Maturity or maturity of a person in religion is usually indicated by
awareness and firm belief because he thinks that the religion he adheres to is true and he needs religion in his life. Basically there are two factors that cause obstacles:
1. Factor yourself
Internal factors are divided into two: self-capacity and experience. This capacity is in the form of scientific ability (ratio) in accepting teachings, the difference can be seen between someone who is capable and someone who is less capable. For those who are able to accept it rationally, they will live up to and then practice the teachings of the religion well, full of confidence and argumentativeness, even though what they have to do is different from traditions that may have been ingrained in people's lives. While the experience factor, the wider one's experience in the religious field, the more steady and stable it will be in carrying out religious activities. However, for
those who have little and narrow experience, he will experience various kinds of difficulties and will always be faced with obstacles to be able to carry out religious teachings steadily.
2. External factors
external factors, namely several environmental conditions and situations that do not
provide many opportunities to develop. These factors include religious traditions or education received. With regard to religious attitudes, William Starbuck as explained again by William James, suggests 2 factors that influence a person's religious attitude,
a. Internal factors, consisting of:
Behavior based on a certain temperament plays an important role in one's religious attitude.
u Mental disorders
People suffering from mental disorders show abnormalities in their attitudes and behavior.
ü Conflict and doubt
These conflicts and doubts can affect a person's attitude towards religion, such as devout, fanatical, agnostic or atheist.
ü Far from God
People whose lives are far from God will feel weak and lose grip on life, especially when facing disaster.
b. External factors that influence religious attitudes suddenly are:
The characteristics of a person who is mentally healthy in practicing religion include:
1. Optimism and joy.
2. Extroverted and not deep.
3. Enjoying the liberal doctrine of monotheism.
1. Definition of Religious Conversion
Conversion comes from the word conversion which means to repent, move, change. So
conversion means changing from a situation or from one religion to another (change from one state, or from one religion to another).
2. Kinds of Conversion
Starbuck, as stated again by Bernard Splica, divides the conversion into two types, namely:
a. Type volitional (changes gradually)
Namely conversion that occurs in a process, little by little until it becomes a new set of spiritual aspects and habits.
b. Type self surrender (change drastically)
c. That is a conversion that occurs suddenly. A person without experiencing a certain process suddenly changes his stance towards a religion that he adheres to. These changes can occur from being disobedient to being obedient, from not having strong faith to strong faith, from not believing in a religion to believing and so on.
3. Factors that lead to conversion
Sociologists argue that religious conversions are caused by social influences. Described by Clark, these influences include:
a. Interpersonal relationships, both associations that are religious or non-religious in nature.
b. Routine habits.
c. Suggestions or propaganda from people who are close, such as family, friends and so on.
d. The influence of religious leaders
e. The influence of associations based on hobbies.
f. The influence of the leader's power
4. Conversion Process
The conversion process according to H. Carrier is:
a. Cognitive and motivational disintegration occurred as a result of the crisis experienced.
b. Personality reintegration based on the new conception. With this reintegration, a new personality is created that is contrary to the old structure.
c. There is a growing attitude of accepting the new concept of religion and the role demanded by
d. Awareness arises that this new situation is a holy calling, God's guidance
PROBLEMS OF FAITH
As Mohammad Iqbal said that Islam brought by the Prophet Muhammad apparently stood between the ancient world and the modern world. In terms of sources, at the time of the revelation, then it belongs to the ancient world, and from the point of view of the spirit, spirit and spirit of its revealed teachings, it belongs to the modern world, it has never been worn out at any time. The authenticity of Islamic teachings is guaranteed after the books of the teachings were recorded by the Prophet. The teaching bookkeeping system includes:
1. Book authentically the basic sources, main points and principles of Islamic teachings as revelations from Allah contained in the Al-Qur'an.
2. Provide operational explanations and examples in social and cultural life which are famous for Assunnah and Al Hadith
3. Provide ways or methods to develop Islamic teachings in an integrated manner in socio-cultural life with the ijtihad system.
The three basic foundations namely the Qur'an, Assunnah, and Ijtihad, which are the main sources of Islamic teachings. Which here means that the Qur'an as the basic source, Sunnah as the operational source and ijtihad as the source of the dynamics, which with these three will form a perfect and dynamic system of culture and civilization.
Contemplation is part of the life of mystics. There are two types of contemplation namely, first, as a system of mental training such as meditation; secondly, as a system of behavioral rules called ascetics. In the second type, as a system of rules of behavior, it is characterized by a refusal to take instinctive actions or customs and habituation to do painful actions.
The mental training of mystics is directed at restraints of behavior. They are trained to think about the relationship between food and drink and its unpleasant effects and its transformation in the body, so that they no longer have the desire to eat and drink.
The next stage is arriving at the level of oneness (oneness) which is usually revealed through mystical poems or prayers. In this case Saint Teresa describes the four stages of mystical prayer, namely prayer of serenity, prayer of union, ecstasy, and spiritual marriage.
Regarding the relationship between mysticism and mental disorders, it was stated by mystical figures who showed evidence of hysteria and evidence of signs of illness which were associated with a high degree of suggestibility.
Mystical figures in an effort to purify themselves cleanse the soul from attachment to worldly pleasures by isolating themselves (uzlah) and contemplating. This attitude is also experienced by people with mental disorders. Where in a depressed state of mind, he takes an attitude of withdrawing from the environment or special life. Feelings as mentioned above which then gave rise to the notion that people with mental disorders and the behavior of mystical figures have something in common. On the other hand, there are four aspects that can be categorized in mysticism, namely occult science, mysticism, magic, and parapsychology. The latter aspect, for example, discusses mental symptoms that occur without the role of the five senses,
In this study, it was found that the medical-psychiatric therapy given did not get optimal results if it was not accompanied by religious therapy (psychoreligious therapy), namely with prayer and dhikr. By involving them in religious activities such as praying and dhikr (besides being given medical-psychiatric therapy), the results are much better.
These paranormal mental symptoms are possessed by a person by virtue of a gift from God Almighty, without being studied so that they have the ability to exceed normal mental symptoms such as:
1. The ability to know something that hasn't happened yet, telepathy, prediction, seeing something without using the eyes and so on.
2. The ability to do things without using physical strength, treatment, stigma and so on.
3. This ability becomes natural if it is owned by Sufi practitioners who have reached a high degree, especially up to the marifat stage, because one of the aspects of marifat is the attainment of supernatural things from Allah. People who have reached marifat will be exposed to a veil that is blocking it with Allah, he will find many things about the secrets of nature which is Allah's knowledge.