"ETHICS, MORALS AND ACHIEVEMENTS"
Compiled by: Group 6
Name: 1. Fadila Hamda Tambunan
2. Khoirul Rintonga
3. Lanmaida Hasibuan
4. Yayang Anugrah Pratama Nasution
Study Program: Primary School Teacher Education
Lecturer: Afdhal Divine, S.Pd.I., M.Pd
FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND LANGUAGES EDUCATION
SOUTH TAPANULI INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION (IPTS)
PADANG SIDEMPUAN 2023
We would like to express our gratitude to the presence of Allah SWT for His blessings, mercy and grace so that we can complete the paper "Ethics, Morals and Morals" to fulfill the assignment for the religious education course.
We don't forget to always give prayers and greetings to our great prophet, namely Prophet Muhammad SAW, who has conveyed the guidance of Allah SWT to all of us, which is the most correct guidance, namely the perfect Islamic Sharia and is the single greatest gift for us. the whole universe.
We also do not forget to express our deepest thanks to every party who has supported and helped us during the process of completing this paper until the completion of this paper.
We realize that this paper is still far from perfection and we have tried our best in preparing this paper assignment. Therefore, we really hope for criticism, suggestions and good advice to improve this paper in the future.
That's what we can convey, hopefully this paper can be useful and useful for all of us.
Padang Sidempuan, 20 October 2023
LIST OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS II
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION III
Problem Formulation 1
Writing purpose................................................ ................................ 1
CHAPTER II DISCUSSION 2
Concepts of Ethics, Morals and Morals 1
The Relationship between Sufism and Morals 3
Indicators of Moral Humans 4
Morals and Their Actualization in Life ....................................... 5
Various kinds of morals in life…………………………. 5
CHAPTER III CLOSING IV
The history of religion shows that the happiness to be achieved by implementing religious sharia can only be achieved by having good morals. Belief which only takes the form of knowledge about the oneness of Allah SWT, worship which is carried out only as a formality, muamalah which is only a rule stated in the book. , all of that is not a guarantee for achieving that happiness.
The emergence of moral awareness and human standing towards Him is the basis that determines the style of human life. Akhlak, or morality, or morals is a pattern of action based on the absolute value of goodness. Moral life and every moral act is the right answer to moral awareness, On the other hand, an immoral life and every violation of morality is against that awareness.
Moral awareness is a human's awareness of himself, where humans see or feel themselves as dealing with good and bad. That is where they differentiate between halal and haram, right and wrong, what can and cannot be done, even though they can do it. That is something that is specifically human. In the animal world there are no things that are good and bad or inappropriate, because only humans understand themselves, only humans as subjects realize that they are dealing with their actions, before, during and after the work is done. So as subjects who experience He can be held responsible for his actions.
Formulation of the problem
Concepts of Ethics, Morals and Morals
The Relationship between Sufism and Morals
Indicators of human character
Morals and their actualization in life
C. Purpose of Writing
1. To understand the meaning and differences between ethics, morals and morals
2. Understand the relationship between Sufism and morals
3. Know the indicators of a human being with morals
4. Knowing morals and their actualization in life
Concepts of Ethics, Morals and Morals
Ethics or manners are the ethics and morals recommended in Islamic teachings, which is a science that teaches and guides humans to good behavior and abstains from bad behavior in accordance with Islamic teachings and does not conflict with the teachings of the Qur'an and the hadith contained in in the Al-Quran and Sunnah, by following the example of the Prophet Muhammad, who in the Islamic faith is declared to be the most perfect human being in morals. According to Islamic scholars, ethics is the science that explains the meaning of good and bad, explains what humans should do, states their goals. that humans should aim for in their actions and show the way to do what they should do.
As a branch of philosophical thought, ethics can be divided into two:
The view that the goodness of an action is objective, lies in the substance of the action itself. This understanding gave birth to what is called rationalism in ethics. An action is called good, this ideology says, not because we like doing it, or because it is in line with the will of society, but simply because it is a decision of universal rationalism that urges us to do so.
Holds the view that an action is called good if it is in line with the will or considerations of a particular subject. The subject here could be collective subjectivism, namely society, or it could be the subject of God.
All kinds of ethics
1) Descriptive ethics is ethics that talks about facts, namely about values and patterns of human behavior related to situations and realities that are entrenched in people's lives.
2) Normative Ethics is ethics that provides assessments and advice to humans about how to act according to applicable norms. Regarding the norms that guide human behavior in daily life, Allah says in (QS. Al Azhab 21)
Indeed, in the Messenger of God, there has been for you a good example for whoever hopes in God and the Last Day, and remembers God often.
Meaning: "Indeed there is (in) the Messenger of Allah a good role model for you (namely) for those who hope for (the mercy of) Allah and (the coming of) the Day of Judgment and he mentions Allah a lot
The word moral comes from the Latin "mores" which is plural which means custom. In the Indonesian dictionary it is said that morals are a determinant of good and bad in actions and behavior. Furthermore, moral in the meaning of the term is a term used to determine the boundaries of nature, temperament, will, opinion or action that can properly be said to be right, wrong, good or bad.
If the meanings of ethics and morals are connected to one another, we can say that ethics and morals have the same object, namely that they both discuss human actions and then determine whether their position is good or bad. However, in several respects, ethics and morals have differences. Firstly, when discussing ethics, to determine the value of good or bad human actions we use the standard of reason or ratio, while the moral benchmark used is the norms that grow and develop and take place in society. Thus, ethics is more in the nature of philosophical thinking and exists in concepts, while ethics is in the realm of reality and appears in behavior that develops in society. Allah SWT says in (Qs. Al-Maidah 27-31).
It is because of God’s mercy that you were kind to them. And if you had been harsh and hard-hearted, they would have dispersed from around you. So pardon them, ask forgiveness for them, and consult with Him. In your matter, then when you have decided, put your trust in God. Indeed, God loves those who put their trust in Him.
"Then by the grace of God you (Muhammad) behave gently towards them. If you are harsh and rude, of course they will stay away from you. Therefore forgive them and ask forgiveness for them, and consult with them in the matter. Then, when you have made up your mind, put your trust in God. Truly, God loves those who trust."
Difference between Ethics and Morals
Ethics and morals have the same meaning but in everyday use there are slight differences. Morals or morals are used for actions that are being assessed, while ethics are used to assess the existing value system. Moral awareness includes three things, namely:
a. Feelings of obligation or necessity to carry out moral actions.
b. Moral awareness can also be rational and objective.
c. Moral awareness can also appear in the form of freedom
Morals come from Arabic, namely isim mashdar (infinitive form) from the words Al-akhlaqa, yukkliqu, ikhlaqan, according to the scales (wazan) Tsulasi Majid Af'ala, Yuf'ilu If'alan which means Al-Sajiyah (character), At-Thobi'ah (behavior, character, basic character), Al-Adat (customs, customs), Al-Marua'ah (good civilization) and Al-Din (religion).
However, the root of the word morals from akhlaqa as mentioned above does not seem appropriate, because the masdar content of the word akhlaqa is not morals but sincerity. In this regard, an opinion arises which says that linguistically, morals are isim jamid or isim ghair mustaq, namely isim which does not have a root word, but the word is already that way.
To explain the meaning of morals in terms of terms, we can refer to various opinions of the roots in this field. Ibn Miskawaih (d.421 H/1030 AD) who was later known as a leading and early expert in the field of morals
for example, briefly saying that morals are traits embedded in the soul that encourage him to carry out actions without the need for thought and consideration.
Meanwhile, Imam Al Ghazali (1015-1111 AD), later known as hujjatul Islam (defender of Islam), because of his expertise in defending Islam from various ideas that were considered misleading, to a somewhat greater extent than Ibn Miskawaih, said that morals are traits that are embedded in a soul that causes various actions with gambling and ease, without the need for thought and consideration. Allah says in the surah (Al-Hujurat 11-13)
۞ And recite to them the story of the two sons of Adam in truth, when they brought an offering, and it was accepted from one of them, but it was not accepted from the other. He said, “I will certainly kill you.” He said God only accepts from the righteous
"And tell them (Muhammad) the truth about the story of the two sons of Adam, when they both offered a sacrifice, then the (sacrifice) of one of them (Habil) was accepted and that of the other (Qabil) was not accepted. He (Qabil) said, "Indeed, I will surely kill you!" He (Abel) said, "Indeed, Allah only accepts (good deeds) from the pious."
The Relationship between Sufism and Morals
Good morals and bad morals or Sufism morals: Some human actions are good and some are not good or bad. Good and bad are two terms that are widely used to determine an action carried out by someone. This statement can be used as an indicator to assess whether an action is good or bad so that it can be based on something absolute or relative.
The science of Sufism is generally divided into three. Sufism experts generally divide Sufism into three parts. Namely; Falsafi Sufism, Akhlaki Sufism, and Amali Sufism. These three types of Sufism have the same goal, namely to get closer to Allah by cleansing oneself from despicable actions and decorating oneself from praiseworthy actions. Thus, in the process of achieving the goals of Sufism, a person must first have noble character. These three Sufisms differ in terms of the approaches used. However, it needs to be understood that this division of Sufism is only in the form of academic study, because these three forms of Sufism cannot be separated because the practices of these three Sufisms are interrelated.
a. Philosophical Sufism
It is Sufism whose teachings combine vision, mystical and rational as its ideas. In philosophical Sufism, the approach used is the rational or rational approach, because in Sufism it uses study materials or thoughts found among philosophers. Such as philosophy about God, humans, human relationships with God and others
etc. This philosophical Sufism began to emerge clearly in Islam since the sixth century Hijriyah, although its figures were only just becoming known and developing, especially among Sufis who were also philosophers.
b. Moral Sufism
It is Sufism which discusses the perfection and purity of the soul which is formulated in the regulation of attitude and mentality and strict behavioral discipline in order to achieve optimum happiness. In moral Sufism, the approach used is the moral approach whose stages consist of takhalli (emptying oneself of bad deeds), tahalli (adorning oneself with commendable morals), tajalli (opening the barrier of the hijab).
c. Amali Sufism
A teaching in Sufism that emphasizes spiritual practices more than theory. Which in Sufism has the same aim, namely to get closer to Allah SWT by eliminating all reprehensible qualities and facing fully towards Allah SWT with various amaliah or riyadhoh that are carried out. Such as increasing the number of wirid, which then takes the form of tarekat.
By practicing Sufism, whether philosophical, moral or philosophical. In fact, the three types of Sufism have the same goal, namely to bring oneself closer to Allah by cleansing oneself from despicable actions and adorning oneself with praiseworthy beliefs or Al-mahmudah morals. . Therefore, to enter the realm of Sufism, a person must have noble morals based on his own awareness. Sufism is essentially carrying out a series of acts of worship to get closer to Allah SWT. Worship itself is closely related to morals. According to Harun Nasution, studying Sufism is closely related to the Koran and Al Sunnah which emphasize morals. The Sufi way of worship usually has implications for developing noble morals, both for oneself and others. Among Allah's morals, or also the term al ittishaf bi si fatillah, namely characterizing oneself with the characteristics that Allah has.
So morals are part of alhlaqi Sufism, which is one of the teachings of Sufism, and the most important thing in the teachings of akhlaqi Sufism is filling the heart (heart) with the characteristic of khauf, namely feeling worried about Allah's torment. Then, judging from the practices and types of knowledge studied in Amali Sufism, there are two kinds of things called external knowledge and internal knowledge which consist of four groups, namely shari'a, taharikat, essence, and ma'rifa.
The issue of "morals" in Islam is widely discussed and contained in the Koran and hadith. These sources are limitations in information actions to the people, what they should do and how they should act so that it can easily be known whether the action is praiseworthy or disgraceful.
True or false. We already know that Islamic morals are a system of morals or morals based on Islam, namely starting from the creeds revealed by Allah to his prophets/apostles who then conveyed them to their people. Islamic morals, because it is a moral system based on belief in God, are of course also in accordance with the foundations of the religion itself. Thus, the basis or main source of Islamic morals is the Koran and Al Hadith which are the main sources of the Islamic religion itself. Allah SWT says in (QS. Al-Baqarah Verse 115).
And to God belongs the East and the West. Wherever you turn, there is the face of God. Indeed, God is All-Encompassing, All-Knowing.
“And to Allah belongs the east and the west. Wherever you turn, there is the face of Allah. Indeed, Allah is All-Encompassing, All-Knowing.”
C. Indicators of human character
The indicator of a human being with morals (husn al akhlak), said Al Ghazali, is the embedding of faith in the heart and the application of piety in behavior. On the other hand, a person who has no morals (su'al-khulug) is a person who has nifag (hypocrisy) in his heart. Nifaq is an ambivalent attitude towards Allah. There is no match between heart and deeds. Willing God's commands and not following lustful desires can dazzle the heart. On the other hand, committing sins and immoralities can blacken the heart. Whoever commits sins and then erases them with kindness will not darken his heart, only the light will decrease.
By quoting several verses and hadiths, Al Ghazali then stated the signs of a believer:
A believer is a person who is serious in his prayers.
Turn away from things that are useless or have no benefit.
Always return to Allah.
Serve only Allah.
Always praise and glorify Allah.
His heart trembles when the name of Allah is mentioned.
Don't like other people either with their attitudes or actions.
Doesn't talk much and is calm when facing all problems, etc
Sufism experts use that the indicators of a human being with morals include having a culture of shame and interaction with others, not hurting others, having a lot of goodness, being true and honest in what he says, not talking much but giving a lot of credit, being patient, having a calm heart, always being with Allah, being wise, careful in his actions, liked by friends and foes, not vengeful, does not like pitting against one another, eats little and sleeps little, is not stingy and greedy, loves for the sake of Allah and hates for the sake of Allah. If morals are understood as a view of life, a person with morals is a person who maintains a balance between rights and obligations in his relationship with God, fellow creatures and the universe.
D. Morals and their actualization in everyday life
It is everything that is in the heavens and the world and its contents. Allah through the Koran requires humans to know the universe and its contents. Humans as caliphs are given the ability by Allah to manage the earth and manage this universe. Humans were sent to earth to bring grace and love to nature throughout it. Therefore, humans have duties and obligations towards the natural surroundings, namely to prosper, manage and preserve nature, as he says in (QS.Al-Hud 61)`
And to Thamud, their brother Salih. He said, “O my people, worship God. You have no god but Him. He produced you from the earth and settled you in Behold, seek forgiveness from him, then repent to him. Indeed, my Lord is near, responding.
"and to the people of Samud (We sent) their brother, Saleh. He said, “O my people! Worship Allah, you have no god but Him. He has created you from the earth (land) and made you its prosperous, therefore ask Him for forgiveness, then repent to Him. Indeed, my Lord is very close (His mercy) and accepts (His servant's prayer)."
E. TYPES OF MORALS IN LIFE
A. Ethics to God
Morality towards God is that we carry out all his commands and stay away from his prohibitions as found in the Al Quran and the Sunnah. Examples are
1. Do the prayer,
2. Pay zakat,
3. Be patient in facing tests from ALLAH SWT.
B. Morals towards parents
Morals towards parents are respecting and loving them both with courtesy and devotion to them both in life and in death. For example,
1.Obey parents' orders,
2. Love them, and
3. Make them proud of our good deeds.
C. Have morals towards yourself
Self-morality is a person's torture of his personal self, whether physical or spiritual. We must be fair in treating ourselves, and never force ourselves to do something that is not good or even endangers our lives. For example,
Always be grateful for the blessings that God has given you,
D. Ethics to others
Morals towards fellow humans, such as how to relate to neighbors, society, and friends. Examples of morals towards others include:
1. Respect guests and neighbors, be humble, respect others and have good attitudes towards others.
E. Ethics to nature
Human morals are not solely for nature, but far from it, to maintain, preserve and prosper this nature. By fulfilling their needs, prosperity, prosperity and harmony of life can be maintained. We can behave with the natural surroundings by preserving the natural surroundings as follows:
1. Prohibit illegal felling of trees
2. Prohibit wild hunting of animals
3. Carry out reforestation
4. Create nature reserves and wildlife sanctuaries
5. Control erosion
6. Determine a more appropriate land use plan
7. Provide a good understanding of the environment to all levels of society
8. Provide certain sanctions for violators
Damage to nature and ecosystems in the oceans and on land occurs due to humans being unaware, arrogant, selfish, greedy and arrogant, this is a form of bad morals and is very disgraceful. Disasters that befall humans are essentially natijah (warnings) from their own actions. Human responsibility towards nature takes the form of:
1. Come back to your senses and not repeat actions that are detrimental to the environment
2. Repair the environment that has been damaged so that it can function again according to the creator's intentions, and
3. Paying compensation, someone who damages the environment must be given sanctions, both state sanctions and religious sanctions
In this way, humans are not only required not to be oblivious and not arrogant towards the resources they have, but also required to pay attention to what God actually wants regarding what is around humans. God's Word in (QS. Al-Ahqaf 46:3)
We did not create the heavens and the earth and all that is between them except with the truth and for an appointed term. And those who disbelieve will turn away from what they are warned about.
We did not create the heavens and the earth and what is between them" but, with the right (purpose) and" ". within the appointed time. But those who disbelieve, turn away from the warning given to them
Ethics or manners are the ethics and morals recommended in Islamic teachings, which is a science that teaches and guides humans to good behavior and abstains from bad behavior in accordance with Islamic teachings and does not conflict with the teachings of the Qur'an and the hadith contained in in the Al-Quran and Sunnah, by following the example of the Prophet Muhammad, who in the Islamic faith is declared to be the most perfect human being in morals.
The word moral comes from the Latin word "mores", which is plural, meaning custom.
In the Indonesian dictionary it is said that morals are the determinants of good and bad actions and behavior. Furthermore, morals in the meaning of the term is a term used to determine the boundaries of character, temperament, will, opinion or action which can properly be said to be right, wrong, good or bad.
Morals come from Arabic, namely isim mashdar (infinitive form) from the words Al-akhlaqa, yukkliqu, ikhlaqan, according to the scales (wazan) of Tsulasi Majid Af'ala, Yuf'ilu If'alan which means Al-Sajiyah (character), At-Thobi'ah (behavior, character, basic character), Al-Adat (customs, customs), Al-Marua'ah (good civilization) and Al-Din (religion).
In discussing this paper, the author hopes that what we are learning now can be useful for us and that we can also gift it to our next generation. This paper would not be perfect without constructive criticism and suggestions from readers. Therefore, the hope of the author is critical criticism. can help the author improve the writing of this paper so that it is better.
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to fulfill the task of Islamic religious education
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