NURHAYU MUHNI 22090020
FACULTY OF MATHEMATICS AND NATURAL SCIENCES EDUCATION
SOUTH TAPANULI INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION (IPTS)
ACADEMIC YEAR 2023/2024
Praise and gratitude to the presence of Almighty Allah so that we can complete this paper assignment entitled "Islamic Political System". We created this paper as an obligation to fulfill the assignments of the Islamic Religious Education course.
On this occasion, the author would like to express his deep gratitude to all parties who have helped contribute ideas and thoughts for the realization of this paper. Finally, the authors really appreciate the suggestions and criticism from readers intended to make this paper perfect.
LIST OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents sheet
TABLE OF CONTENTS iii
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1
PROBLEM FORMULATION 1
PURPOSE OF WRITING 2
CHAPTER II DISCUSSION 3
UNDERSTANDING THE ISLAMIC POLITICAL SYSTEM 3
BASIC PRINCIPLES IN ISLAMIC POLITICS 4
CONTRIBUTION OF Muslims TO POLITICS IN INDONESIA 7
CHAPTER III CLOSING 9
Islam as the religion of Allah is a system of life that covers all aspects of life. One aspect that is also regulated in Islam is politics. In an Islamic perspective, politics can be positioned as an instrument of da'wah. Therefore, the power given by the people is essentially a mandate. So any power or position held by a Muslim must be accompanied by accountability. This is where it is demanded that politics needs to pay attention to morals, ethics, people's aspirations and the guidance of Islamic values.
Politics is one of the aspects regulated in Islam. This was exemplified by the Prophet Muhammad SAW when he migrated to Medina. The Prophet Muhammad SAW created a socio-political force in the State of Medina. The first thing that the Prophet Muhammad SAW did in Medina in the context of establishing a state was to create the Medina Charter in the first year of the Hijriyah. This charter, which contains 47 articles, contains the regulations and relationships between various communities in the diverse society of Medina. In this new country the Prophet Muhammad acted as Head of State with the Medina charter as its Constitution.
Politics in Arabic is called siyasah. In the Lisanul Arabic dictionary it is stated that the word siyasah means managing something with methods that make it good or means managing a case until it becomes good. Political thinking is an application of human reason, like other thinking that is carried out to regulate life's affairs. It results from the arrangement of known premises to obtain unknown conclusions.
Because human thoughts are based on their general views, belief systems and frames of reference which serve as references for taking sources, types of methodologies and philosophies of knowledge, Muslims have political thoughts that are based on their views, and their principles are explained in the main points of thought and sources. -that source. Therefore, Al Qur'anul-Karim needs to be used as a basis as an absolute source of law formation.
FORMULATION OF THE PROBLEM
From the background above, the problem formulation can be determined as follows, namely:
What is the meaning of Islamic political system?
What are the basic principles in Islamic politics?
What are the contributions of Muslims to politics in Indonesia?
To understand the meaning of the Islamic political system,
To understand the basic principles of Islamic politics,
To find out the contribution of Islam to politics in Indonesia.
UNDERSTANDING THE ISLAMIC POLITICAL SYSTEM
What is Politics? And when did this term appear? Politics in the Greek understanding is defined as a city state (polis). This term was first introduced by Aristotle (384-322 BC). He started from his observations about humans who are basically political animals. With that, he wanted to explain that the essence of social life is actually politics and interactions between two or more people will definitely involve political relations. Aristotle saw this as a natural and inevitable human tendency and that few people tend to isolate themselves from collaborating with others.
In the 16th century until the beginning of the 20th century, politics was defined more narrowly than that understood by the Greeks. A French political philosopher, Jean Bodin (1530-1596) introduced the term political science (science politique). But because he was a lawyer, his focus on the characteristics of the state caused political science to become related to the organization of institutions that were related to law. Montesquieu (1689-1755), argued that all government functions can be included in the legislative, executive and judicial categories. Based on this perspective, it can be understood that political scientists have, to date, focused their attention on the organization and working systems of institutions that make laws, implement them and accommodate conflicts arising from different interests and various interpretations of laws. invite.
In an Islamic perspective, the term politics is equated with the word al-Siasah. The word siasah comes from the word "sasa". This word in the Al-Munjid and Lisan al-Arab dictionaries means to organize, manage and rule. Siasah can also mean government and politics, or making policy. Abdul Wahhab Khallaf quoted AlMaqrizi's expression stating that the meaning of the word siyasat is to regulate. The word sasa is the same as “to govern, to lead. The same procedure applies to policy (of government, corporation, etc.). So siasah according to language contains several meanings, namely to organize, manage, rule, lead, make policy, government and politics. This means that organizing, administering and making policies regarding something political in nature to achieve a goal is a strategy.
Terminologically in the Arabic language, sisah is organizing or leading something in a way that leads to benefit. While in Al-Munjid it is mentioned, siyasah is to make people benefit by guiding them to the path that saves. And politics is the science of controlling domestic and foreign tasks, namely domestic politics and foreign politics as well as society, namely organizing public life on the basis of justice and integrity. Abdul Wahhab Khallaf defines it as "laws that are put in place to maintain order and welfare and regulate the situation. Ibn al-Qayim quoted from Ibn Aqil stated; "Siasah is an act that brings people closer to benefit and avoid damage even though the Prophet did not establish it and God did not reveal it. A short and concise definition was also presented by Bahantsi Ahmad Fathi who stated that sisah is "the management of the interests of the interests (mashalih) of mankind in accordance with syara".
In principle, the definitions mentioned above contain similarities. Siasah is related to organizing and managing people in social and state life by guiding them to benefit and keeping them away from harm. Besides the similarities, there are also differences, especially in the orientation emphasis. The first three definitions are general, namely procedures that do not pay attention to the values of religious law, even though the aim is to bring about benefit. This style of sysah is known as siyasat wadh'iyat, namely sysah which is based on historical experience and community customs as well as the results of human thought in organizing human life in society and the state.
However, not all siyasat wadh'iyat are rejected as long as they do not contradict the principles of Islamic teachings and spirit. While the last two definitions are specific, namely siasah that is oriented to the values of revelation or sharia. This pattern of siasah is known as Siasah Syar'iyah or Fiqh Siasah (two different terms but have the same meaning), that is sisah produced by human thought based on religious and moral ethics by paying attention to the general principles of Sharia in regulating human life in society .
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF POLITICS IN ISLAM
The basic principles of Islamic political law according to the Al-Quran's perspective considering Islamic political law (fiqh siyasah) is a law that continues to develop rapidly and dynamically, This development requires knowledge of the basic principles formulated by scholars in the field of siyasah until the development of Islamic political law do not run away from the rails and standard norms that have been agreed upon.
According to Islam, the operational mechanisms of government and state administration refer to sharia principles sourced from the Koran and Hadith. The state principles in Islam are in the form of basic principles which refer to clear and firm sharia texts, and there are also additional principles which are conclusions and are included in fiqh siyasah or constitutional law in Islam. The principles of Islamic political law that have been described by Islamic political experts in various references are very varied. In this study, the principles of siyasa and state administration in the Koran can be formulated as seven basic principles of Islamic political law. that is :
1). Principle of sovereignty;
2). Principles of justice;
3). Principles of deliberation and ijma';
4). Principle of equality;
5). Principles of rights and obligations of the state and people;
6). The principle of amar ma'ruf nahi evil.
Basically, Islam never indoctrinates a particular political system in its entirety and standard. Politics in Islam is very flexible and dynamic, as can be seen from how the track record of the Prophet and his successors called Khulafaurrasyidin managed the political life of Muslims at the beginning of history.
Because of this, the terms Islamic state (darul/Islamic state) or caliphate are never mentioned in the Koran and are not taught in the hadith. The Koran only ever mentions the word caliph referring to the role of humans on earth and khalaif refers to a generation. Both have no political connotation and moreover, cannot be called a political system.
The relationship between Islam and politics has indeed been discussed for a very long time. Some scholars who have studied Islamic politics include al-Farabi (d. 339 AH), al-Mawardi (d. 450 AH), al-Ghazali (d. 505 AH), Ibn Taymiyah (728 AH) and Ibn Khaldun ( w. 784 H). And in the contemporary era, among them are Jamaludin al-Afghani (d. 1897 AD), Hasan al-Banna (d. 1949 AD), Abdul Wahab Khalaf (d. 1956 AD), Ali Abd al-Raziq (d. 1966 AD) , Sayyid Quthb (d. 1966), al-Maududi (d. 1979 AD), Abdurrahman Wahid (d. 2009 AD), and others.
All theories about Islamic politics offered by these figures are ijtihadi with relative truth, none of which qot'i al-dilalah comes from the Koran. Therefore, the offer of a picture of what Islamic politics is like is very diverse and far from standard. Each ijtihad is influenced by the socio-political conditions of the country at the time they live. So that the form of the Islamic political system is basically very flexible to adjust to conditions that are beneficial in each country, it could be a republic, kingdom, emirate, or others.
However, even though Islam does not teach a complete system regarding politics, Islam emphasizes a number of principles and morality in politics and the state. There are at least seven Islamic political principles implicit in the Koran.
First, Trust. Because a politician is the holder of the mandate of the people or constituents which contains an agreement (baiat/election), carrying out the mandate is an obligation. This was conveyed by Allah in QS al-Nisa  verse 58: "Indeed, Allah commands you to fulfill your trust to those who are entitled to receive it." On the other hand, for the people there is also an obligation to obey a leader (QS. Al-Nisa : 59).
Second, justice ('adalah), is a principle that is strongly emphasized by Islam as a soko teacher in the state. Justice must be carried out with honesty, sincerity and integrity. This justice applies to all beings, regardless of social status, race, tribe, religion or closeness of relationship. Allah SWT said: "Be fair even to relatives." (QS. Al-An'am : 152) Also: "Be just, because justice is closer to piety." (QS. Al-Maidah : 8).
Third, deliberation (shura). Deliberation is a major political ethic, which is communicative-dialogical in nature. Deliberation is a medium for achieving consensus or taking a middle path. With deliberation, totalitarianism and the accumulation of power in one person who is more likely to make mistakes can be minimized. Allah SWT says: "Let their affairs regarding world problems be decided by deliberation between them." (QS. Al-Shura : 38). Almost the same message was also conveyed by QS. Ali Imran  verse 159. In this principle, advice and constructive criticism of the authorities find their legitimacy.
Fourth, diversity and nationality (sya'bi). This principle is as explained by Allah SWT in His words: "O humans, indeed, we created you from a man and a woman, and made you into nations and tribes so that you could understand each other. Indeed, the most noble person in the sight of Allah among you is the most pious." (QS. Al-Hujurat : 13). Based on this verse, diversity is a necessary thing and in the context of a state, all have equal rights and obligations, as exemplified by the Prophet in the composition of the Medina Charter.
Fifth, freedom (huriyah). In their lives, humans are faced with consequences and responsibilities. This necessitates freedom in choosing every step of life. A consequence cannot possibly be imposed on a human being who is forced without having the will to choose. Humans themselves are born free. Therefore, freedom of choice is the essence of human life on this earth. Freedom is guaranteed even in a very principled matter, namely choosing a religion. Allah SWT says: "There is no compulsion in embracing religion." (QS. Al-Baqarah : 256). In this case, the existence of religious freedom does not negate the importance of da'wah and in the context of a state in the public sphere, one's freedom must be limited by the freedom of others.
Sixth, benefit and well-being, is one of the main purposes of establishing a country. Therefore, the politics of a statesman must be oriented towards the welfare and well-being of the people, as described by Allah SWT in His words: "Indeed, for the people of Saba there is a sign (of God's power) in their place of residence, namely two gardens on the right and on the left. (to them it was said): "Eat from the sustenance that your Lord (granted) and be grateful to Him. (Your country) is a good country and (your God) is a Most Forgiving God.” (QS. Saba' : 15)
Seventh, peace (salam). Basically Islam is a religion that loves peace. The path of peace is the path that the Prophet always chose as seen in Suluh Hudaybiyah, even though the Prophet had to accept bitter consequences. War is a way out that occurs because of an emergency situation, namely an enemy attack. It is in a peaceful country that religious communities can worship solemnly and calmly. In peaceful conditions, the truth of Islam can be discussed with people of other religions. Regarding this, Allah SWT said: "If they tend to peace, then fulfill that peace." (QS. Al-Anfal : 61).
ISLAMIC CONTRIBUTION TO POLITICS IN INDONESIA
Islam as a religion of rahmatan lil alamin must be truly believed in by its adherents. This belief will be reflected in the form of very positive behavior of Muslims, both for themselves and society, including the natural environment. His presence will provide coolness to the people around him, so that the community where Muslims live will feel comfortable, safe, serene and peaceful.
In simple terms, we can see it when Islam says an opening greeting or when we meet each other. There it is clear that Muslims are encouraged to pray for safety, Allah's mercy and blessings. Likewise, when Muslims start work, it is recommended to say the name of Allah, the Most Gracious and Most Merciful (bismillahirrahmanirrahim). These two things must be truly understood so that Muslims do not harbor grudges and hatred.
So, the basic concept of Islam is very far from brutal, terror and frightening behavior. This basic concept must be the guide of every Muslim person. If there are Muslims who are brutal, rude and terrorists, it means that they do not understand this basic Islamic concept.
This perspective of goodness must be truly instilled in the minds of Muslims. Thus, the next steps, including his thoughts and actions, will provide positive energy to himself, society and the environment.
Indonesia is currently the third largest democratic country after India and the United States. This also means that Indonesia is a democratic country with the largest Muslim population in the world. We should be proud that since the direct presidential election system began in 2004, everything has gone smoothly.
Islam as a teaching that includes spiritual and political issues has made a significant contribution to political life in Indonesia. The first was marked by the emergence of parties based on Islam, as well as Nationalist parties based on Islam. The second is marked by the proactive attitude of Islamic political figures and Muslims towards the integrity of the Republic of Indonesia since the initial process of independence until the era of reform. The Jakarta Charter is a gift from Muslims to the Indonesian people.
Regarding the integrity of the State, Mohammad Natsir once called on Muslims not to confuse Pancasila with Islam. In the Islamic view, the formulation of Pancasila is not something that contradicts the teachings of the Koran. Because the values contained in Pancasila are also part of the values contained in the Al-Qur'an, for the sake of divinity, unity and integrity, Muslims are willing to remove seven words from the first principle of Pancasila, namely the words "obligation to carry out Islamic law." for its adherents"
Muslims in Indonesia can agree to Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution based on the first consideration, their value is justified by the teachings of the Islamic religion. And secondly, its function is as points of agreement for various groups, to create collective political unity and cohesion.
Islam does not teach a certain standard political system. But Islam as a comprehensive religion, through the holy book Al-Quran emphasizes the principles and morality of political and state ethics, among which are trust, 'adalah (justice), shura (deliberation), diversity, huriyah (freedom), benefits, and greetings ( reconciliation). Islam does not indoctrinate a form of system formality but emphasizes the essence and substance of a system. In other words, it is not a country labeled Islamic that is aspired to, but a country that contains Islamic values. This is where the perfection of Islam lies, as conveyed by the method, al-'ibrah bi al-jawhar la bi al-mazhar.
Muslims as the majority in Indonesia are expected to contribute more to politics in Indonesia and hopefully Islam can advance the Indonesian nation from a developing country to a developed country.
https://kolom.tempo.co. Islam in Indonesian Politics. Accessed on May 18, 2023.
https://id.scrid.com. Contribution of Muslims to politics in Indonesia. Accessed on May 18, 2023.
https://tafsiralquran.id. Seven Principles of Islamic politics in the Qur'an. Accessed on May 18 2023.
https://pelita.ar-rainy.ac.id. Basic Principles of Islamic Political Law in the Prefecture of the Qur'an. Accessed on May 18 2023.
https://media.neliti.com. Understanding Islamic Politics. Accessed on May 18 2023.
1. DIVINE REVELATION
Does Indonesia use an Islamic political system and if Indonesia uses an Islamic political system, what political system does Indonesia use?
2. LATIFAH NAINGGOLAN
How is the development of the Islamic political system in Indonesia currently?
Why do Muslims have to become politicians and what is their purpose?
1. Because Indonesia uses a democratic system where the democratic system is led by a presidential leader as head of state. Meanwhile, like in Aceh, they have just used an Islamic political system, such as giving the death penalty like in Arabia
2. The current development of the Islamic political system in Indonesia really incorporates western cultural ideas because if a Muslim or someone who embraces Islam must follow the Sunnah and the teachings of the Prophet starting from dressing in syar'i clothing, whereas in Indonesia this has included western culture by wearing clothes that are yukensi or tight so that you can see the second form of the body based on Islamic art such as the tambourine or nasyid, whereas in Indonesia currently the art that is glorified at this time is like DJing or what nowadays is called Jeje so that Islam has almost dissolved with the inclusion of western culture in Indonesian politics, especially in Indonesia.
3. why do Muslims have to become politicians because Muslims must and are obliged to have a leadership spirit, if someone already has a leadership spirit then he can become a representative of the Muslim community as a politician because for us Muslims it is mandatory to become a politician because don't let it happen. The Islamic religion has been displaced by other religions because in Indonesia it must be held firmly by leaders who are Muslim, the aim of which is to make our country much more advanced and change every year with the presence of politicians in Indonesia. You could say that these politicians are the ones who helping leaders to prosper the people and build Indonesia from a developing country to a developed country