1. The Development of Religious Spirit in Adolescents
In the adolescent psychology map there are three parts:
a. Pueral phase
At this time adolescents do not want to be called children, but they also do not want to be called adults. In this first phase feel uneasy.
b. Negative Phase
This second phase lasts only a few months, which is marked by a hesitant attitude, gloomy, daydreaming and so on.
c. Puberty Phase
This period is called the Adolescent Period. In this discussion, Luella Cole, as cited by Hanna Jumhanna Bastaman, divides the youth map into four parts:
1. Preadolescence : 11-13 years (girls) and 13-15 years (boys)
2. Early Adolescence : 13-15 years (girls) and 15-17 years (boys)
3. Middle Adolescence : 15- 18 years (female) and 17-19 years (male)
4. Late Adolescence: 18-21 years (girls) and 19-21 years (boys)
2. Religious Feelings in Adolescents
Adolescents' image of God with his attributes is part of his description of nature and the environment and is influenced by the feelings and characteristics of the adolescents themselves. Religious belief in adolescents is an interaction between him and his environment. For example, adolescents' belief in God's power causes them to devolve responsibility for all problems to God, including unpleasant societal problems, such as chaos, injustice, suffering, tyranny, disputes, abuses and so on that exist in society will cause them to be disappointed in God. even such disappointment can lead to denying God's power altogether.
Adolescent feelings for God are not fixed and stable, but are feelings that depend on very fast emotional changes, especially during the first adolescent years. The need for God, for example, is sometimes not felt when their souls are safe, secure and calm. On the contrary, Allah is needed when they are in a state of anxiety, because they are facing a disaster or danger that threatens them when they are afraid of failure or feel guilty.
3. Religious Motivation in Adolescents
According to Nico Syukur Dister Ofm, religious motivation is divided into four motivations,
a. Motivation that is driven by a desire to overcome the frustrations that exist in life, both frustration due to difficulties in adjusting to nature, social frustration, moral frustration and frustration because of death.
b. Religious motivation because it is driven by the desire to maintain decency and public order.
c. Religious motivation because it is driven by the desire to satisfy human curiosity or human intellect.
d. Religious motivation because they want to make religion a means to overcome fear.
4. Attitude of Youth in Religion
There are four attitudes of adolescents in religion, namely:
a. Believing in joining in, is usually produced by simple religious upbringing that is obtained from the family and environment. However, this usually only occurs during early adolescence (age 13-16 years). After that, it usually develops in a more critical and conscious way according to its psychic development.
b. Trust with awareness
Religious enthusiasm begins with looking back at the religious problems they have had since childhood. They want to practice religion as a new field to prove their personality, because they no longer want to just go along with religion. Usually the spirit of religion occurs at the age of 17 years or 18 years. This religious spirit takes two forms:
ü In a positive form. A positive spirit of religion, namely trying to see religion with a critical perspective, no longer wants to accept things that don't make sense. They want to purify and liberate religion from bid'ah and superstition, from rigidity and orthodoxy.
ü In the negative form. Religious enthusiasm in this second form will be a form of activity in the form of khurafi, namely the tendency of adolescents to take external influences into religious matters, such as bid'ah, superstition and other beliefs.
c. Believe it, but a little doubtful
Doubts about adolescent beliefs about their religion can be divided into two:
ü Doubt caused by the turmoil of the soul and the process of change in his personality. This is normal.
ü Doubt is caused by a contradiction between the reality he sees and what he believes, or with the knowledge he has.
d. Do not believe or tend to be atheists
The development towards not believing in God actually has roots or sources from childhood. If a child feels pressured by parental power or tyranny, then he has harbored a challenge to parental power, in turn to any power, including God's power.
5. Religious Factors
According to Robert H. Thouless there are four factors of religion
a. Social influences
b. Various experiences
c. Need
d. Thought process
Social factors include all social influences in the development of religious attitudes, namely: parental education, social traditions and pressures from the social environment to adapt to various opinions and attitudes agreed upon by the environment. Another factor considered as a source of religious belief is needs that cannot be fulfilled perfectly, resulting in a feeling of a need for religious satisfaction. These needs can be grouped into four parts, namely the need for safety, the need for love, the need for self-esteem and the need for death. The last factor is thought that seems relevant to adolescence, because it is realized that adolescence begins to be critical in addressing religious issues, especially for those who have conscious faith and are open. They will criticize their religious teacher who is irrational in explaining Islamic religious teachings, especially for teenagers who are always curious with their critical questions. However, the critical attitude of adolescents also does not negate other factors, such as
experiential factors


1. Religion in Adulthood
Elizabeth B. Hurlock divides adulthood into three parts:
a. Early adulthood (early adulthood / young adulthood)
b. middle adulthood
c. Old age (old age / older adult)
A similar division was also expressed by several psychologists. Lewiss Sherril,
a. In early adulthood, the problem faced is choosing the direction of life that will be
taken by facing the temptation of various possible choices.
b. Middle adulthood has begun to face life's challenges while establishing a place and developing a philosophy to process unexpected realities.
c. Late adulthood, its main characteristic is "surrender". At this time, less religious interests and activities.
Characteristics of Religious Attitudes in Adulthood
d. Accepting religious truth based on careful thought consideration, not just following along.
e. It tends to be realist, so that religious norms are more widely applied in attitudes and behavior.
f. Have a positive attitude towards religious teachings and norms and strive to learn and deepen religious understanding.
g. The level of religious observance is based on consideration and self-responsibility so that religious attitudes are the realization of an attitude of life.
h. Be more open and have broader insights.
i. Be more critical of religious teaching material so that religious stability is based not only on considerations of mind and conscience.
j. Religious attitudes tend to lead to individual personality types.
k. It can be seen that there is a relationship between attitude and religion with social life.
2. Religion in Old Age
The process of human development after being born is physiologically getting older. With increasing age, the tissues and cells become old, some regenerate and some others will die. This advanced age, usually begins at the age of 65 years. At this old age, usually will face various problems. The first problem is a decrease in physical ability so that physical strength decreases, activity decreases, they often experience health problems that cause them to lose enthusiasm. The influence of all that, those who are in old age feel they are not worth it anymore.
Religious Characteristics in Old Age:
a. Religious life in old age has reached a level of stability.
b. Increased tendency to accept religious opinions.
c. Acknowledgment of the reality of the hereafter begins to appear more seriously.
d. Religious attitudes tend to lead to the need for mutual love between human beings and noble qualities.
e. The fear of death increases with advancing age.
f. This feeling of fear of death has an impact on increasing the formation of
religious attitudes and belief in the existence of eternal life (hereafter).
source: ade