Biography of Hadith Scholar Zainab bint Jahsy Radhiyallahu 'anha.
The marriage of Rasulullah Sallallahu Alaihi Wassalam with Zainab bint Jahsy was based on God's command as an answer to the tradition of ignorance. Zainab binti Jahsy is the wife of the Prophet from her own family. Zainab is the daughter and aunt of the Prophet, Umaimah bint Abdul Muttalib. He loves Zainab very much.
Lineage and Time of Growth
Zainab's full name is Zainab binti Jahsy bin Ri'ab bin Ya'mar bin Sharah bin Murrah bin Kabir bin Gham bin Dauran bin Asad bin Khuzaimah. Before marrying the Prophet, her name was Barrah, then changed by the Prophet to Zainab after marrying him. The mother of Zainab was named Umaimah bint Abdul-Muthalib bin Hasyim bin Abdi Manaf bin Qushai.
Zainab was born in Mecca twenty years before prophethood. His father is Jahsy bin Ri'ab. He belongs to the Quraysh leaders who are generous and have good character. The beautiful Zainab grew up in a respectable family, so it is not surprising if the Quraish called her the beautiful Quraish woman.
Zainab is one of the women who converted to Islam. God has enlightened the hearts of his father and his family so that they embraced Islam. He migrated to Medina with his family. At that time, she was still a girl, even though she was old enough to marry.
Her marriage to Zaid bin Haritsah
There are several verses in the Qur'an that command Zainab and Zaid to marry.
Zainab came from an honorable class, while Zaid bin Haritsah was the slave of the Prophet whom he loved very much, so that the Muslims called him the beloved of the Prophet. Zaid comes from an Arab family where both parents are Christians. When he was still a child, he was separated from his parents because he was kidnapped, then he was bought by Hakam bin Hizam for his aunt, Khadijah bint Khuwailid, and then he gave it to the Messenger of God Shallallahu Alaihi Wassalam.
Zaid's father, Haritsah bin Syarahil, always looked for him until he heard that Zaid was in the Prophet's house. When the Messenger of Allah told Zaid to choose between staying with him or returning to his parents and uncle, Zaid said, "I do not want them both, nor do I want anyone else that you have chosen for me." You are both a father and an uncle to me." After that, the Messenger of Allah announced the release of Zaid and his adoption as a son. When Islam came, Zaid was the first to embrace Islam from among the slaves. He was always near the Prophet, especially after he left Mecca, so he loved him very much, he even said about Zaid,
“The person I love is the person whom Allah and I have given blessings to. (HR. Ahmad)
Allah has blessed Zaid with his Islam and the Prophet has blessed him with his freedom.
When the Prophet migrated to Medina, he befriended Zaid with Hamzah bin Abdul Muttalib. In many wars, Zaid was always with the Prophet, and not infrequently he was appointed to be the commander of the army. About Zaid, Aisyah once said, "The Messenger of God did not send Zaid to the battlefield unless he always made him the commander of the forces. If he had remained alive, he would have made him his successor."
There are still many stories that explain Zaid's position with the Prophet Shallallahu Alaihi Wassalam.. When he arrived in Medina, he proposed to Zainab bint Jahsy for Zaid bin Haritsah. Originally Zainab hated Zaid and opposed marrying him, as well as her brother. According to them, how could a beautiful and respectable girl marry a boy? The Messenger of Allah advised them both and explained Zaid's position in his heart, until the verse was revealed to them:
It is not for a believing man, male or female, when God and His Messenger have decided a matter to have any choice over their matter. And whoever disobeys God and His Messenger has gone astray. A clear error
"And it is not appropriate for a believing man and not (nor) for a believing woman, when Allah and His Messenger have established a decision, there will be for them (another) choice regarding their affairs. And whoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger, then he has truly gone astray, clearly astray." (Q.S. Al-Ahzab 33: 36)
Finally Zainab married Zaid as an implementation of Allah's orders, even though Zainab actually didn't like Zaid. Through that marriage the Prophet sallallaahu alaihi wassalam. wants to show that there is no difference between people except in their piety and good deeds. This marriage also aims to eliminate the ignorant tradition of being proud of oneself and one's offspring. However, Zainab still couldn't accept the marriage because there were big differences between the two of them. In front of Zaid, Zainab always brags about herself, which hurts Zaid's heart. Zaid went to the Prophet to complain about Zainab's treatment of him. Rasulullah Sallallahu Alaihi Wassalam told him to be patient, and Zaid followed his advice. However, he returned to the Prophet and stated that he was no longer able to live with Zainab.
Hearing that, he said, "Continue to protect your wife and fear God." Then he reminded that marriage is God's command. A few moments later the verse came down, "Continue to protect your wife and fear God." Zaid tried to calm Din and be patient, but Zainab's behavior could not be controlled, and finally divorce happened. Later, Zainab was married to the Prophet.
The basic principle behind the Prophet's marriage with Zainab bint Jahsy was to eliminate the tradition of child adoption that took place in the age of ignorance. That is, the Messenger of Allah wanted to explain that an adopted child is not the same as a natural child, as in the case of Zaid bin Haritsah who was adopted as a child by him before the revelation of the Qur'anic verse. Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta'ala says,
Call them by their fathers. That is fairer in the sight of God. If you do not know their fathers, then they are your brothers in religion and your friends. And there is no blame on you for what you made a mistake. Whatever your hearts intend, and God is Forgiving and Merciful.
"Call them (the adopted children) by (wearing) the names of their fathers,' that is fairer in the sight of God, and if you do not know their fathers, then (call them as) brothers of the same religion and Your eunuchs." (QS. Al-Ahzab 33:5)
Therefore, a person does not have the right to recognize blood relations and ask for inheritance rights from adoptive (not biological) parents. That's why Rasulullah married Zainab after divorcing Zaid, who was considered by many people to be Muhammad's son. Allah has sent down a revelation so that Zaid divorced his wife and then married the Prophet. At first Rasulullab did not pay attention to this order, and even asked Zaid to keep his wife.
God warns again in the verse:
And when you said to him whom God had bestowed, and upon whom you had bestowed goodness, “Keep your wife to yourself, and fear God,” and you concealed within yourself what God will reveal, and you feared people, and God is more worthy that you should fear Him. So when Zayd had spent a period of time with her, We married her to you so that the believers would not be embarrassed regarding the wives of their pretenders when he decided. And among them is a rain, and the command of God is carried out.
"And (remember), when you say to a person on whom God has bestowed favors and you (also) have given favors to him, 'Hold on to your wife and fear God,' while you are hiding in your hearts what God will reveal, and you fear man, while Allah is the one you have more right to fear. So when Zaid had completed the needs of his wife (divorced her), We married you to him so that there would be no objection for the believers to (marry) the wives of their adopted children, when the adopted children had completed the needs of his wife. And it is God's decree that it must happen." (QS. Al-Ahzab 33:37)
The verse above is God's command for the Prophet, may God bless him and grant him peace. married Zainab with the aim of correcting the misunderstanding about the position of adopted children.
Rasulullah Shallallahu Alaihi Wassalam. sent someone to inform Zainab about Allah's order. How happy Zainab was when she heard the news, and the wedding party was immediately held and attended by the people of Medina.
Zainab began to enter the household of the Prophet on the basis of Allah's revelation. She was the only wife of the Prophet and his closest relative. The Prophet did not need to ask permission to enter Zainab's house, whereas he always asked permission from his other wives. This habit apparently aroused jealousy in the hearts of the other Apostle's wives. Hypocrites who were not happy with the development of Islam exaggerated the slander that the Messenger of Allah had married his own son's wife. Because of this, a verse was revealed that said, "Muhammad was never the father of a man among you, but he was the Messenger of Allah and the Seal of the Prophets... " (Qs. Al-Ahzab: 40)
Zainab said to the Prophet, "I am your wife who has the greatest right over you, I am the best messenger among them, and I am also the closest relative among them. God married me to you by order from heaven, and Gabriel brought the order. I am your aunt's son. You are not related to them as you are to me.” Zainab loved the Prophet very much and felt that his life was very happy. However, he was very jealous of the Prophet's other wives, so that the Prophet once did not sleep with him for two or three months as a punishment for his words that hurt the heart of Shafiyyah bint Huyay bin Akhtab, the Jewish woman.
Zainab has skilled hands, tanning leather and selling it, also doing embroidery, and the proceeds are spent in the path of God.
Zainab bint Jahsy was the wife of the Prophet who first died after him, namely in the twentieth year of Hijrah, during the caliphate of Umar bin Khattab, at the age of 53, and was buried in Baqi. In a narration it is said that Zainab said before her death, "I have prepared my shroud, but Umar will send me a shroud, so give charity with one of them. If you can give charity with all my rights, do it from the other side." Throughout her life, Zainab gave a lot of charity in the way of God.
About Zainab, Aisyah said, "May God love Zainab. He is much like me in his position in the heart of the Prophet. I have never seen a woman with better religion than Zainab. He is very pious to God, his words are the most honest, he likes to connect the ties of friendship the most, he gives the most charity, he sacrifices himself a lot in working to be able to give charity, and he always draws himself closer to God. Apart from Saudah, he is the one who has a hard character."
May Allah grant him (Sayyidah Zainab Binti Jahsy) glory in the afterlife and be placed with pious servants. Amen.
Source: Book Dzaujatur-Rasulullah, Works of Amru Yusuf, Publisher Darus-Sa'abu, Riyadh