaching materials Audio-visual teaching materials are teaching materials designed using audio-visual media such as video compact disks, films
d.       Interactive teaching materials .. Interactive multimedia is a combination of two or more media (audio, text, images, animation, and video) which are manipulated by their use to control the commands and natural behavior of a presentation. [11]
         Good learning materials should make it easier and not the other way around make it difficult for students to understand the material being studied. Therefore, learning materials must meet the following criteria:
a.        In accordance with the topics discussed
b.       Contains the essence or supporting information to understand the material discussed.
c.        Delivered in the form of packaging and language that is short, concise, simple, systematic, so that it is easy to understand.
d.       If there is, it is necessary to include examples and illustrations that are relevant and interesting to make it easier to understand the contents.
e.        It is better to give it before the learning and learning activities take place so that it can be studied first by students.
f.        Contain ideas that are challenging and curiosity of students
There are several principles that need to be considered in the preparation of teaching materials or learning materials. The principles in selecting learning materials include the principles of relevance, consistency, and adequacy.
a.        The principle of relevance means relatedness. Learning materials should be relevant or have something to do with achieving competency standards and basic competencies. For example, if the competency that is expected to be mastered by students is in the form of memorizing facts, then the learning material being taught must be in the form of facts or rote material.
b.       The principle of consistency means constancy. If there are four types of basic competencies that must be mastered by students, then the teaching materials that must be taught must also include four types. For example, the basic competencies that must be mastered by students are the meaning of thhaharoh (purification), various kinds of hadats and uncleanness, and how to purify from hadats and uncleanness, so the material taught must also include the understanding of thhaharoh (purification), various types of hadats and uncleanness, and how to purify from hadats and unclean.
c.        The principle of adequacy means that the material taught should be sufficient enough to help students master the basic competencies being taught. The material shouldn't be too little, and it shouldn't be too much. If it is too little, it will not help to achieve competency standards and basic competencies. On the other hand, if there are too many it will be a waste of time and unnecessary effort to study it
So the correct PAI learning method is one that is in accordance with the principles and criteria of teaching materials for Islamic religious education itself. If the method used does not pay attention to the material to be taught, the learning objectives will not be achieved optimally.
3.       Relevance to the situation
           Situations that include general things such as classroom situations, environmental situations. If the number of students is very large, the discussion method is rather difficult to use, especially if the space available is small. The lecture method must consider, among other things, the teacher's voice range. Then if the situation in the classroom and school environment is quiet without much activity around it, then the right method to use is a method such as; discussion, question and answer, simulation,  Qawlan ( baligha, bashira, nazira, al haq, layyinan, maisyura, ma'rufan) etc. With the appropriateness of the method used by the teacher with the situation of the school where he teaches, the objectives of the material to be conveyed will be optimally achieved. Vice versa, if the teacher cannot see and adjust the method to be used with the classroom and school situation, then learning will not be carried out properly. So it is very important for a teacher to pay attention to the situation in which he teaches.
4.       Relevance to students
            Salah satu aspek yang ada didalam kerangka belajar mengajar adalah aspek murid, semua guru mengetahui bahwa murid-murid berbeda satu dari yang lainnya. Kemungkinan yang berbeda itu cukup besar dan tidak ada dua orang yang identik. Terdapat kecenderungan yang umum yang dapat diamati, tapi pada dasarnya setiap anak adalah seorang individu. Masalah individu ini mendapat perhatian secara teoritis dalam lembaga pendidikan guru pada umumnya.
            Some student differences are quite clear and immediately observable and known by the teacher when they first enter the class, these differences are mainly about physical differences. Other differences, for example differences in personality and character, will appear after some time. It takes time to become aware of these differences, however over a period of time it becomes clear that there is a lack of uniformity in the material being studied, in the pace of learning, in attitudes towards learning and in the way of learning. Once we find students in the classroom have different levels of experience at home or at their previous school (ibtidaiyah), due to the differences mentioned above, every learning opportunity provided at school will be different for different students.
             While all this is well known, teachers are able to cite examples from their own experience of various differences and accept the theory in their education that they should pay attention to individual differences and prepare an education for students who can meet those differences. This is theoretical in nature and how in practice?
If we note that the teaching system in madrasas still follows the classical system where students with various differences receive the same lesson at the same time, then the relevant method for meeting individual differences (although not entirely) is the project method, giving assignments. additional tasks and grouping based on abilities.
            Implementation of methods that ensure the fulfillment of individual differences is still a problem for teachers. This was due to the influence of exams and many teachers commented that it was impossible to serve students individually when they were preparing for the same exam. The teachers forgot that no one road leads to Rome. There are various paths to reach the same goal. If students are different in various aspects, why are they required to achieve goals in the same way? What's more, is it customary for students who are going to take exams and not take exams, to be given the same learning opportunities - the same material, the same skills, the method of learning and some of them are all the same?
             This is where the teacher's role is to choose learning methods that are appropriate to the circumstances of the students. If students have the same average ability, the teacher can use methods such as; discussions, questions and answers, and simulations. Then if the ability of students in a class is not evenly distributed then the methods that might be used are; personal approach methods such as qawlan layyinan and qawlan maisyura. This all returns to the teacher's creativity in looking at the abilities, maturity and background of the students
5.       Relevance to evaluation
           In the implementation of the evaluation it is necessary to pay attention to several principles as the basis for the implementation of the assessment.
These principles are as follows:
a.        Evaluation should be based on comprehensive measurement results (overall). That is a measurement that includes cognitive, effective, and psychomotor aspects.
b.       The principle of continuity (continuity); assessment should be carried out on an ongoing basis.
c.        Evaluation must be carried out continuously from time to time to find out the overall development of students, so that the activities and performance of students can be monitored
d.       Objective principle, the assessment is attempted to be as objective as possible.
e.        Evaluation must consider a sense of fairness for students and the objectivity of educators, regardless of gender, ethnic background, culture, and various things that contribute to learning. Because injustice in assessment can cause a decrease in students' motivation to learn because they feel neglected.
f.        Systematic principle, namely the assessment must be carried out systematically and regularly. [12]
Regarding methods in Islamic religious education, there are several types of evaluation that can be applied: [13]
a.        Formative Evaluation, namely an assessment to find out the learning outcomes achieved by students after completing learning program units (basic competencies) in certain subjects.
b.       Summative Evaluation, namely an evaluation carried out on student learning outcomes after attending lessons in one semester and at the end of the year to determine the next level.
c.        Evaluation of placement ( placement ), namely evaluation of students for the benefit of placement in learning situations that are in accordance with the conditions or abilities of students.
d.       Diagnostic Evaluation, is an evaluation carried out for background requirements (psychological, physical, environmental) of students/students who experience learning difficulties, the results of which can be used as a basis for solving these difficulties. This type of evaluation is closely related to guidance and counseling activities in schools.
The following are the types of evaluation tools:
Non-Test Form Evaluation Tools/Instruments
a.        Observation
Observation is a process of observing and recording systematically, logically, objectively and rationally regarding various phenomena, both in actual situations and in artificial situations to achieve certain goals. The tools used in making observations are observation guidelines. [14]

b.       Interview
Interviews are divided into 2 categories, namely: first, free interviews where the answerer (respondent) is allowed to give answers freely according to what he knows without being limited by the interviewer. Second, is a guided interview where the interviewer has prepared questions in advance that aim to lead the answerer to only the necessary information. [15]
c.        Questionnaire
The questionnaire (questionnaire) is a data collection tool through indirect communication, namely through writing. This questionnaire contains a list of questions that aim to collect information on various matters relating to the respondent.
d.       attitude scale
Attitude scale is used to measure a person's attitude towards a particular object. The results are in the form of attitude categories, namely supporting (positive), rejecting (negative), and neutral. Attitude is essentially a tendency to behave in a person. Attitude can also be interpreted as a person's reaction to a stimulus that comes to him. [16]
Test Form Evaluation Tool/Instrument:
a.Uraian        _
b.       objective
c.        Oral
Whatever method is used by a teacher, he should pay attention to the following items such as:
a.        First, centered on students. Teachers must view students as something unique, no two students are the same, even if they are twins.
b.       Second, learn by doing. In order for the learning process to be fun, the teacher must provide opportunities for students to do what they learn, so that they get real experience.
c.        Third, develop social skills. The process of learning and education apart from being a vehicle for acquiring knowledge, is also a means for social interaction.
d.       Fourth, develop curiosity and imagination. The process of learning and education must be able to provoke the curiosity of students.
e.        Fifth, develop creativity and problem-solving skills. The learning and education process carried out by the teacher is how to stimulate children's creativity and imagination to find answers to every problem faced by students.
If the method used by the teacher is the question and answer method in the learning process, the evaluation that is suitable to be applied is an oral test. Because at first the students were guided by the teacher to tell and explain the subject matter orally. This will make it easier for the teacher to test how far students understand the material that has been given

A.     Conclusion
           The concept of the Islamic Religious Education method is how an educator can understand the nature of the method and its relevance to the main goal of Islamic education, namely the formation of a faithful person who is always ready to serve Allah SWT. Besides that, educators also need to understand the actual instructional methods addressed in the Al-Qur'an or those deduced from the Al-Qur'an, and can provide motivation and discipline in the learning process in the classroom.
          The Islamic Religious Education method used must always be in accordance with the objectives, teaching materials, situations, students, and evaluation in order to achieve effective and efficient results in the learning process. A good teacher is a teacher who can sort and choose the right method with the components in the learning process.
B.      Suggestion
          The paper that the author has made is far from perfect both in terms of reference books, writing, especially the words that are not well deciphered. The author expects criticism and input from readers to improve this paper 

Abdurrahman Ginting,  Practical Essentials of Learning and Learning , Jakarta: Humanities, 2008
Abdul Majid, Learning Planning , Bandung: PT Juvenile Rosdakarya, 2011
Eko Putro Widoyoko,  Evaluation of Learning Programs , Yogyakarta: Student Library, 2009
UU . RI. No. 20 of 2003,  National Education System , Jakarta: Brilliant, 2003
Rostiyah, NK. Teaching and Learning Strategies . Jakarta : PT. Build Script. 1998
Nana Sujana, Fundamentals of Teaching and Learning Process , Bandung: CV. New Ray. 2002
Slameto, Teaching and Learning Process in the Credit System (SKS ), Jakarta: Bumi Aksara, 1998
Syaiful Bahri Djamarah and Aswan Zain,   Teaching and Learning Strategies , Jakarta: PT Rineka Cipta, 2002
Omar Muhammad al-Thaumi al-Syaibani, Philosophy of Islamic Education , trans. Hasan Langgulung, Jakarta: Crescent Star, 1979
Mahfudz Salahuddin,  Methodology of Islamic Education , Jakarta: Development of Science, 1987
Ramayulis, Islamic Religion Teaching Methodology , Jakarta: Kalam Mulia, 2002
_______ ,  Islamic Education , Jakarta: Kalam Mulia, 2002
Zainal Arifin,   Learning Evaluation , Bandung: Rosdakarya, 2011

[1] UU . RI. No. 20 of 2003, National Education System, (Jakarta: Brilliant, 2003), p. 3
[2] Rostiyah, NK. Teaching and Learning Strategies(Jakarta: PT. Bina Aksara. 1998), p. 2
[3] Nana Sujana,Fundamentals of Teaching and Learning Process, (Bandung: CV. Sinar Baru. 2002), p. 82
[4] Slameto,Teaching and Learning Process in the Credit System (SKS),(Jakarta: Bumi Aksara, 1998), p. 88
[5] Syaiful Bahri Djamarah and Aswan Zain,  Teaching and Learning Strategies (Jakarta: PT Rineka Cipta, 2002), p. 53
[6] Omar Muhammad al-Thaumi al-Syaibani,Philosophy of Islamic Education, trans. Hasan Langgulung, (Jakarta: Crescent Star, 1979), p. 551-552
[7] Abdurrahman Ginting, Practical Essentials of Learning and Learning, (Jakarta: Humanities, 2008), p. 42
[8] Mahfudz Salahuddin, Methodology of Islamic Education, (Jakarta: Bina Ilmu, 1987), p. 24-25
[10] Ramayulis, Teaching Methodology of Islam, (Jakarta: Kalam Mulia, 2002), p. 96-110.
[11] Abdul Majid,Learning Planning,(Bandung: PT Remaja Rosdakarya, 2011), p. 182.
[12] Ramayulis, Islamic Education, (Jakarta: Kalam Mulia, 2002), p226
[13] Ibid., p. 227-228
[14] Zainal Arifin,  Learning Evaluation (Bandung: Rosdakarya , 2011), p. 153
[15] Ibid., p. 157
[16] Eko Putro Widoyoko, Evaluation of Learning Programs, (Yogyakarta: Student Library, 2009), p. 113

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