Selasa, 21 November 2023

Biography of Hadith Scholar Umm Salamah Radhiyallahu 'anha.

Umm Salamah was an Ummul-Mukminin who had a strong, beautiful and charming personality, and had the spirit of jihad and patience in facing trials, especially after separating from her husband and children. Thanks to his maturity in thinking and accuracy in making decisions, he received a noble position at the side of the Prophet sallallaahu alaihi wassalam.

In the Sirah of the Ummahatul Mu'minin, it is explained about the many noble attitudes and important events from her that Muslims can emulate, both her attitude as a wife who always protects the honor of her family and as a fighter in the path of God.

Umm Salamah's real name is Hindun binti Suhail, known as Umm Salamah. He grew up in an aristocratic environment from the Quraish tribe. His father's name is Suhail bin Mughirah bin Makhzurn. Among his people, Suhail was known as a philanthropist so he was nicknamed Dzadur-Rakib (host of travelers) because he always entertained everyone who joined him on the journey. He is the leader of his people, the richest, and the greatest authority. Umm Salamah's mother's name is Atikah binti Amir bin Rabi'ah bin Malik bin Jazimah bin Alqamah al-Kananiyah who comes from Bani Faras. Thus, Hindus grew up in a respected and respected aristocratic environment. Her beauty melts everyone who sees her and her personal goodness has been ingrained since childhood.

Marriage and its Struggle

Many Meccan youths wanted to marry Hindun, and the one who succeeded in marrying her was Abdullah bin Abdul Asad bin Hilal bin Abdullah bin Umar bin Makhzum, a famous horseman from the valiant Bani Quraysh warriors. His mother's name was Barrah bint Abdul-Muththalib bin Hasyim, aunt of the Prophet Shallallahu Alaihi Wassalam. Abdullah was the Prophet's brother from Tsuwaibah, the slave of Abu Lahab. They lived happily, and their household was filled with harmony and prosperity.

Not long after that, the preaching of Islam attracted their hearts so they embraced Islam and became the first people to convert to Islam. Likewise with Hindun, she was among the first to convert to Islam, and together with her husband began the struggle for their lives.

The Quraysh always harassed and tortured the Muslims so that they would leave Islam and return to the religion of their ancestors. Seeing such conditions, Rasulullah Shallallahu Alaihi Wassalam. allowed them to migrate to Abyssinia, so they were called the first emigrants. They settled in Abyssinia, and there Hindun gave birth to her children: Zainab, Salamah, Umar, and Durrah.

After some time, they intended to return to Mecca, especially after hearing about the Islam of two important Quraish figures, Umar bin Khaththab and Hamzah bin Abdul-Muththalib. However, it turned out that the torture was still ongoing, even more severe. To protect the honor of himself and his family, Abu Salamah asked for protection from Abu Talib (the Prophet's uncle) from the torment of his people, namely the Bani Makhzum, and Abu Talib declared his protection.

Trials Come

Because the Quraysh were still torturing the Muslims, Allah finally opened the hearts of the people of Medina to accept Islam. Then the Prophet permitted the Muslims to emigrate there, both as groups and individually. Abu Salamah, his wife and son (Salamah) moved there. On the way, they were intercepted by the Bani Makhzum (Umm Salamah's tribe) who then seized and took Umm Salamah hostage. Abu Salamah's family (Bani Asad) intervened and they refused to hand over Salamah, in fact the child was seized and kept away from his mother. Meanwhile, the Bani Makhzum kidnapped Umm Salamah and imprisoned her. Meanwhile, Abu Salamah was left to go to Yathrib with a heart full of sadness because he had to be separated from his wife and children.

This situation lasted for approximately a year. Umm Salamah kept crying because she was disappointed with the actions of her people, so that finally a man from her people felt sorry for her and let Umm Salamah follow her husband in Medina. Meanwhile, Bani Asad handed back his son, Salamah, to him. However, he had to face many obstacles, and thanks to his faith and strong desire, he was able to overcome them all and arrive in Medina.

Abu Salamah's message to his wife

In defending Islam, the role of Abu Salamah is very large. He is known to be brave in battle. The Prophet appreciated him by appointing him as the representative of the Prophet in Medina when he went to lead the army in the battle of Dzil Asyira in the second year of Hijri. Abu Salamah participated in the Battle of Badr and Uhud. When in the battle of Uhud, Abu Salamah suffered a serious wound and almost died, but a few moments later he recovered.

After the Battle of Uhud, Rasulullah Shallallahu Alaihi Wassalam. wrote the news that Bani Asad wanted to attack the Muslims in Medina. Before they attacked, Rasulullah Shallallahu Alaihi Wassalam. take the initiative ahead of them. In this mission, he appointed Abu Salamah to lead a team of one hundred and fifty people and included Saad bin Abi Waqash, Abu Ubaidah bin Jarrah, Amir bin Jarrah, and others. The team was directed to the Quthn Hill, where the Bani Asad springs. A glorious victory was won by Abu Salamah's forces, and they returned to Medina with many spoils of war. In Medina, Abu Salamah's wounds worsened so much that he had to rest for some time. When he was sick, the Prophet always visited and prayed for him.

Umm Salamah always accompanied her husband when he was sick so she cared for and looked after him day and night. One day, Abu Salamah's fever got worse, then Umm Salamah said to her husband, "I received news that a woman whose husband died, then her husband went to heaven, his wife will also go to heaven, if after that his wife does not remarry, and Allah will collect they will be in heaven. Likewise, if the wife dies, and her husband does not remarry after she dies. For that, let's promise that you will not marry again after I die, and I promise you not to marry again after you die." Abu Salamah said, "Will you obey my orders?" He answered, "As for me, I only consult to obey." Abu Salamah said, "If I die, then get married." Then he prayed to Allah "O Allah, grant to Umm Salamah after me someone better than me, who will not suffer or hurt her."

In the last moments of his life, Rasulullah Shallallahu Alaihi Wassalam. always be by Abu Salamah's side and always pray to God for his healing. However, God wants something else. A few moments later death came to pick up. The Messenger of Allah covered Abu Salamah's eyes with his noble hands and recited Takbir nine times. Among those present, someone said, "O Messenger of Allah, are you in a state of forgetfulness?" He replied, "I am not at all in a state of forgetfulness, even if I say takbir for him a thousand times, he is entitled to that takbir." Then he turned to Umm Salamah and said, "Whoever is afflicted with a calamity, then say as Allah has commanded, 'Indeed we belong to Allah, and to Him we shall be returned. Oh God, have mercy on me in my calamity and give me a better replacement than it, then God will perform it for him."

After that Rasulullah Shallallahu Alaihi Wassalam. pray: "Oh God, give him patience for his sadness, comfort him from the calamity that befell him, and give him a better replacement."

Abu Salamah died after fighting to uphold Islam, and he had obtained a noble position at the side of the Prophet. After the death of Abu Salamah, Umm Salarnah was filled with sadness. She became a widow and mother to orphans.

After Abu Salarnah's death, leaders from among the friends immediately proposed to Umm Salamah. They did this as a sign of respect for her husband and to protect Umm Salamah herself. So Abu Bakr ash-Siddiq and Umar bin al-Khaththab proposed to her, but Umm Salamah refused.

When she was saddened by her husband whom she truly loved and had not yet found anyone better than him, she was visited by Rasulullah Sallallahu Alaihi Wassalam. with the intention of comforting him and alleviating what he was experiencing. The Messenger of Allah said to him, "Ask Allah that He will reward you for your misfortune and replace you (husband) with a better one." Umm Salamah asked, "Who is better than Abu Salamah, O Messenger of Allah?"

In the Prophet's House.

The Prophet began to think about Umm Salamah, a mujahidah believer who has patience, and Umm Salamah had rejected the proposal of two of her friends, Abu Bakr and Umar. The Prophet thought with full consideration and love not to let him dissolve in sadness and loneliness.

In such a situation, the Messenger of Allah sent Hathib bin Abi Balta'ah to meet Umm Salarnah with the intention of proposing to him. So Umm Salamah accepted the proposal. How is it possible for him not to accept a proposal from someone better than Abu Salamah, even better and everyone in the world.

With that marriage, Umm Salamah was included among the Ummahatul-Mu'minin, and by the Messenger of Allah she was placed in the room of Zainab bint Khuzaimah who was called Ummul-Masakiin (mother of the poor) until Umm Salamah died.

Umm Salamah told us this. He said, "I was married by Rasulullah Sallallahu Alaihi Wassalam., then I was moved and placed in Zainab's (ummul-masakiin) house."

Some of the privileges that Umm Salamah has are logical sharpness, maturity of thinking, and correct decisions on many matters. Because of that, he has a great position on the side of the Messenger of God, Shallallahu Alaihi Wassalam., such as his interaction with the Ummahatul-Mukminin which is an interaction covered with love and tenderness.

His great position

Among the things that show his high position on the side of the Messenger of Allah, may God bless him and grant him peace, is what Urwah bin Zubair said, "The Messenger of Allah, may God bless him and grant him peace. told Umm Salamah to perform the dawn prayer in Mecca on the day of slaughter (sacrifice) - even though it was her day (turn). For this reason, the Messenger of Allah was pleased with his agreement."

Similarly, the hadith of Ummi Kulsum bint Uqbah was included by Ibnu Sa'ad in his (book) Thabaqat. Ummi Kultsum said, "When the Prophet Shallallahu Alaihi Wassalam. married Umm Salamah, he said to her, 'Indeed, I gave King Najasyi a number of vessels containing perfume and blankets. However, I dreamed that King Najasyi had died, then the gift I gave him was returned to me. Because it was returned to me, then the item became mine."

As the Prophet Shallallahu Alaihi Wassalam said, King Najasyi died, and the gift was returned to him. Then he gave each of his wives one uqiyah (1/2 Egyptian liter) and he gave the rest of it and a blanket to Umm Salamah.

After Umm Salamah became his wife, the Prophet Shallallahu Alaihi Wassalam. including him among the ahlul-bait. Among the narrations about the problem is that one day the Messenger of Allah was at Umm Salamah's side, and Umm Salamah's daughter was there. The Prophet was then approached by his daughter, Fatimah azZahra, accompanied by her two sons, Hasan and Husain r.a., then the Prophet embraced Fatimah and said, "May God's mercy and blessings be upon you, O people of the household. Verily He is Praiseworthy (again) Glorious."

Then Umm Salamah cried. So Rasulullah Shallallahu Alaihi Wassalam. asked about the cause of her crying. He answered, "O Messenger of Allah, you privileged them while you abandoned me and my daughter. He said, "Indeed, you and your daughter are part of my family."

Umm Salamah's daughter, Zainab, grew up in the care of Rasulullah Sallallahu Alaihi Wassalam. she was among the most knowledgeable women of her time.

Before Rasulullah Shallallahu Alaihi Wassalam. married Umm Salamah, a revelation once came down to the Messenger of Allah in Aisyah's room, with which Aisyah bragged about it to his other wives. So after the Prophet married Umm Salamah, a revelation came to him when he was in Umm Salamah's room.

Some Excellent Attitudes During Umm Salamah's Lifetime.

Among his great attitude is what he showed to the Prophet Shallallahu Alaihi Wassalam. on the day (agreement) of Hudaybiyah. At that time he was with the Messenger of Allah, may God bless him and grant him peace. on his way to Mecca with the purpose of performing Umrah, but the polytheists prevented them from entering Mecca, and the Hudaybiyah Agreement occurred between the two sides. However, the majority of Muslims feel betrayed and feel that polytheists are wasting a number of Muslim rights. Among the majority who held grudges was Umar bin al-Khatthab, who said to the Messenger of Allah in his conversation with him, "For what do we give up our lives in our religion?" Rasulullah Sallallahu Alaihi Wassalam. replied, "I am a servant of God and His Messenger. I will not disobey His command, and He will not forsake me.” However, the signs of danger intensified after the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him. ordered the Muslims to slaughter the sacrificial animal and then shave, but none of them did it. He repeated his call three times without any response. He met his wife, Umm Salamah, and told her about the attitude of the Muslims. Umm Salamah said, "O Prophet of God, do you want this order of God to be carried out by the Muslims? Go out, then don't speak a word to any of them until you slaughter your sacrifice and call the barber who shaves you."

Rasulullah Shallallahu Alaihi Wassalam. amazed at his opinion and got up to do as Umm Salamah proposed. When the Muslims saw the Messenger of Allah doing this without saying anything to them, they got up and slaughtered and some of them began to shave the heads of others without any feeling of complaint or regret for the actions of the Messenger of Allah who preceded them.

Umm Salamah joined the Messenger of Allah, may God bless him and grant him peace. in many wars, namely the war of Khaibar, the Liberation of Mecca, the siege of Tha'if, the war of Hawazin, Tsaqif then accompanied him in Hajj Wada'.

We have not forgotten his attitude towards Umar bin al-Khatthab, when Urnar came to him and invited him to talk about the needs of the Ummahatul-Mukminin to Rasulullah Shallallahu Alaihi Wassalam. and their rudeness towards the Prophet. So he said, "You are strange, son of al-Khatthab. You have interfered in every matter to the extent that you want to interfere in the affairs of the Messenger of Allah, may God bless him and grant him peace. with his wives?"

After Rasulullah Sallallahu Alaihi Wassalam. passed away, he always remembers him and is very saddened by his death. He always fasts and worships a lot, is not stingy with knowledge, and narrates hadiths that originate with the Prophet, may God bless him and grant him peace.

He has narrated so many authentic hadiths which are sourced from the Messenger of Allah and his husband, Abu Salamah, as well as from Fatimah az-Zahraa. While there are many people who narrated from him, among them are his children and leaders and companions and hadith experts.

Among some of his real attitudes was on the day of the liberation of the city of Mecca. At that time, the Prophet came out of Medina with his army with greatness and numbers that the Arabs had never seen before, so that the polytheists of Quraysh felt fear, and they came out of the house with the intention of meeting the Messenger of God to repent and declare their Islam.

Including among them, Abu Sufyan bin al-Harts bin Abdul-Muththalib (uncle of the Messenger of God, may God bless him and grant him peace.) and Abdullah bin Abi Umayyah bin al-Mughirah (the cousin [of the father] of the Prophet, Umm Salamah's half-brother). When the two of them asked permission to enter to see the Messenger of Allah, may God bless him and grant him peace, he refused to grant them permission to enter due to their harsh torture of the Muslim community prior to his emigration from Mecca.

So Umm Salamah said to the Messenger of Allah with a feeling of compassion for her own family and also the Prophet's family, "O Messenger of Allah, they are both your sons and daughters (and father) and your brother-in-law." The Prophet replied, "There is no need for me with them both. As for my step-son, I have been treated badly by him. As for my aunt's son (from my father's side) and my brother-in-law have spoken in Mecca with what he said."

This statement reached Abu Sufyan, the son of Rasulullah's uncle. So he said, "By Allah, he must allow me or I take this child with both my hands - at that time he was with his son, Ja'far - then Karni will have to wander the world and die of thirst and hunger."

Then Umm Salamah told the words of Abu Sufyan to the Messenger of Allah, may God bless him and grant him peace. by asking for mercy again. Finally, his heart softened, and he allowed the two to enter. So both of them entered and declared Islam and repented in front of the Messenger of Allah.

His attitude towards defamation

Umm Salamah was always at home, always sincerely worshiping Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta'ala and guarding the Sunnah of her beloved husband during the time (caliphate) of Abu Bakar ash-Shiddiq and Umar bin al-Khatthab.

During the caliphate of Uthman bin Affan, he saw the turmoil of the situation and the division of the Muslim community around the caliph. The danger of slander is rising in the sky of Muslims. So he went to meet Uthman and advised him to stick to the guidance of the Messenger of Allah, may God bless him and grant him peace. as well as the guidance of Abu Bakr and Umar bin al-Khatthab, do not deviate and the guidance forever.

What Umm Salamah was worried about also happened, namely the murder of Uthman who at that time was reading the Koran and the wind of slander was blowing strongly against the Muslims. At that time Aisyah had made up her mind to go out to Basrah accompanied by Thalhah bin Ubaidillah and Zubair bin al-'Awwam with the aim of mobilizing the masses to fight Ali bin Abi Talib. So Umm Salamah sent a letter containing beautiful literature to Aisyah.

From Umm Salamah, Wife of the Prophet Shallallahu Alaihi Wassalam., for Aisyah Ummul-Mu'minin.

Indeed, I praise Allah who has no god but Him. Amma ba'du.

You have really torn the barrier between Rasulullah Sallallahu Alaihi Wassalam. and his people who are hijab which has been set as forbidden. Indeed, the Qur'an has given you glory, so don't let it go.

And Allah has restrained your voice, so do not let it out. And Allah has confirmed for this nation that if the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, knowing that women have the obligation of jihad (to fight), he must have told you to take care of it.

Don't you know that he forbids you from going beyond your limits in religion, because in fact the pillars of religion cannot be strengthened by the intervention of women if the pillars have tilted, and cannot be repaired by women if they have been destroyed.

Women's Jihad is submitting to all provisions, raising children, and pouring out their love.

Umm Salamah was on Ali bin Abi Talib's side because she followed the agreement of the Muslims regarding his election as their caliph. Because of this, Umm Salamah sent/sent her son, Umar, to join the war in Ali's ranks.

At the Time of His Death

In the 59th year of the Hijriah, Umm Salamah was 84 years old. Old age and senility creep in with increasing age. Allah Ta'ala raised his holy spirit upwards into His presence. He died after a life filled with activities filled with sacrifice, jihad and patience in the path of Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta'ala and His Messenger.

He was prayed for by Abu Hurairah Radhiyallahu'anhu and buried in al-Baqi' next to the graves of other Ummahatul-Mukminin.

May God's mercy always be with Sayyidah Umm Salamah. and may God give him a worthy place in His presence. Amen.

Source: Book Dzaujatur-Rasulullah, Works of Amru Yusuf, Publisher Darus-Sa'abu, Riyadh

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