THE NATURE OF QUOTES, TYPES OF QUOTES AND TIPS FOR QUOTING
By Rabiah Tanjung - 09.18.00 -
THE NATURE OF QUOTES, TYPES OF QUOTES, QUOTING TECHNIQUES IN RESEARCH PROPOSALS AND QUOTING TIPS
Yuni Lestari Harahap (20140160)
Siti Khatami Daulay (20140204)
Riris Annaria Simatupang (20140189)
Khoirun Nisa Napitupulu (20140164)
AFDHAL ILLAHI, S.Pd.I., M.Pd
PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHER EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM
FACULTY OF EDUCATION SOCIAL SCIENCES AND LANGUAGES SOUTH TAPANULI INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION
We give thanks to the presence of Allah subhanahu wa ta'alla, because of His blessing and mercy so that we can complete this paper assignment with the title "The Nature of Quotations, Types of Quotations, Quoting Techniques in Research Proposals and Tips for Quoting" in the Education Seminar course which was taught directly by Afdhal Divine, S. Pd. I., M. Pd.
Sholawat and salam may be showered abundantly on the presence of the Prophet Muhammad SAW, who has brought us from the dark age to the bright age as it is now.
The preparation of this paper would probably not have been completed without assistance from certain parties. So, we would like to thank those who have helped us in the form of material, scientific, religious, etc. directly or indirectly.
Thus, we have compiled this paper with all its advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, constructive criticism and suggestions for improving the paper in this assignment are highly expected. Hopefully this paper can provide benefits and knowledge for readers.
Padangsidimpuan, 20 October 2023
LIST OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS 3
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1
1. 1 Background 1
1. 2 Problem Formulation 2
1. 3 Objectives 2
CHAPTER II DISCUSSION 3
2. 1 The Nature of Quotations 3
2. 2 Types of Quotes 4
2. 3 Citing Techniques in Research Proposals 6
2. 4 Quoting Tips 8
CHAPTER III CLOSING 11
3. 1 Conclusion 11
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
1. 1 Background
As science and technology develop, we are also required to always develop and publish the results of these developments in science and technology so that they can be enjoyed by the public. One form of developing and publishing these results is by creating scientific papers, science books, and so on. Writing scientific papers and science books cannot be separated from the use of good and correct Indonesian. The current development of the Indonesian language has undergone several changes, such as in quotation tips.
When preparing a research proposal, a researcher looks for several sources to complete the scientific essay. These sources need to be included in a quotation. Quotes can be taken from magazines, books, newspapers, encyclopedias, the internet, articles or scientific journals. Inserting quotations in written work can add more value to the work and strengthen the theory of the problem or topic being discussed. The source obtained must also include the address or source of finding the data in the bibliography.
When writing a research proposal, you need to pay attention to the method and structure of making quotations. Most people don't understand and learn about quotations, some even ignore the procedure for writing them because they don't think they are that important. Therefore, in this paper we will explain the nature of quotations, types of quotations, techniques for citing in research proposals and tips for good and correct citing.
1. 2 Problem Formulation
The problem formulation that will be discussed in this paper is as follows:
What is meant by quotation?
What are the types of quotations?
What are the citing techniques in a research proposal?
What are some quoting tips?
1. 3 Objectives
The objectives to be achieved in this paper are as follows:
To understand the essence of the quote.
To find out the types of quotations.
To know the techniques for citing in research proposals.
To find out tips for quoting.
CHAPTER II DISCUSSION
2. 1 The Nature of Quotations
A quote is part of a proven statement, opinion, thought, definition, formulation or research result from another author, which is rewritten/quoted and examined in relation to the quoted material. It can be said that quoting is the activity of borrowing sentences or opinions from an expert or author, whether in the form of writing in books, magazines, newspapers or other electronic media. The purpose of citing is:
to strengthen arguments in an essay.
As support for the author's argument or analysis.
As a theoretical basis for developing our thoughts/writing
As an explanation
As reinforcement in the argument or opinion expressed.
The material included as a quotation is someone's opinion or the results of the latest research that has never become public knowledge. Activities such as quoting require us to state the source, this is intended to respect the person whose opinion is quoted and as proof of the truth of the quote. One of the functions of quotations in scientific work is:
To avoid plagiarism
Therefore, you must briefly state the source of your quotation at the end after the quotation sentence or just before the citation sentence (closest to the citation sentence) and write the source in full in the bibliography;
Credit to the previous author that the text in the section is
from other people's ideas, arguments and/or analysis;
c). Helps readers who want to know more about the source of the quote. Readers of your article can search for information from the quoted source and then get complete details in the bibliography.
2. 2 Types of Quotes
1. Direct Quotes
If the author takes someone else's opinion completely word for word, according to the original text, no changes may be made at all. In other words, direct quotation is a way of quoting sentences without making changes to the original form of the source. Direct quotations are permitted a maximum of 30% of all quotations in the main article. Quotations should be used using statements that have been concluded and written by yourself (paraphrase). Do not take direct quotes longer than 4 lines. Direct quotations are used only for important things, such as someone's unique definition or opinion.
An example of a direct quote is a different opinion expressed by
Sayuti (2008: 3) the definition of poetry is "Poetry is a form of language pronunciation which takes into account the sound aspects in it which express the poet's imaginative, emotional and intellectual experiences drawn from his individual and social experiences, which are expressed using certain chosen techniques, so that "Poetry is able to evoke certain experiences within the readers and listeners."
Characteristics of Direct Quotes
Below are the characteristics of direct quotations, including the following:
There are no changes to the quoted text.
Using spaced ellipsis [. . .] if there are parts of words from the quotation that are omitted.
Using the [sic!] sign, if there is an error in the original text.
a.Short Direct Quotes
Short direct quotations or in English called short direct quotations, are borrowing the thoughts of other people (writers or speakers in short form. Short direct quotations are made in a small number of lines, namely one to three lines, some also say up to four lines . The measure of the length or shortness of the quotation is based on the number of lines produced in the scientific paper, not the number of lines in the book or statement quoted. Short direct quotations are always made between two quotation marks ("..."). Direct quotation material Short words are expressed by integrating them into paragraphs of scientific writing. An example of a short direct quote is "Life is never easy. There is work to be done and obligations to be fulfilled - obligations to truth, justice and freedom," - John F. Kennedy.
Below are the characteristics of short direct quotes, including the following:
Integrates directly with text
Spacing between lines is the same as the text
Enclosed in quotation marks
No more than four lines
Examples of Direct Quotes
b.Long Direct Quotes
It is very rare to find that three lines are considered a long quote. On the other hand, it is also very rare to find a quote consisting of five lines which is said to be a short quote. In this paper, quotations that are considered long are quotations that are more than four lines. The characteristics of long direct quotations are:
An example of a long direct quote is related to the importance of building character based on Pancasila, in line with the statement that reads "building character is a process or effort carried out to develop, improve, and/or shape the character, character, morals (manners), of human beings. (society) so that they show good behavior based on the values of Pancasila" (Suhady, 2008: 54
Characteristics of long direct quotations
There are characteristics of long direct quotations, including the following:
Separated from the text by using spaces (distance between lines) more than the text,
Give tight spacing between lines in the quote.
Quotation marks can be enclosed, or not.
Below are the requirements for long direct quotations, including the following:
APA Style (American Psychological Association), namely if the length of the sentence the author quotes exceeds 40 words.
MLA Style (Modern Language Association), namely if the length of the sentence the author quotes exceeds 4 lines.
If the author quotes the reading source in 4 lines or more, the quoted text is typed in a new paragraph.
2. Indirect Quotations
Rameli believes that indirect quotations are a restatement of the author's intentions in his own words. The author uses sentences he has composed himself (only taking the main ideas or essence of the quoted source) to restate with sentences compiled by the quoter into an overview or essence based on what he quoted. By definition, indirect quotation is the use of quotations made by the writer by taking other people's opinions, ideas or concepts and then conveying them in a written work using the writer's own words.
Indirect quotations are written together with the text we create and do not need to be enclosed in quotation marks. Mention of sources can be with a footnote system, it can also be with a direct note system (poster notes). It is not permitted to write indirect quotations in foreign languages. Indirect quotations consist of short direct quotations and long direct quotations.
An example of an indirect quote is Kridalaksana (1983: 93) who states that language contact is the mutual influence between various languages because the language speakers meet each other. This includes bilingualism, borrowing, language change, creolization, and pijinization. Language contact does not only occur at the language level, but also at the dialect or variant level in one language because the speakers master more than one dialect or variant of a language.
Characteristics of Indirect Quotes
Below are the characteristics of indirect quotations, including the following:
Experiencing changes to sentences in the quoted text
There is no change in ideas from the opinion of the person quoted
Presented according to the author's understanding of the theory quoted
End with the quotation number without double quotation marks.
2. 3 Quoting Techniques in Research Proposals
2. 3. 1 Writing Direct Quotes
The way to write a direct quote is as follows:
1. Short direct quotations are direct quotations that consist of three or fewer lines of type:
Typed like text;
Begins and ends with quotation marks (“ “ );
The spacing between quotation lines is two spaces;
After the quotation is complete, it is given a serial number indicating half a space upwards or written directly behind what is quoted in brackets, written behind what is quoted in brackets, write the source from which the quotation was taken, by writing the author's short name or surname, year of publication, and page number. where the quote was taken. (author, year: page.)
If there is something that is considered wrong/doubtful, we put a mark (sic!), which means we are simply quoting according to the original and are not responsible for the error.
When there is a wrong letter or word in the quote and it is corrected by the quoter, siku letters […..] should be used.
2. Procedures for writing direct quotations of more than four lines, following the rules:
Quotations are separated from the text by 1.5 spaces
The distance between lines is one space
The end of the quotation is followed by brackets containing the author's name, year of publication and page
School curriculum planning plays an important role in teaching and learning activities. So, the school curriculum needs to be prepared well and full of careful planning.
In preparing the school curriculum, consideration should be given to (1) learning materials that are needed for further learning at the next school level and should have been taught at the previous level and (2) learning materials that have been taught at the lower school level do not need to be taught. again at a higher school level (Hartono, 2008:51).
2. 3. 2 Writing Indirect Quotes
The way to write an indirect quote is as follows:
Sentences containing this idea are written with double spaces as normal text.
All quotes must be referenced.
Quotes are integrated with the text.
Quotations are not enclosed in quotation marks.
Reference sources can be written before or after sentences containing quotations.
If written before the quoted text, the last name as listed in the bibliography is included in the bibliography included in the text, followed by the year of publication between brackets.
If written after the quoted text, the reference is written between brackets, starting with the last name as listed in the bibliography, a colon, and ending with the year of publication.
Hartanto (1990:13) reveals that consolidated financial reports are prepared by the parent company using financial reports that have been prepared by the subsidiary company.
2. 3. 3 Quotes Less Than 40 Words
Quotes containing less than 40 words are written between quotation marks ("...") and followed by the author's name, year of publication and page number. The author's name can be written integrated in the text or together with the year and page number in brackets and usually also separately. Example:
Azis (2019:12) concluded, "There is a relationship between the teacher's ability to use learning media and improving students' Civics learning outcomes."
The conclusion of the research is "There is a relationship between the teacher's ability to use learning media and improving students' Civics learning outcomes" Azis (2019:12).
2. 3. 3 Quotes Over 40 Words
Quotations containing 40 words or more are written without quotation marks separately from the text that precedes them, written 1.5 cm (one tab) from the left and right margins and typed single-spaced, page numbers must also be written. Example: Ross et al., (2020:202) draw the following conclusions:
The cash flow statement is an important thing that investors will consider, namely free cash flow. Free cash flow is company cash that can be distributed to creditors or shareholders which is not used for working capital or investment in fixed assets.
2. 4 Quoting Tips
A good essay is when a writer quotes an expert's opinion about something, which is then interpreted based on his point of view. In this way, there is a kind of intellectual dialogue between the reference source and the author. Below we will present several tips which will be explained as follows.
1. Explaining the Quote
The author is required to discuss the quotation that the author has quoted again with his views or by linking the quotation with the discussion he is discussing.
Consider the following example:
According to Keraf in Smarapradhipa (2005:1), it gives two meanings of language. The first understanding states that as a means of communication between members of society in the form of sound symbols produced by human speech organs. Second, language is a communication system that uses arbitrary vocal symbols (speech sounds).
This opinion is clear that language is a primary means of communication which is characterized by sound and it is only produced by human speech organs, not animals. The sound is arbitrary. This means that there is no relationship between the language and the objects it symbolizes.
2. Reinforce Ideas with Quotes
When explaining a quotation, the quotation is placed at the beginning, so on the contrary, to strengthen this idea, the quotation is placed after the author's opinion. So the quote seems to be a justification for the author's opinion. For example, consider this paragraph:
Language is a means of communication. Humans will experience difficulty in communicating without language. Can be seen for those who are deaf and speech impaired. They can only move their hands to convey the language. From this, it can be concluded that language is a primary tool for communication.
This is in line with Keraf's opinion in Smarapradhipa (2005:1), which gives two definitions of language. The first definition states that language is a means of communication between members of society in the form of sound symbols produced by human speech organs. Second, language is a communication system that uses arbitrary vocal symbols (speech sounds).
3. Summarizing Some Quotes
When concluding several quotations, the main requirement is that the quotations must be of the same concept or equivalent so that the conclusion is possible. This happens when the explanation of the definition is usually not enough with one quotation. For more details see the following example:
The definition of language according to Keraf in Smarapradhipa (2005:1), is divided into two. The first understanding states that as a means of communication between members of society in the form of sound symbols produced by human speech organs. Second, language is a communication system that uses arbitrary vocal symbols (speech sounds). According to Santoso (1990:1), language is a series of sounds produced by the human speech apparatus consciously.
From this it can be concluded that language is a communication tool carried out by society using human speech which is done consciously with symbols that are arbitrary.
4. Compare Multiple Quotes
Comparing several quotes is actually almost the same as concluding that the concept is the same. However, in comparing several quotations, from these similarities the author is required to identify the differences between one quotation and another. So what is compared are similarities and differences. Consider the following example:
The definition of language according to Santoso (1990:1), language is a series of sounds produced by the human speech apparatus consciously. This is slightly different from that conveyed by Wibowo (2001: 3), who conveys the definition of language as a system of meaningful and articulated sound symbols (produced by speech organs) that are arbitrary and conventional, which are used as a means of communication by a group of humans to produce children. sense of sound produced by feelings and thoughts.
Wibowo's opinion is in line with Keraf in Smarapradhipa (2005:1), which gives two meanings of language. The first definition states that language is a means of communication between members of society in the form of sound symbols produced by human speech organs. Second, language is a communication system that uses arbitrary vocal symbols (speech sounds).
CHAPTER III CLOSING
3. 1 Conclusion
Quotations are the author's attempt to strengthen his ideas by quoting the opinions of experts in his field or attempts to convey his ideas by conveying the ideas of experts. Types of quotations are divided into two, namely direct quotations and indirect quotations. The meaning of direct quotation is as a way of quoting sentences without making changes to the original form of the source, while indirect quotations, namely indirect quotations, are the use of quotations made by the author by taking opinions. , ideas, or thoughts of other people and then conveyed in a written work using the author's own sentences.
Quotation techniques in quotations include quotation techniques based on the form and quotation techniques based on the writing of the source, which includes body notes and foot notes. Tips for quoting include explaining quotations, strengthening ideas with quotations, concluding several quotations, and comparing several quotations.
We hope that this paper can be a learning material for readers. A writer should pay attention when writing scientific papers, articles, theses and theses in the use of quotations and bibliography, so that readers can see the author's references or reading list. So that the author can be responsible for scientific work later. Finally, we have finished our paper which discusses quotations. Maybe there are still many shortcomings that we need to fix in this paper.
Team for Preparing Guidebooks for Writing Scientific Papers. 015/SK-R/IPTS/I/III/2023. Guidebook for Writing Scientific Papers. Padangsidimpuan: IPTS.
accessed on 20 October 2023 at 18.15 WIB