Jumat, 17 Maret 2023

















Alhamdulillah, praise and gratitude we pray to the presence of God Almighty. Due to His blessings and guidance and inspiration, this paper can be completed. Shalawat and greetings I always pray to the role model of nature, Prophet Muhammad SAW.

This paper is structured as a realization to fulfill one of the assignments for the LEARNING STRATEGY course. We hope that this paper can add knowledge and experience to readers, so that in the future they can improve papers to make them even better.

Due to limited knowledge, we believe that there are still many shortcomings in this paper, therefore we really hope for suggestions and constructive criticism from readers for the perfection of this paper.

Padang sidimpuan, 04 February 2023






Background 1

Problem Formulation 1

Goal 1


Concept of Learning Learning in sd 2

Process 2

Behavior Change 2

Experience 2

Principles of Learning and Learning in SD 3

Implications of the Principles of Learning Principles in SD 5

Factors Influencing Learning Learning at SD 7

Internal Factors 7

External Factors 7


Conclusion 9

Saran 9


Nowadays learning activities at every level of education must be developed in accordance with this century, so that every teacher is required to have a high understanding of learning approaches, learning strategies and learning methods. This is very important, because the teacher is the main planner in a learning activity.
The process of learning activities is planned and designed by the teacher in such a way as to achieve predetermined learning objectives. Ideally learning in accordance with this century is student-centered learning, so that the learning experienced by students becomes more meaningful. In addition, the learning model applied in learning must be varied, so that students do not feel bored and bored when the learning process takes place. This shows that the teacher's understanding of learning approaches, models, strategies, methods and techniques cannot be ignored.
Formulation of the problem
What is the meaning of study and learning?
What are the learning attributes?
State the principles of study and learning?
Mention the factors that influence learning and learning?
To know the meaning of learning and learning
To understand the learning attributes
To know the principles of learning and learning
To find out the factors that influence learning and learning


The Concept of Learning Learning in Elementary School
The essence of teaching is teaching students, in the sense of encouraging and guiding students to learn. Learning is a process in which an organism changes its behavior as a result of experience. Learning is a process of interaction of students with educators and learning resources in a learning environment. Learning is assistance provided by educators so that the process of acquiring knowledge and knowledge can occur, mastering skills and character, as well as forming attitudes and beliefs in students. In other words, learning is a process to help students learn well.
So the concept of learning and learning is a design that is made for the learning process that is intended to achieve a change that is outlined in learning in school education and outside of school
.There are three learning attributes, namely:

Learning is a mental and emotional process or process of thinking and feeling. A person is said to learn when his thoughts and feelings are active.

Changes in behavior
Someone who learns will change or increase his behavior, whether in the form of knowledge, skills, or mastery of values ​​(attitudes). Changes in behavior as a result of learning are changes that result from experience (interaction with the environment), where mental and emotional processes occur. Changes in behavior as a result of learning are grouped into 3 domains: cognitive, affective and psychomotor.

Learning is experiencing, in the sense of learning learning learning occurs in the interaction between individuals and the environment, both the physical environment and the social environment. A good learning environment is one that triggers and challenges student learning.
The implications of the concept of learning on learning are as follows:

In principle, learning strategies are used by teachers to activate student learning (mentally and emotionally).

Changes in student behavior as a result of learning must be clearly formulated in the formulation of competencies that contain learning objectives or indicators (knowledge, skills, and attitudes).

Teachers must prepare a learning environment that triggers and challenges student learning. An environment that allows students to learn through direct experience or direct observation has better results than learning through indirect experience.

Principles of Learning and Learning at SD
The principle of learning is a provision or law that must be used as a guide in the implementation of learning activities. As a law, the principle of learning will greatly determine the process and results of learning.
The principle of learning is the basis of thinking, the basis of which is based on the hope that the learning objectives are achieved and the growth of a dynamic and directed learning process. The principles of a teacher in the learning process and learning in the classroom also determine the quality of learning that will be given to students.
The principle of Readiness The learning process is influenced by the readiness of students, what is meant by readiness is the individual conditions that allow them to learn. In this regard, there are various levels of learning readiness for a particular task. A learner who is not ready to carry out a task in learning will experience difficulties or even despair. This readiness includes physical maturity and growth, intelligence, background experience, standard learning outcomes, motivation, perception and other factors that enable a person to learn.
Principles of Motivation (Motivation) The purpose of learning is necessary for a directed process. Motivation is a condition of the learner to initiate activities, set the direction of the activity and maintain sincerity. 1 Naturally, children are always curious and carry out exploratory activities in their environment. This curiosity should be encouraged and not inhibited by providing the same rules for all children.
Principle of Perception and activeness "A person tends to believe according to how he perceives the situation". Perception is an interpretation of a living situation. Each individual sees the world in his own way that is different from the others. This perception affects individual behavior. A teacher will be able to understand his students better if he is sensitive to how someone sees a certain situation.
Principles of goals and direct involvement "Goals must be clearly pictured in the mind and accepted by the learner when the learning process occurs". Goals are specific goals to be achieved by someone. The principle of direct involvement is important in learning. Learning as a teaching and learning activity, the teacher must be directly involved as well as students. The principle of direct involvement includes both physical and non-physical involvement. This principle is directed so that students feel important and valuable in class so that they can enjoy the course of learning.
The Principle of Individual Differences "The learning process varies for each person". The teaching process should pay attention to individual differences in the class so that it can facilitate the achievement of the highest learning objectives. Teaching that only pays attention to one target level will fail to meet the needs of all students. Therefore a teacher needs to pay attention to the background, emotions, encouragement and abilities of individuals and adjust the subject matter and learning assignments to these aspects.
Principle of Transfer, Retention and Challenge "Learning is considered useful if one can store and apply the results of learning in new situations". Whatever is learned in one situation will eventually be used in another. This process is known as the transfer process, a person's ability to reuse learning outcomes is called retention. Materials learned and absorbed can be used by students in new situations
Principles of Cognitive Learning "Cognitive learning involves the process of recognition and or discovery". related to cognitive learning processes. The learning process can occur at various levels of difficulty and requires a variety of mental activities.
Principles of Affective Learning "A person's affective learning process determines how he relates himself to new experiences." Affective learning includes emotional values, drives, interests and attitudes. In many ways the learner may not be aware of affective learning. In fact, the affective learning process includes the original basis for and is a form of attitude, emotional drive, interest and individual attitude
Psychomotor Learning Process An individual's psychomotor learning process determines how he is able to control his physical activity. Psychomotor learning contains mental and physical aspects.
The Principles of Repetition, Feedback, Reinforcement and Evaluation. The principle of learning that emphasizes the importance of repetition is perhaps the oldest as proposed by the psychological theory of power. According to this theory that learning is to train the powers that exist in humans which consist of the power to observe, catch, remember, imagine, feel, think and so on.

Attention and Motivation
In order to achieve learning objectives students are required to pay attention to all stimuli. The existence of these demands should encourage students to pay attention to all the messages they receive. Messages received in learning are those that can stimulate the senses. Thus, students are expected to always train their senses and learn to pay attention to the stimuli that arise in the learning process. Because increased interest is one of the factors that influence motivation.
Student Activity
as central in learning, then as a consequence the activity of students is a condition for the ongoing learning process. Student activity in this case both physically and intellectually and emotionally must be active. So, there is no point in the teacher doing the learning if the students are passive. Because it is the students who learn, they are the ones who have to do it.
As an implication of the principle of activeness for students, behaviors are formed to find the sources of information needed, analyze experimental results, want to know about all experiments carried out in the laboratory, make assignments given by the teacher and so on. The next process is the direct involvement of students in learning
Direct Engagement
The place of a learner in the class cannot be replaced by another person. Therefore, the direct involvement of students in the learning process is absolutely necessary. As an implication, students are required to do their own learning assignments given by the teacher. With this involvement they will gain experience. Forms of behavior which are the implications of the principle of direct involvement are all activities carried out in schools, whether they are intra-curricular or extra-curricular. Although these activities do not guarantee the realization of the principle of activeness in students, this involvement is expected to realize the activeness of students in the learning process.
The term that can still be maintained in the learning process is seven times one (7x1) better than one times seven (1x7). This statement is still very much needed even in the era of all-sophisticated technology. As an implication of the principle of repetition for students is the awareness of students to be willing to do something repeatedly. It is hoped that with this awareness students will never get bored in doing something even though it has been done repeatedly. As for activities that are implications of the principle of repetition such as memorizing short surahs in the Qur'an, memorizing multiplication, formulas, memorizing Latin names of plants or AD and Hijrih years
Individual Differences
Each student has different characteristics. The existence of this difference should make each student realize that he is different from his friends, this will help students determine their own way of learning. As an implication of the principle of individual differences for students is to determine seats in class, arrange study schedules and so on
Something that is challenging is sometimes exciting, just like when students are given the task of finding it themselves they will be more motivated to learn. Students feel challenged by the search. This activity is expected to make students more active in learning and doing the tasks given. As an implication of the principle of challenge for students is the demand to have awareness in students that there will be a need to obtain, process and process messages. 30 Students must also have great curiosity about something they face. The form of behavior which is an implication of the principle of this challenge is to conduct experiments, carry out guided or independent tasks or seek solutions to a problem.
Feedback and Reinforcement
Everyone always needs certainty in every activity he does. As with every student after completing a test, of course they want to know the results of the test. Because from here there will be awareness to get feedback31 as well as reinforcement from what he does. As an implication of the principle of feedback and reinforcement, students immediately match answers with answer keys, accept the reality of the grades obtained or receive a reprimand from parents or teachers for poor results. repetition then there is no feedback and reinforcement from his work, which ultimately he feels in vain what he has done.
Factors Influencing Learning and Learning in SD
Factors from within (internal)
Health factors can affect a person's learning if the person is sick, it will result in no motivation to learn in a person. This also has a psychological impact, because in an unhealthy body it will also experience disturbances in the mind.
Intelligence and talent are huge factors
its effect on learning progress. Someone who has high intelligence and talent can have an influence on his life.
Interest and motivation
Interest and motivation are also important factors in learning. Great interest
something is the basis for achieving goals. While motivation is encouragement from within and outside a person, generally motivation arises because of a great desire to achieve something.
How to learn
Technique is a way that someone does in carrying out learning activities. The way of learning includes the form of notes that are learned and the arrangement of study times, places and other learning facilities. A good way of learning will create good habits and can improve good learning outcomes as well.
Factors from outside oneself (External)
Family situation is very influential on the success of children in the family. Education, economic status, residence, percentage of relationship with parents, words, and parental guidance, affect the achievement of children's learning outcomes.

place, school building, teacher quality, educational instrumentation,
the school environment, and teacher-to-student ratio per class, influence activities
student learning.
When around the place of residence the situation of the community consists of
educated people, especially their children who go to school on average and have good morals, this will encourage children to study more.

surroundings, house buildings, surrounding atmosphere, traffic conditions, and climate can affect the achievement of learning objectives, whereas places with cool climates can support the learning process.


The principles of study and learning in general consist of attention and motivation, activeness, direct involvement, repetition, individual differences, challenges, feedback and reinforcement.
The implications of the principles of learning for students are behaviors that should be consciously carried out by students in learning activities so that the learning process can actually produce the expected results. The implications of the principles of learning for teachers are the treatments that carried out by the teacher in the learning process which is an action that is expected to get a reaction from students so that learning takes place as it should.
We realize that the paper we present certainly has shortcomings and is far from perfection.


Aunurrahman. (2009). Learning and Learning, Cet. II; Bandung: Alphabet.
Slameto. (2003). Learning and Factors Affecting It, Cet. III; Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.
Dimyati and Mudjiono. Learning and Learning. Cet. IV; Jakarta: Rineka Cipta, 2009

The concept of learning and learning is a design made for
The learning process that is intended for elementary school students to achieve a change in
Pour it into learning at school and outside of school.
The principle of learning and learning itself is a provision or law that must be used as a guide in the implementation of learning as well as a basis for thinking, as a foundation with the hope that learning objectives can be achieved.
Name : Nurhabiba Siregar
Question: In your opinion, how do you create a learning atmosphere and can help overcome learning difficulties for students?
Name : Ira Agustriani
Question: What is the impact on a student, if a teacher does not understand the principles of learning and learning?
Name: Dewi Sartika
Question: Explain the difference between evaluation of learning outcomes and learning evaluation?
Name : Yeni Suci Hati Pasaribu
Question: How do you do to create a happy atmosphere in learning?


Name : Irma Royani Nasution
Question: The impact on students if a teacher does not understand the principles of learning and learning?
Answer :
Student knowledge will not develop
Students will assume that knowledge is not important because there is no lesson or encouragement given by the teacher
It will also form young people who do not have the mindset to form a principle in their life.
Name : Yuni Syahfitri Siregar
Question: The impact on students if a teacher does not understand the principles of learning and learning?
Answer: They will assume that learning will be completed because the student exemplifies a teacher, how is conveyed by educators. Because a teacher has to learn a lot because the knowledge that is channeled will be very useful and beneficial in shaping the character of the child. The way to anticipate this is to always give praise to children, don't compare underprivileged children to smart ones, accompany children in learning because it becomes a child's learning process.

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