ISLAMIC RELIGIOUS EDUCATION PAPERS
About Faith and Piety and Divine Philosophy with Western Views and Muslims regarding God
Subject: Religious Education
Lecturer: Afdhal Divine S.Pd M.Pd
Arranged by :
Name : Nur Halimah Adam
Him : 22130001
Study Program: Chemistry Education
Semester : 1 (one)
SOUTH TAPANULI INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION
In the name of Allah SWT, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful. We express our adoration and gratitude for His presence, who has bestowed His mercy, guidance and inayah on the author, so that the author can complete this paper on faith and piety and the philosophy of divinity with western views and Muslims regarding God. In fulfilling the assignment of an introductory education course from Lecturer Afdhal Divine S.Pd M.Pd. This paper has been prepared optimally and received assistance from various parties so that it can facilitate the preparation of this paper. For that, I would like to express my gratitude to all those who have contributed to the making of this paper. Apart from all that, I am fully aware that there are still shortcomings, both in terms of sentence structure and grammar. Therefore, With open arms the author accepts all suggestions and criticisms from readers so that improvements can be made to the paper. Finally, I hope that this paper on the value of honesty will be useful and inspire readers.
Padang Sidimpuan, 02 February 2023
LIST OF CONTENTS
FOREWORD ................................................ ..............................................1
LIST OF CONTENTS ................................................ ..............................................2
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION .............................................. ..............................................3
1.1 Background ............................................... ...............................................3
1.2 Problem Formulation ............................................... ...............................................3
1.3 Purpose of the Problem ............................................... ...............................................4
CHAPTER II DISCUSSION ............................................... ...............................................5
2.1 Definition of Faith and Taqwa ............................................... ...............................................5
2.2 Philosophy of God ............................................... ...............................................6
2.3 History of Human Thought
About God According to
Western view ............................................... ............................................6
2.4 Thoughts About Muslims
Godhead ............................................... ............................................8
2.5 Proof of God's Existence ............................................. ...............................................9
2.6 Signs of a Believer and
Be pious ............................................. .........................................14
CHAPTER III CLOSING ............................................... ...........................................16
3.1 Conclusion ............................................... ...........................................16
3.2 Suggestion ............................................... ...........................................16
BIBLIOGRAPHY ................................................ ...........................................18
Someone who knows Allah SWT will surely know the purpose of his life, the purpose why he was created and for what he is in this world. Therefore he will not be deceived by the glitter of the world, will not be deceived by the goods of the world. Conversely, someone who does not know God, of course he will be deceived and fascinated by the beauty of the world which in turn he will spend his life looking for the world, enjoying it like an animal. A person who knows God will feel a field life no matter what the circumstances are. If he were poor he would be patient, because he knows that behind this mortal life there is a baqa (eternal) life. If he were a rich man he would be grateful, because the wealth he has now is only a deposit from God which has been entrusted to him. A person who knows Allah will always hope for His blessing in every action he does, in the course of his life he will not do anything unless it is pleasing to Allah SWT. We as Muslims should believe in our hearts that everything that God has given is the best for us. What is the duty of every Muslim is to carry out all His commands and stay away from all His prohibitions. Another case with people who do not know God. He acts based on the will of lust and the will of his lust. Be the lust of God besides Allah, who rules and forbids it. What is the duty of every Muslim is to carry out all His commands and stay away from all His prohibitions. Another case with people who do not know God. He acts based on the will of lust and the will of his lust. Be the lust of God besides Allah, who rules and forbids it. What is the duty of every Muslim is to carry out all His commands and stay away from all His prohibitions. Another case with people who do not know God. He acts based on the will of lust and the will of his lust. Be the lust of God besides Allah, who rules and forbids it.
1.2 PROBLEM FORMULATION
1. What is faith and piety to God?
2. What is divine philosophy?
3. What is the history of human thought about God according to the western view?
4. What are the thoughts of the West and Muslims about divinity?
5. What are the proofs of the existence of God?
6. What are the signs of a believer and devoted to God?
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE PROBLEM
1. To know the meaning of faith and piety to God.
2. To know the definition of the philosophy of divinity.
3. To know the history of human thought about God according to the western view.
4. To find out western and Muslim thoughts about divinity.
5 To know the proof of the existence of God.
6. To know the signs of a believer and pious to God.
2.1 DEFINITION OF FAITH AND TQWA TO GOD
A. The Definition of Faith
Etymologically, faith is a state of one's attitude. Whereas in general faith is said to believe, that is someone has belief in God. It means to believe which shows the attitude that is in the heart. People who believe in Allah SWT and others mentioned in the pillars of faith, even though their daily behavior does not reflect obedience or obedience (taqwa) to those they believe in, can still be called believers. This is due to the belief that every human being knows the affairs of his heart, only Allah SWT knows what is in his heart. The important thing for them is that they have uttered the shahada and have become Muslims. In the letter Al-Baqoroh: 165 it is said that a believer is a person who loves Allah SWT and His teachings (asyaddu hubban lillah). Therefore, a person who believes in Allah SWT means a person who really longs for the teachings of Allah SWT, which is found in the Al-Quran and the Prophet's Sunnah. While in the hadith narrated by Ibnu Majah Atthabrani, faith is a binding of the heart that is pledged orally and followed by deeds (Al-iimaanu 'aqdun bil qalbi waiqraarun bilisaani wa'amalun bil arkaan). Thus, faith is a unity between a person's heart, speech, and behavior or actions. Faith can be divided into 2, namely true faith and false faith. Iman haq is true faith, that is, faith that is only directed to Allah SWT in His book, His angels, His messengers, the last day is also His destiny. Meanwhile, false faith is faith that is wrong or mistaken because faith is aimed at other than Allah SWT.
B. Definition of Taqwa
Taqwa in general has the meaning of carrying out God's commands and avoiding God's prohibitions. People who are pious are people who believe, that is, people who have the views and attitude of living by the teachings of Allah according to the Sunnah of the Prophet, namely people who carry out
prayer, as an effort to build faith and provide for his fortune to support the upholding of God's teachings.
2.2 THE PHILOSOPHY OF DIVINE
Philosophy of divinity is thinking about God with a rational approach, that is using what is known as a philosophical approach. For people who adhere to certain religions (especially Islam, Christianity, Judaism), it will add a revelation approach in their thinking. So the Philosophy of God can be defined as the thinking of humans with a rational approach about God. This effort by humans is not to find God absolutely or absolutely, but to look for considerations of the possibilities for humans to arrive at the truth about God.
2.3 HISTORY OF HUMAN THINK ABOUT GOD ACCORDING TO THE WESTERN VIEW
A. Western thought
What is meant by the concept of Divinity according to human thought is a concept that is based on the results of thought both through outward and inward experience, both rational research and inner experience. In the literature on the history of religion, the theory of evolutionism is known, namely a theory which states that there is a process from a very simple belief, gradually increasing to perfection. The theory was originally put forward by Max Muller, then put forward by EB Taylor, Robertson Smith, Lubbock and Javens. The process of developing thoughts about God according to the theory of evolutionism is as follows:
According to this understanding, humans since primitive times have recognized the existence of influential forces in life. At first something that has an effect is aimed at objects. Every object has an influence on humans, some have a positive effect and some have a negative effect. The power that exists in objects is called by different names, such as mana (Melanesia), lucky (Malay), and syakti (India). Mana is a magical power that cannot be seen or sensed with the five senses. Therefore it is considered as something mysterious. Although the name cannot be sensed, its influence can be felt.
Primitive society also believed in the role of spirits in their lives. Every object that is considered a good object has a spirit. By primitive society, the spirit is believed to be something that is active even though the object has died. Therefore, the spirit is considered as something that is always alive, has a feeling of pleasure, a feeling of displeasure when its needs are met. According to this belief, so that humans are not affected by the negative effects of these spirits, humans must provide for the needs of the spirits. Servings in accordance with the advice of the shaman is one of the efforts to fulfill the needs of the spirit.
The belief in dynamism and animism does not give satisfaction for a long time, because there are too many things that become praise and worship. The spirit that is more than the others is then called a god. Gods have certain duties and powers according to their field. There are gods who are in charge of light, there are those who are in charge of water matters, there are those who are in charge of wind and so on.
Polytheism does not give satisfaction especially to intellectuals. Therefore, from the recognized gods, a selection was made, because it is impossible to have the same power. Gradually human belief increases to become more definitive (certain). One nation only recognizes one god called God, but humans still recognize the God (Ilah) of other nations. Belief in one God for one nation is called henotheism (National God).
Belief in the form of henotheism stepped into monotheism. In monotheism only recognizes one God for all nations and is international. The form of monotheism in terms of the philosophy of God is divided into three views, namely: deism, pantheism, and theism.
Where Deism is God as the creator of the universe but does not interfere in events in the universe. Pantheism is the notion that God is the universe itself. Meanwhile, theism is an understanding that states that God is the creator and controller of all events in the universe. Below are some Evolutionism in belief in God as stated by Max Muller and EB. Taylor (1877), was opposed by Andrew Lang (1898) who emphasized the existence of monotheism in primitive society. He argued that people of low culture were as monotheistic as Christians. They have faith in a Supreme being and special qualities about their Lord, which they do not attribute to any other being. With the birth of Andrew Lang's opinion, so gradually the evolutionist class subsided and instead religious scholars especially in Western Europe began to challenge evolutionism and introduce new theories to understand the history of religions. They claim that the idea of God did not come by evolution, but by relevance or revelation. This conclusion was drawn based on an investigation of the various beliefs held by most primitive peoples. In the investigation, evidence was found that the origins of primitive people's beliefs were monotheism and monotheism came from the teachings of God's revelation (Zagul Yusuf, 1993:26-27). They claim that the idea of God did not come by evolution, but by relevance or revelation. This conclusion was drawn based on an investigation of the various beliefs held by most primitive peoples. In the investigation, evidence was found that the origins of primitive people's beliefs were monotheism and monotheism came from the teachings of God's revelation (Zagul Yusuf, 1993:26-27). They claim that the idea of God did not come by evolution, but by relevance or revelation. This conclusion was drawn based on an investigation of the various beliefs held by most primitive peoples. In the investigation, evidence was found that the origins of primitive people's beliefs were monotheism and monotheism came from the teachings of God's revelation (Zagul Yusuf, 1993:26-27).
2.4 ISLAMIC THOUGHTS ABOUT GOD
The idea of God which gave birth to the Science of Tawheed, the Science of Kalam, or the Science of Ushuluddin among Muslims, arose since the death of the Prophet Muhammad SAW. Broadly speaking, there are streams that are liberal, traditional, and some are in between. The reason for the emergence of these schools is due to differences in methodology in understanding the Al-Quran and Hadith with a contextual approach so that traditional schools are born. While some other Muslims understand the approach between contextual and textual so that a flow that is between liberal and traditional is born. These three styles of thought have colored the history of divinity thought in Islam. These streams are:
a. The Mu'tazilah are rationalists among Muslims, and emphasize the use of common sense in understanding all teachings and beliefs in Islam. Muslims who commit major sins are neither infidels nor believers. It is between the position of believers and unbelievers (manzilah bainal manzilatain). In analyzing the divine, they used the help of Greek logic, a theological system to defend the position of faith. The result of Mu'tazilah's rational pattern is the emergence of a century of scientific progress in Islam. But the progress of science eventually declined with their defeat in the dispute with the orthodox Muslims. Mu'tazilah was born as a fraction of the Qadaria group, while Qadaria is a fraction of the Khawarij.
b. Qodariah who argues that humans have freedom of will and action. Humans themselves want whether they will be infidels or believers and that is what causes humans to be responsible for their actions.
c. Jabariah, who is a fraction of Murji'ah, theorizes that humans do not have freedom in willing and doing. All human behavior is determined and forced by God.
d. Ash'ariyah and Maturidiyah whose opinion is between Qadariyah and Jabariyah. All those trends color the life of divine thought among Muslims in the past period. In principle, the trends mentioned above do not conflict with the basic teachings of Islam. Therefore, Muslims who choose any of these streams as the theology they adhere to, do not cause them to leave Islam. Facing the current situation and development of science, Muslims need to correct knowledge based on the Qur'an and the Prophet's Sunnah, without being influenced by certain political interests. Among those trends that seem to be more able to support the development of knowledge and improve the work ethic are the Mu'tazilah and Qadariah trends.
2.5 PROOF OF GOD'S EXISTENCE
1. Dalil Al-Quran
The Qur'an knocks on the human conscience to feel that belief in Allah is innate or fitrah. Allah has explained His power and oneness through the Qur'an, as contained in the Qur'an Al-Ikhlas verses 1-4
Meaning: Say: "He is Allah, the One and Only. (1) Allah is the Lord on whom all things depend. (2) He neither begets nor begotten, (3) and there is no one equal to Him (4) )
He is One and Only, who has no equal, representative, rival, who resembles and who equals Him. And this pronunciation should not be used to other than Allah. However, human belief about the existence and power of God is often influenced by various factors, so it needs to be resurrected to a state that is not liked by humans.
2. GOD INTRODUCES HIMSELF
God introduces Himself that He does exist in a way that is appropriate to His holiness. Hamzah Ya'kub in the philosophy of God (1984:126) explains that the way God introduces Himself is through:
a. Revelation: God sent messengers (rasuls) who brought messages from Him to be conveyed to all mankind. The message is written in the Bible.
b. Wisdom: God bestows wisdom and intelligence to think to humans to know the existence of God by paying attention to the actions of God Almighty who are orderly, thorough, and careful as evidence.
c. Fitrah: Since birth, humans have brought the feeling of the existence of the Almighty because of their limited strength, ability, and age. Awareness of this weakness informs that there is something that limits it, namely God.
3. COSMOLOGICAL POSITIONS
Cosmology is the science that studies the structure and history of the large-scale universe. In particular, this knowledge relates to the origin and evolution of a subject. You should always pay attention to and investigate what is said in this verse, namely:
a. This earth that humans live on and what is stored in it is a treasury and wealth that will not run out either on land or at sea. As for the word of Allah QS Al-Jasiyah: 13 as follows.
And He subjected to you whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth, all of it. Indeed, in that are signs for people who reflect.
Which means "And He subjected what is in the heavens and what is in the earth to you all (as mercy) from Him. Indeed, in that case there are truly signs (the greatness of Allah) for those who think"
b. The sky with its planets and stars which all walk and move according to Divine order and rules. Nothing deviates from these rules, because if there is a deviation there will be a collision between one and the other and this whole nature will perish. This will not happen unless the creator himself, namely Allah the Almighty has willed it that way. This is found in the word of God in QS Yasin: 40 as follows.
Neither should the sun overtake the moon, nor should the night precede the day, and all swim in an orbit.
It means "It is not possible for the sun to catch up with the moon and the night cannot precede the day. Each revolves in its own orbit."
c. The exchange of night and day and the difference in length and shortness in several countries due to differences in location, all of these bring enormous benefits and benefits to humans. Even though the causes have been known through the mediation of astronomy, human investigation in this matter must be intensified and deepened so that with this knowledge humans can be more advanced in utilizing God's grace. The Word of Allah is contained in QS Al Qhasas as follows.
And out of His mercy He made for you the night and the day, that you may rest therein, and that you may seek of His bounty, and that you may be grateful.
Which means "And it is because of His grace, He made for you night and day, so that you rest at night and so that you seek some of His bounty (during the day) and so that you are grateful to Him."
d. The ark that sailed across the ocean to carry people from one country to another and to carry trade goods to advance the economy. For people who have not experienced sailing in the middle of a vast ocean, maybe this will not attract attention, but for sailors who always sail the seas who experience how great the attacks of waves and storms are, especially when it is pitch dark at night, this will definitely lead to the realization that indeed everything is controlled and under the will of Allah, the Almighty and the Almighty. This is found in QS Ar-Rahman: 24.
And his neighborhood is the installations in the sea like the flags
It means "To Him belong the ships that sail the seas like the mountains."
e. God swt. send down rain from the sky so that with that rain water the earth that has died or gone can become alive and fertile, and all kinds of animals can also live their lives with the presence of that water. It can be imagined, how if rain does not fall from the sky, all the land will become a Sahara desert, all living creatures will die and be destroyed by drought. The word of God is found in QS Al-A'raf:57.
وَهُوَ الَّذِيْ يُرْسِلُ الرِّيٰحَ بُشْرًاۢ بَيْنَ يَدَيْ رَحْمَتِهٖۗ حَتّٰٓى اِذَآ اَقَلَّتْ سَحَابًا ثِقَالًا سُقْنٰهُ لِبَلَدٍ مَّيِّتٍ فَاَنْزَلْنَا بِهِ الْمَاۤءَ فَاَخْرَجْنَا بِهٖ مِنْ كُلِّ الثَّمَرٰتِۗ كَذٰلِكَ نُخْرِجُ الْمَوْتٰى لَعَلَّكُمْ تَذَكَّرُوْنَ
Which means "He is the one who blows the wind as a herald of good news, precedes the arrival of His mercy (rain), so that when the wind brings cloudy clouds, We expel it to an area that is barren, then We send down rain in that area. Then We grow it with rain it's various kinds of fruit. That's how We raise the dead, hopefully you take a lesson."
f. The control and movement of the wind from one place to another is a sign and evidence for the power of Allah and the greatness of His mercy for humans. In the past, before the existence of fire ships, it was sailing ships that were used to sail the wide seas and if there was no wind, the ship would certainly be calm. alone and unable to move to the destination. Among these winds there are those that drive the clouds to the places that God wills, there are even those that marry plant essences and many other hidden secrets that humans have not been able to investigate and know. Where is the Word of God in QS Al-Baqarah: 164.
اِنَّ فِيْ خَلْقِ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَالْاَرْضِ وَاخْتِلَافِ الَّيْلِ وَالنَّهَارِ وَالْفُلْكِ الَّتِيْ تَجْرِيْ فِى الْبَحْرِ بِمَا يَنْفَعُ النَّاسَ وَمَآ اَنْزَلَ اللّٰهُ مِنَ السَّمَاۤءِ مِنْ مَّاۤءٍ فَاَحْيَا بِهِ الْاَرْضَ بَعْدَ مَوْتِهَا وَبَثَّ فِيْهَا مِنْ كُلِّ دَاۤبَّةٍ ۖ وَّتَصْرِيْفِ الرِّيٰحِ وَالسَّحَابِ الْمُسَخَّرِ بَيْنَ السَّمَاۤءِ وَالْاَرْضِ لَاٰيٰتٍ لِّقَوْمٍ يَّعْقِلُوْنَ
Which means "indeed in the creation of the heavens and the earth, the alternation of night and day, ships that sail on the sea with (load) that is beneficial to humans, what Allah sends down from the sky in the form of water, then with that he revives the earth after death (dry) , and He scattered in it various animals, and the winds and clouds that are controlled between the heavens and the earth, (all that) indeed, are signs (the greatness of Allah) for people who understand."
g. Likewise, one must think about and pay attention to the greatness of God's favor to humans with the accumulation of clouds between the heavens and the earth. In short, all the graces created by Allah, including what is mentioned in verse 164, deserve to be thought about and contemplated and even discussed and examined, to instill deep faith in the heart, and to advance knowledge which also leads to recognition of the oneness and greatness of Allah.
4. ASTRONOMICAL POSITIONS
God introduces Himself that He exists by pointing to planets consisting of stars, the moon and the sun, each of which revolves in its orbit. It was impossible for one to overtake the other or get off track. It was a sign of very neat calculations.
5. ANTHROPOLOGICAL POSITIONS
Anthropology comes from the Latin words anthropos which means human and logos which means science. So if interpreted from its name, anthropology is the study of humans. Glory to God who created humans. Of course the creator will know very well about how to create his creation. Humans are God's creatures. However, he has a special will and plays a role in this life. The one who gives the role and position is the Creator, namely Allah SWT. Humans are special in reason, knowledge and spirit.
2.6 SIGNS OF PEOPLE ARE FAITHFUL AND devout in GOD
The signs of a person who truly believes in Allah are:
a) When the name of Allah is mentioned, the heart trembles.
b) When Allah's Verses are recited, his faith increases.
c) They always put their trust in Allah.
d) Establishing Prayers.
e) Spending (spending, sadaqah) is the sign of a person who is truly a believer
5 Signs of a believer:
A believer is a person who is at peace with God's commandments. Prosperity means not feeling heavy or difficult in carrying out the commands of God and His Messenger. Prosperity also means fun and happiness in fulfilling God's commands.
Believers are those who are always satisfied with God's provisions and decrees. A person who when faced with a test is happy and tries hard. People who are satisfied but do not make efforts belong to the group of people who give up hope.
Believers are also very confident in God with what He commands. Do not doubt even a little with his orders and orders.
Believers always trust and rely only on God. Depending on other than God is temporary. Only to Allah comes everything and only to Allah does everything return. Nothing happens without His permission.
People who are patient with all the problems that come to him. Trouble and fatigue are faced patiently.
Faith is a belief that a person has in God, while taqwa is carrying out all His commands and staying away from all His prohibitions. A pious person is certainly a believer. Philosophy of divinity is thinking about God with a rational approach, that is using what is known as a philosophical approach. In the literature on the history of religion, known as the theory of evolutionism, there is a theory that was first put forward by Max Muller, then put forward by EB Taylor, Robertson Smith, Lubbock and Javens. The process of developing thoughts about God according to the theory of evolutionism, namely dynamism, animism, polytheism, honotheism and monotheism when viewed from the philosophy of God is divided into three schools of thought, namely: deism, pantheism, and theism. Islamic thought about God is expressed by several streams, namely Mu'tazilah, Qodariya, Badariiyah, Ash'ariyah and Maturidiyah. The proof of God's existence, which is based on evidence from the Qur'an, God introduces Himself from His revelation, wisdom, and nature, cosmological evidence, astronomical evidence, and anthropological evidence. All the signs of a person who believes and is pious is that when the name of Allah is mentioned, his heart trembles, when the verses of Allah are recited, his faith increases. they always put their trust in Allah, establish Salat, spend (spending, charity) those are the signs of a true believer and a pious person is obedient to all commands and avoids all His prohibitions, pleased with Him, very confident in Him, trusting in Him and always patient for all the problems faced. God introduced himself from his revelation, wisdom, and nature, cosmological arguments, astronomical arguments, and anthropological arguments. All the signs of a person who believes and is pious is that when the name of Allah is mentioned, his heart trembles, when the verses of Allah are recited, his faith increases. they always put their trust in Allah, establish Salat, spend (spending, charity) those are the signs of a true believer and a pious person is obedient to all commands and avoids all His prohibitions, pleased with Him, very confident in Him, trusting in Him and always patient for all the problems faced. God introduced himself from his revelation, wisdom, and nature, cosmological arguments, astronomical arguments, and anthropological arguments. All the signs of a person who believes and is pious is that when the name of Allah is mentioned, his heart trembles, when the verses of Allah are recited, his faith increases. they always put their trust in Allah, establish Salat, spend (spending, charity) those are the signs of a true believer and a pious person is obedient to all commands and avoids all His prohibitions, pleased with Him, very confident in Him, trusting in Him and always patient for all the problems faced. when Allah's Verses are recited, his faith increases. they always put their trust in Allah, establish Salat, spend (spending, charity) those are the signs of a true believer and a pious person is obedient to all commands and avoids all His prohibitions, pleased with Him, very confident in Him, trusting in Him and always patient for all the problems faced. when Allah's Verses are recited, his faith increases. they always put their trust in Allah, establish Salat, spend (spending, charity) those are the signs of a true believer and a pious person is obedient to all commands and avoids all His prohibitions, pleased with Him, very confident in Him, trusting in Him and always patient for all the problems faced.
In QS. Al-Anfaal verse 29 explains that, if a human is devoted to Allah, then the pious human will be given a furqan (guidance of taufiq), kept away from mistakes, and will be forgiven for his sins by Allah SWT. However, Allah SWT does not merely give rewards in the form of furqan (guidance of taufiq), keeps away from mistakes, and sins will be forgiven, rather Allah orders people to always be pious. With piety, the human self can be maintained, protected from bad things because of the instructions, namely guidance from Allah SWT
Mudrikah. "Signs of a Believer" https://www.academia.edu/13173282/TANDA_TANDA_ORANG_BERIMAN. Thursday, February 02, 2023. 16:29.
Noor, Muhammad. "Divine Philosophy." Humanities Technology 3, No 1 (2017) : 28-32.
Setiawan, Fajar. 2014. "Proof of God's Existence and His Oneness." https://www.scribd.com/doc/229354199/Pem proved-Wujud-God-Dan-Keesaannya, accessed on 02 February 16.27.
Widyatama University Islamic Religious Education Teaching Team. Islamic Religious Education Lecture Module https://elearning.itenas.ac.id/pluginfile.php/285943/course/overviewfiles/MODUL%201%20KONSEP%20KETUHAN%20YANG%20MAHA%20ESA.pdf?forcedownload=1. Thursday, 02 February 2023. 16. 26.
1. What is the difference between true faith and false faith?
Iman haq is true faith, that is, faith that is only directed to Allah SWT in His book, His angels, His messengers, the last day and His destiny. While Iman batil is a wrong or mistaken faith because the faith is directed to other than Allah SWT.
SRI INDAH RAMBE
2. What are deism, pantheism and theism in monotheistic beliefs?
Deism is an understanding in which God is the creator of the universe but does not interfere with events in the universe. Pantheism is the notion that God is the universe itself. Meanwhile, theism is an understanding that states that God is the creator and controller of all events in the universe.