Jumat, 17 Maret 2023

The Domain of Cognitive, Affective, and Psychomotor Assessments

afdhalilahi.com /Realm of Cognitive, Affective, and Psychomotor Assessment - Assessment is an effort or action to determine the extent to which the set goals have been achieved or not. In other words, assessment functions as a tool to determine the success of the process and student learning outcomes. In the national education system, the formulation of educational goals, both curricular goals and instructional goals, uses the classification of learning outcomes from Benjamin Bloom which broadly divides them into three domains, namely the cognitive domain, the affective domain, and the psychomotor domain.

One of the basic principles that must always be considered and adhered to in the context of evaluating learning outcomes is the principle of unanimity, with the principle that evaluators in carrying out evaluations of learning outcomes are required to evaluate students thoroughly, both in terms of their understanding of the material or the lesson material that has been given (the aspect of cognitive), as well as in terms of appreciation (affective aspect), and practice (psychomotor aspect).
The three aspects or psychological domains are very close and even impossible to be separated from the activity or process of evaluating learning outcomes. Benjamin S. Bloom and his friends argue that the grouping of educational goals must always refer to three types of domains (target areas or domains) that are inherent in students, namely:
a) Domain of the thinking process (cognitive domain)
b) The realm of values ​​or attitudes (affective domain)
c) The domain of skills (psychomotor domain)
In the context of evaluating learning outcomes, it is these three domains or domains that must be targeted in each learning outcome evaluation activity. These three domains become the object of assessment of learning outcomes. Among the three domains, it is the cognitive domain that is most widely assessed by teachers in schools because it relates to students' ability to master the content of teaching materials.

A. Cognitive Realm
1. Understanding the Domain of Cognitive Assessment
The cognitive domain is the realm that includes mental (brain) activity. According to Bloom, all efforts related to brain activity are included in the cognitive domain. The cognitive domain relates to the ability to think, including the ability to memorize, understand, apply, analyze, synthesize, and evaluate. In the cognitive domain, there are six aspects or levels of thinking processes, starting from the lowest level to the highest level. The six levels or aspects in question are:

• Knowledge/memorization/memory (knowledge)
It is a person's ability to recall or recognize names, terms, ideas, formulas, etc., without expecting the ability to use them. Knowledge or memory is the lowest thought process.

• Understanding (comprehension)
Is the ability of a person to understand or understand something after something is known and remembered. In other words, understanding is knowing about something and being able to see it from various angles. A learner is said to understand something if he can provide an explanation or give a more detailed description of it using his own words. Comprehension is a higher level of thinking ability than memory or memorization.

• Application (application)
Is a person's ability to apply or use general ideas, procedures or methods, principles, formulas, theories and so on, in new and concrete situations. This application is a thinking process at a higher level than understanding.

• Analysis (analysis)
Is the ability of a person to detail or describe a material or condition according to smaller parts and be able to understand the relationship between one part or factor and other factors. The analysis level is one level higher than the application level.

• Synthesis (synthesis)
Is the ability to think which is the opposite of the process of thinking analysis. Synthesis is a process that combines parts or elements logically, so that they are transformed into a structured pattern or in the form of a new pattern. The level of synthesis is at a higher level than the level of analysis. One of the results of cognitive learning from this level of synthesis is: students can write essays about the importance of discipline as taught by Islam.

• Assessment/award/evaluation (evaluation)
Is the highest level of thinking in the cognitive domain in Bloom's taxonomy. Assessment/evaluation here is a person's ability to make judgments about a condition, value or idea, for example if a person is faced with several choices then he will be able to choose the best option in accordance with existing standards or criteria.

2. Characteristics of the Domain of Cognitive Assessment
The cognitive aspect relates to the ability to think, including the ability to understand, memorize, apply, analyze, synthesize and evaluate. According to Bloom's Taxonomy (Sax 1980), cognitive ability is the ability to think in a hierarchy consisting of knowledge, understanding, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation.
At the knowledge level, students answer questions based on memorization alone. At the level of understanding, students are required to state problems in their own words, give examples of a concept or principle. At the application level, students are required to apply principles and concepts in new situations. At the analysis level, students are asked to break down information into several parts, find assumptions, distinguish facts and opinions and find causal relationships. At the synthesis level, students are required to produce a story, composition, hypothesis or theory and synthesize their own knowledge. At the evaluation level, students evaluate information such as evidence, history, editorial,

The purpose of the cognitive aspect is oriented towards thinking skills which include simpler intellectual abilities, namely remembering, to the ability to solve problems that require students to connect and combine several ideas, ideas, methods or procedures learned to solve these problems. Thus the cognitive aspect is a sub-taxonomy that reveals mental activities that often start from the level of knowledge to the highest level, namely evaluation. The cognitive aspect consists of six levels with different learning aspects. The six levels are:
1. The level of knowledge, at this stage requires students to be able to remember (recall) various information that has been received previously, for example facts, formulas, terminology of problem solving strategies and so on.
2. The level of understanding (comprehension), at this stage the category of understanding is related to the ability to explain knowledge, information that is already known in their own words. At this stage students are expected to translate or restate what they have heard in their own words.
3. The level of application (application), application is the ability to use or apply information that has been learned into new situations, as well as solving various problems that arise in everyday life.
4. The level of analysis (analysis), analysis is the ability to identify, separate and distinguish the components or elements of a fact, concept, opinion, assumption, hypothesis or conclusion, and examine each of these components to see whether or not there is a contradiction. At this level students are expected to show the relationship between various ideas by comparing these ideas with standards, principles or procedures that have been studied.

5. The level of synthesis (synthesis), synthesis is a person's ability to link and unify various elements and elements of existing knowledge so that a new, more comprehensive pattern is formed.
6. Level of evaluation (evaluation), evaluation is the highest level that expects students to be able to make judgments and decisions about the value of an idea, method, product or object using certain criteria.

3. Example of Measurement of Cognitive Assessment Domain
If you look at the reality that exists in the education system that is held, in general it only applies some low-level cognitive aspects, such as knowledge, understanding and little application. While the level of analysis, synthesis and evaluation is rarely applied. If all cognitive levels are applied evenly and continuously, the educational results will be better. Measurement of learning outcomes in the cognitive domain is done by a written test. Forms of cognitive tests include;

• oral tests or questions in class,
• multiple choice,
• objective description,
• non-objective description or free description,
• short answers or entries,
• matchmaking,
• portfolio and
• performance.
The coverage measured in the Cognitive domain is:
a) Memory (C1) is a person's ability to remember. Characterized by the ability to mention symbols, terms, definitions, facts, rules, sequences, methods.
b) Understanding (C2) is a person's ability to understand something. Characterized by the ability to translate, interpret, estimate, determine, interpret.
c) Application (C3), namely the ability to think to capture & apply correctly about theories, principles, symbols in new/real situations. Characterized by the ability to connect, select, organize, move, compile, use, apply, classify, change the structure.
d) Analysis (C4), The ability to think logically in reviewing a fact/object becomes more detailed. Characterized by the ability to compare, analyze, find, allocate, differentiate, categorize.

e) Synthesis (C5), The ability to think to combine concepts logically so that they become a new pattern. Characterized by the ability to synthesize, infer, generate, develop, relate, specialize.
f) Evaluation (C6), the ability to think to be able to give consideration to a situation, value system, method, problem and solution by using certain benchmarks as a benchmark. Characterized by the ability to judge, interpret, consider and determine.

B. Affective Domain
1. Definition of the Domain of Affective Assessment
The affective domain is a realm related to attitudes and values. The affective domain includes behavioral traits such as feelings, interests, attitudes, emotions, and values. Some experts say that a person's attitude can be predicted to change if someone already has a high level of cognitive power. The characteristics of affective learning outcomes will appear in students in various behaviors.
The affective domain becomes even more detailed into five levels, namely:
a) receiving
b) responding
c) valuing
d) organization
e) characterization by evalue or calue complex
Receiving or attending (receiving or paying attention), is a person's sensitivity in receiving stimuli (stimuli) from outside that come to him in the form of problems, situations, symptoms and others. Included in this level, for example, are: awareness and desire to receive stimuli, control and select symptoms or stimuli that come from outside. Receiving or attending is also often given the meaning of a willingness to pay attention to an activity or an object. At this level, students are fostered so that they are willing to accept the values ​​or values ​​taught to them, and they are willing to incorporate themselves into those values ​​or identify with those values. Examples of affective learning outcomes at the receiving level, for example: students that discipline must be upheld,
Responding implies "active participation". So the ability to respond is the ability possessed by a person to involve himself actively in certain phenomena and react to them in one way or another. This level is higher than the receiving level. An example of learning outcomes in the affective domain of responding is that students grow their desire to learn more or explore Islamic teachings about discipline.

Valuing (assess / appreciate). Assessing or appreciating means giving value or giving appreciation to an activity or object, so that if the activity is not carried out, it is felt that it will bring loss or regret. Valuing is an affective level that is even higher than receiving and responding. In terms of the teaching and learning process, students here do not only want to accept the values ​​being taught but they have the ability to assess concepts or phenomena, namely good or bad. If it is a teaching that they have been able to value and are able to say "that is good", then this means that students have undergone an assessment process. That value began to be internalized within him. Thus these values ​​have been stable in students.
Organization (arrange or organize), means bringing together different values ​​so that a new universal value is formed, which leads to general improvement. Regulating or organizing is the development of values ​​into an organizational system, including the relationship between one value and another, strengthening and prioritizing the values ​​it already has.
Characterization by value or value complex (characterization by a value or value complex), namely the integration of all value systems that have been owned by a person, which influences his personality pattern and behavior. Here the process of internalizing values ​​has occupied the highest place in a value hierarchy. That value has been consistently embedded in his system and has influenced his emotions. This is the highest effective level, because the inner attitude of the students is truly wise. He already has an established philosophy of life. So at this level students already have a value system that has controlled their behavior for a long time, thus forming a characteristic "lifestyle" whose behavior is sedentary, consistent and predictable.
Schematically the five affective levels as stated in the discussion above, according to AJ Nitko (1983) can be described as follows:
The affective domain cannot be measured like the cognitive domain, because in the affective domain the abilities that are measured are: Receiving (paying attention), Responding, Appreciating, Organizing, and Characteristics of a value. The scale used to measure a person's affective domain of the activity of an object includes the attitude scale. The results are in the form of attitude categories, namely supporting (positive), rejecting (negative), and neutral. Attitude is essentially a tendency to behave in a person. There are three components of attitude, namely cognition, affection, and conation. Cognition relates to one's knowledge of the object it faces. Affect relates to feelings in response to the object, while conation relates to the tendency to act towards the object. Therefore, attitude is always meaningful when faced with a certain object.
The attitude scale is expressed in the form of a statement to be assessed by the respondent, whether the statement is supported or rejected, through a certain range of values. Therefore, the statements submitted are divided into two categories, namely positive statements and negative statements. One attitude scale that is often used is the Likert scale. In the Likert scale, the statements submitted, both positive and negative statements, were assessed by the subject as strongly agree, agree, have no opinion, disagree, strongly disagree.

2. Characteristics of the Affective Realm
Thought or behavior must have two criteria to be classified as an affective domain (Andersen, 1981:4). First, behavior involves one's feelings and emotions. Second, the behavior must be typical of a person's behavior. Other criteria included in the affective domain are intensity, direction, and targets. Intensity expresses the degree or strength of the feeling. Some feelings are stronger than others, for example love is stronger than pleasure or liking. Some people may have stronger feelings than others. The direction of feeling is related to the positive or negative orientation of the feeling which indicates whether the feeling is good or bad.

There are 5 types of affective characteristics that are important based on their goals, namely attitudes, interests, self-concept, values, and morals.
1. Attitude
According to Fishbein and Ajzen (1975) attitude is a learned predisposition to respond positively or negatively to an object, situation, concept, or person. Students' attitudes towards objects such as attitudes towards school or towards subjects. The attitude of these students is important to improve (Popham, 1999). The attitude of students towards subjects, for example English, must be more positive after students take part in learning English than before participating in learning. This change is one indicator of the success of educators in carrying out the learning process. For this reason, educators must make lesson plans including student learning experiences that make students' attitudes toward subjects more positive.

2. Interests
According to Getzel (1966), interest is an organized disposition through experience that encourages a person to acquire specific objects, activities, understandings, and skills for the purpose of attention or achievement. Meanwhile, according to the Big Indonesian Dictionary (1990: 583), interest or desire is a high tendency of the heart towards something. The important thing about interest is its intensity. In general, interest includes affective characteristics that have high intensity.
Interest assessments can be used to:
• knowing the interests of students so that it is easy for directions in learning,
• find out the true talents and interests of students,
• consideration of majors and individual student services,
• describe the situation directly in the field/class,

3. Self-Concept
According to Smith, self-concept is an individual's evaluation of their abilities and weaknesses. The target, direction, and intensity of self-concept are basically like any other affective domain. The target self-concept is usually people but can also be institutions such as schools. The direction of self-concept can be positive or negative, and its intensity can be expressed in a continuum area, from low to high. Self-concept assessment can be done with self-assessment. The advantages of self-assessment are as follows:
Educators are able to recognize the strengths and weaknesses of students.
· Learners are able to reflect on the competencies that have been achieved.
· Statements made in accordance with the wishes of the questioner.
· Provide self-motivation in terms of assessing student activities.
· Learners are more active and participate in the learning process.
Can be used as a reference for compiling teaching materials and knowing student input standards
· Learners can measure the ability to follow the lesson.
· Learners can know the completeness of learning.
· Train students' honesty and independence.
Students know the part that needs to be repaired.
· Learners understand their abilities.
· Educators obtain objective input about the absorption of students.
· Make it easier for educators to carry out remedial, the results can be for introspective learning carried out.
· Learners learn to be open with others.
Students are able to assess themselves.
· Learners can find their own material.
· Students can communicate with their friends.

4. Value
Value according to Rokeach (1968) is a belief about actions, actions, or behaviors that are considered good and those that are considered bad. It is further explained that attitude refers to an organization of a number of beliefs around a specific object or situation, while value refers to beliefs.
Another definition of value is conveyed by Tyler (1973:7), namely value is an object, activity, or idea expressed by an individual in directing interests, attitudes, and satisfaction. It is further explained that humans learn to evaluate an object, activity, and idea so that this object becomes an important regulator of interest, attitude, and satisfaction. Therefore educational units must help students find and strengthen meaningful and significant values ​​for students to gain personal happiness and make a positive contribution to society.

5. Moral
Piaget and Kohlberg discussed a lot about children's moral development. Yet Kohlberg ignores the problem of the relationship between moral judgment and moral action. It only learns one's moral principles through the interpretation of verbal responses to hypothetical dilemmas or guesses, not on how one actually acts.
Moral is related to feelings of right or wrong for the happiness of others or feelings for one's own actions. So morals are related to one's principles, values, and beliefs.
Other important affective domains are:
• Honesty: students must learn to respect honesty in interacting with others.
• Integrity: students must bind themselves to a code of values, for example moral and artistic.
• Fair: students must think that all people receive equal treatment in obtaining education.
• Freedom: students must believe that a democratic country gives freedom that is maximally responsible for everyone.

3. Example of measuring the domain of affective assessment
The competence of students in the affective domain that needs to be assessed mainly concerns the attitudes and interests of students in learning. Technically the assessment of the affective domain is carried out in two ways, namely:
a) self-report by students which is usually done by filling out anonymous questionnaires,
b) systematic observation by the teacher on students' affective and need observation sheets.
The affective domain cannot be measured like the cognitive domain, because in the affective domain the abilities that are measured are:
1. Receiving (paying attention), including sensitivity to conditions, symptoms, awareness, willingness, directing attention
2. Responding, including responding quietly, willing to respond, feeling satisfied in responding, obeying the rules
3. Appreciate, including accepting a value, prioritizing a value, commitment to value
4. Organizing, including conceptualizing values, understanding abstract relationships, organizing a system of values.

C. The Psychomotor Domain
1. Definition of the Domain of Psychomotor Assessment
The psychomotor domain is a domain related to skills or the ability to act after a person receives a certain learning experience. The psychomotor domain is the realm associated with physical activity, for example running, jumping, painting, dancing, hitting, and so on. The results of psychomotor learning were put forward by Simpson (1956) who stated that these psychomotor learning outcomes appeared in the form of skills and individual acting abilities. These psychomotor learning outcomes are actually a continuation of cognitive learning outcomes (understanding something) and affective learning outcomes (which only appear in the form of behavioral tendencies).

2. Characteristics of the Psychomotor Assessment Realm
The psychomotor domain relates to learning outcomes achieved through manipulation skills involving muscles and physical strength. The psychomotor domain is a domain related to physical activity, for example; writing, hitting, jumping and so on.

3. Example of measuring the domain of psychomotor assessment
Some experts explain how to assess psychomotor learning outcomes. Ryan (1980) explains that skills learning outcomes can be measured through
1. direct observation and assessment of student behavior during the practical learning process takes place,
2. after participating in learning, namely by giving tests to students to measure knowledge, skills, and attitudes,
3. Some time after learning is finished and later in the work environment.
Meanwhile Leighbody (1968) argues that the assessment of psychomotor learning outcomes includes:
• ability to use tools and work attitude,
• the ability to analyze a job and arrange sequences of work,
• speed of doing tasks,
• ability to read pictures and or symbols,
• conformity with the expected shape and or predetermined size.
From the explanation above, it can be concluded that the assessment of psychomotor learning outcomes or skills must include preparation, process, and product. Assessment can be carried out during the process, namely when students are practicing, or after the process takes place by testing students.
Psychomotor assessment can be done using observation or observation. Observation as an assessment tool is widely used to measure individual behavior or the process of occurrence of an activity that can be observed, both in actual situations and in artificial situations. In other words, observation can measure or assess learning or psychomotor outcomes and processes. For example the behavior of students when practicing, student discussion activities, student participation in simulations, and the use of alins when learning.
Observations were made during the activity process. Observers must first determine the lattice of what behavior they want to observe, then guidelines are made to make it easier to fill in the observations. Filling in the results of observations in the guidelines made can actually be filled in freely in the form of a description of the behavior that appears to be observed, it can also be in the form of putting a check mark (√) in the column for answers to the results of observations./susila-besmart

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