“Skills Provide Variation and Provide Strengthening”
Supporting lecturer :
Afdal Divine, S.Pd., M.Pd
Arranged by :
Syarifah Rohana Harahap 22140280
Dewi Sartika 22140257
Siti Kholijah 22140278
PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHER EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM
FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND LANGUAGES
SOUTH TAPANULI EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTE
Alhamdulillah, we give thanks to God Almighty, because with His mercy and grace, we were able to complete the paper entitled "Basic Teaching Skills" on time.
This paper was prepared in order to complete the assignment of lecturer Afdal Divine, S.Pd., M.Pd in the Learning Strategy course. Apart from that, this paper also aims to increase insight into Basic Teaching Skills for readers and writers.
We would also like to thank all parties who have supported and assisted in the process of completing this paper. We realize that the paper we wrote is still far from perfect. Therefore, we look forward to constructive criticism and suggestions for the perfection of this paper.
Padangsidimpuan March 2023
LIST OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS ii
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1
Problem Formulation 2
CHAPTER II DISCUSSION 4
Skills in Procuring Variations 4
Principles of Using Variations 8
Strengthening Skills 9
Components Contained in Providing Strengthening. 10
Principles of Using Reinforcement 13
CHAPTER III CLOSING 16
Boredom is a problem that always occurs everywhere and people always try to get rid of it, boredom occurs if someone always sees, feels, experiences the same events over and over again, encounters "the same" things and there is nothing wrong with them. expected.
School is an educational institution whose role is to create a learning environment for students to achieve a good education. Schools need to develop an appropriate program which of course must be supported by a team of educators who fulfill the characteristics of educators that have been determined in education, so as to enable students to carry out learning activities efficiently and achieve the expected goals.
A teacher is a figure who is admired and imitated. Class programs will be meaningless if they are not translated into activities. For this reason, the role of the teacher is very decisive because of his position as an educational leader among students in a class.
All efforts made by teachers in learning refer to how to facilitate students to achieve predetermined competencies. Achieving competency is impossible without direct involvement in learning. Therefore, teachers should create lessons that encourage students to participate actively in the learning process.
And to avoid student boredom, teachers must be skilled in providing variations in the learning process so that the learning process is fun and not boring. And when students participate in learning, the teacher should give feedback so that students are motivated to repeat the activity with better quality. The response given by the teacher immediately after students participate is called reinforcement. Various forms of reinforcement can be combined by the teacher, so that it does not seem made up, unnatural or spontaneous.
A teacher needs to have basic skills in providing reinforcement, because sometimes teachers like to be cold towards the responses given by students in class. It seems that thought is not appreciated. Of course, this can result in weakening motivation in learning. Without motivation, there may not be conducive learning.
Thus, a teacher must be able to maintain students' learning motivation in order to achieve optimal results when carrying out a learning process.
Based on the reviews above, skills are needed to provide variation and provide reinforcement in the teaching and learning process. Therefore, we have prepared a paper entitled Skills for Providing Variation and Providing Reinforcement to Improve Learning in Schools.
Formulation of the problem
What is the meaning of variation skills in the learning process?
What variation skills are used in the learning process?
What is the meaning of reinforcement skills in the learning process?
What kind of reinforcement skills are used in the learning process?
To find out what is meant by the skill of providing variation in the learning process
To find out what variation skills are used in the learning process
To find out what is meant by providing reinforcement in learning
To find out what kind of reinforcement is carried out in the learning process
Skills in Procuring Variations
UNDERSTANDING VARIATION IN TEACHING AND LEARNING
Variation is diversity that makes something not monotonous. Variations in learning activities can eliminate boredom, increase student interest and curiosity, serve students' diverse learning styles, and increase students' levels of activity. Using variation is defined as the teacher's actions in the context of the teaching and learning process which aims to overcome student boredom, so that in the learning process students always show perseverance, enthusiasm and play an active role (Hasibuan, 1986:64).
According to Uzer Usman, variation is a teacher's activity in the context of the teaching and learning interaction process which is aimed at overcoming student boredom, resulting in a teaching and learning situation. Students always show perseverance, enthusiasm and full participation.
From the definition above, it can be concluded that variations in teaching styles are changes in teacher behavior, attitudes and actions in a teaching and learning context which aims to overcome student boredom, so that students have a high interest in learning about their lessons. And this can be proven through their persistence, enthusiasm, and activeness in learning and following their lessons in class. Children cannot be forced to continuously focus their attention in following their lessons, especially if the teacher teaches without using variation, aka monotony, which makes students less attentive, sleepy and bored.
Aspects of Skills in Providing Variations in the Teaching and Learning Process
Basically, everyone does not want boredom in carrying out all activities. So people will always try to have a life full of positive variations (changes or changes). Can not be separated from
This goal, in the teaching and learning process also has the same goal, so that educators are required to develop variations in their teaching.
The skill of providing variations in the teaching and learning process will include three aspects, namely variations in teaching styles, variations in using media and teaching materials and variations in interactions between teachers and students.
By combining the three components or aspects in their use or integration, it will increase students' attention, arouse their desire and willingness to learn. For this reason, it is hoped that educational goals will be achieved. The aspects or components referred to in this discussion can be deepened with the following explanation:
Variations in teaching styles
These variations include variations in voice, variations in body movement and variations in changing the teacher's position in the classroom. The teacher's behavior in implementing these variations in the teaching and learning process will be dynamic and increase communication between the teacher and students, attract students' attention, help accept teaching materials and provide stimulation (encouragement or encouragement). Variations in this teaching style are:
Giving time (pausing)
Body movement (gesturing)
Variety of media and teaching materials
Each student has different sensory abilities, both hearing and sight, as well as speaking abilities. There are those who read better or enjoy reading, there are those who prefer to listen first and then read, and there are those who prefer the opposite. With variations in the use of media - media is a vehicle for transmitting learning information or transmitting messages.
For example, the sensory weaknesses that each student has, the teacher can start by talking first, then writing on the blackboard, followed by looking at concrete examples. With variations like this, it can provide stimulus to students. Media has an important role in the teaching and learning process that cannot be abandoned, because media can: save learning time, facilitate understanding, increase student attention, increase student activity, improve student memory.
There are three components in variations in media use, namely viewing media, listening media and tactical media
Variations in interaction
What is meant by variation in interaction is the frequency or number of changes in action between teacher and student, and student and student appropriately. Where interaction in a teaching and learning activity is something that should not be abandoned, so that if there is no interaction in a teaching and learning activity then it is an irregularity that must be updated quickly and well.
Benefits of Teaching Variation
Teaching requires teachers to work for the success of their students, so that student progress becomes the teacher's focus. Rasulullah SAW. implementing teaching that really pays attention to the development of students (friends), so that they do not feel bored in learning, is implied in the hadith: Meaning: Narrated from Ibn Mas'ud said: Prophet SAW. Alternating lessons to avoid boredom. (HRBukhari).
If you look at the hadith above, variations in teaching styles have existed since the time of the Prophet SAW. while the benefits of this variation according to Uzer Usman are:
To generate and increase students' attention to relevant aspects of learning.
To provide opportunities for the development of students' curious talents and want to investigate new things.
To foster and shape positive behavior towards teachers and schools with various livelier teaching styles and a good learning environment.
In order to give students the opportunity to acquire a way of receiving lessons that they like.
The benefits of variation according to JJ Hasibuan are:
Maintain and improve students related to learning aspects
Increasing the possibility of the functioning of curiosity motivation through investigative and exploitative activities.
Form a positive attitude towards teachers and school.
The possibility of serving students individually thus providing the beauty of learning.
Encourage learning activities by involving students with various interesting activities or learning experiences and various cognitive levels.
Actually, from the opinion above, namely the benefits of varying teaching styles are the same. It's just that the language is different. So, if you take the essence, the benefits of varying teaching styles are:
Increase, generate and maintain students' attention to relevant aspects of learning.
Providing opportunities to improve and develop curious talents and the functioning of learning motivation.
Cultivate and form a positive attitude towards teachers and schools with various livelier teaching styles.
Providing good service to individual students in receiving lessons so that learning is easy and enjoyable.
Encourage learning activities by involving students with various interesting activities or learning experiences at various cognitive levels.
Principles of Using Variations
All teachers definitely hope that their students remain enthusiastic and happy with the lessons given by the teacher. To achieve these expectations, it is necessary to create a conducive learning environment. One effort to create this direction is by paying attention to several principles of using variation in teaching. Several principles of using varied teaching are very important to pay attention to and truly appreciate in order to support the implementation of teaching tasks in the classroom. The principles of using teaching variations are as follows.
When using variation skills, all types of variations should be used, as well as variations in the use of components for each type of variation. All of this is to achieve learning goals.
Using variations smoothly and continuously, so that the complete moment of the teaching and learning process is not damaged, students' attention and the learning process are not disturbed.
The use of variation components must be truly structured and planned by the teacher. Because it requires flexible, spontaneous use in accordance with the feedback received from students. Usually there are two forms of feedback, namely:
Behavioral feedback that concerns student attention and involvement.
Informational feedback about knowledge and lessons.
Definition of Reinforcement
Reinforcement is a response to a behavior that increases the likelihood of the behavior repeating itself. In the context of classroom management, positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement are known. Positive reinforcement is reinforcement that aims to maintain and maintain positive behavior, while negative reinforcement is strengthening behavior by stopping or removing unpleasant stimuli. For example, in negative reinforcement, the teacher gives teasing to students who are not paying attention when the teacher explains a lesson material.
The benefits of reinforcement for students include, among others.
Increased attention in learning.
Generating and maintaining behavior.
Maintain a conducive learning atmosphere.
The skill of providing reinforcement is a skill that must be mastered by teachers because the reinforcement given to students will arouse enthusiasm in carrying out learning activities. High student enthusiasm will increase the ability to grasp knowledge so that later the goals the teacher wants to achieve can be achieved well.
Reinforcement must be given evenly to students whose behavior is good or bad. Teachers must not discriminate in providing reinforcement.
Components Contained in Providing Strengthening.
One form of reinforcement that teachers can provide to motivate students to participate in learning is through speech. All verbal expressions used by the teacher to respond back to student activities are included in verbal reinforcement.
Non Verbal Reinforcement
Providing feedback aimed at encouraging students to achieve more, is not limited to just saying things. There are many forms of reinforcement that teachers can choose, so that it is not boring for students. These forms of action can be divided into the following categories.
Mimics and body movements
Communication will run well if two or more people interacting face each other. During the interaction process, it is maintained in order
the facial expression or face is not sullen, cold, expressionless, and other displays that give the impression of being unsympathetic. During the learning process, interaction between students and teachers continues continuously for 2 x 40 minutes or 2 x 45 minutes.
During this relatively long time interval, students are expected to participate actively and to maintain this positive condition, the teacher continuously provides various reinforcements. One form of reinforcement is facial expressions. Smiles, nods, shakes of the head that indicate amazement with the student's response, raised eyebrows, thumbs up, etc. The teacher can choose and vary these variations during the learning process.
Every student has tendencies that may be very different from their friends. There are students who like to be praised and encouraged with sweet and sympathetic words, there are students who are satisfied with just a smile or a momentary look of pride from their teacher. But there are students who expect more than that. They prefer it if the teacher is beside them when providing reinforcement.
The type of student who prefers to be approached. Teachers should try to meet these expectations. Because it is not difficult for the teacher to move from the front to where the student has just given a response or answer to the question given, or given an explanation. Approaching here is not just physically close, but combined with other forms of reinforcement, so that it doesn't seem bland or cold.
Physical contact or touch given by the teacher is a matter of pride for a group of students. For students who have provided answers to questions, completed their friends' answers or provided explanations, responses or even criticism or corrected their friends' arguments, the teacher can provide reinforcement by shaking hands, patting the students' shoulders, stroking the students' heads or other touches that make the students proud and want to perform better. good again.
Activities that please students
Professional teachers try to know the tendencies and character of all their students. Teachers try to find out what kinds of things students like more. So that when given a task, they feel happy doing it.
In connection with providing reinforcement in learning, teachers can also choose activities that make students happy. For example, asking questions that are competitive in answering, demonstrating something in front of the class, doing exercises in the form of crossword puzzles, going on a study tour, or giving project assignments and many other activities that can be chosen and varied.
The form of activity chosen by the teacher is adjusted to the students' enjoyment in learning physics. For example, if the class is nominated by students who enjoy sports. When studying motion in a plane, the teacher takes students into the field to demonstrate various forms of parabolic motion, circular motion, or motion on an inclined plane.
Symbol or object
Another form of non-verbal reinforcement is symbols or giving gifts in the form of objects. For example, the teacher prepares small and cute toys or stationery, or maybe just candy to distribute to students who participate actively in the lesson.
For students who receive prizes, these gifts will encourage them to perform better than before. Meanwhile, other students became more enthusiastic, also wanting to get prizes. Because the prize symbolizes their achievement in learning. Prizes can give them pride and encourage their enthusiasm to be even better at the next opportunity.
In this reinforcement, students who express opinions that are incorrect or incorrect are not immediately blamed harshly but by providing reinforcement but not fully, for example "Your answer is good, but it is still not correct". Then the teacher asks other students to refine or add
so that students know that the answer is not entirely correct, but it is not wrong either.
Principles of Using Reinforcement
So that the reinforcement given by the teacher is right on target. Providing reinforcement in learning must pay attention to several principles of providing reinforcement, as follows.
Warm and Enthusiastic
Teachers are encouragement to their students. Of course, enthusiasm cannot be given by people who are lacking or not enthusiastic. Activities aimed at providing enthusiasm will also not reach the target, if they are given without the support of warmth. The warmth displayed by teachers psychologically has a positive impact on students. This warmth can melt a stiff, silent, busy and tense atmosphere to become conducive.
An enthusiastic attitude within reasonable or not excessive limits has its own meaning in the hearts of students. Seeing the teacher enthusiastic, students who were previously lazy, sleepy, tired, or doing other activities become interested in participating in learning. So if previously only some students were active in learning, the enthusiastic attitude displayed by the teacher can attract those who have not been active to become active.
The reinforcement given by the teacher is very meaningful or significant for students. They feel more confident, feel appreciated, feel cared for, feel successful in learning, feel praised and flattered. This feeling has an impact on their mentality. Students become bolder in expressing their opinions, increase their curiosity and become more confident. In this way, it is hoped that participation will be better at the next opportunity.
If the teacher reinforces appropriately and continuously, students' curiosity is fulfilled, as a result they feel that learning makes them know many things. What they know helps them answer questions about an event, which may have previously made them curious or confused.
Avoid negative responses
Sometimes students are not good at expressing their thoughts in class or their opinions may even be wrong. A professional teacher tries to encourage students with positive feedback. Do not immediately blame or judge students in front of their friends
Reinforcement should be given immediately after a behavior or response appears from the student. Strengthening that is delayed in giving tends to be less effective. So that the expected positive impact does not decrease or even disappear, reinforcement must be given immediately after the student shows the expected response. In other words, there is no waiting time between the response shown and the reinforcement given.
Variations in forms of reinforcement
There are many activities and tasks that teachers can provide in the learning process. Of course, there are also various types of participation that students can provide. Every student's thought contribution deserves to be rewarded, all students have the right to receive reinforcement. So that it is not boring and is always lively, teachers must be smart in varying various forms of reinforcement. Sometimes they say good, on other occasions they give a thumbs up, the next time they smile and nod their head, then they approach the students, and so on. So that the same words or responses do not come out repeatedly within a limited time.
Variations in teaching style are changes in teacher behavior, attitudes and actions in a teaching and learning context which aims to overcome student boredom, so that students have a high learning interest in their lessons. And this can be proven through their persistence, enthusiasm, and activeness in learning and following their lessons in class. Children cannot be forced to continuously focus their attention in following their lessons, especially if the teacher teaches without using variation, aka monotony, which makes students less attentive, sleepy and bored.
Reinforcement is a response to a behavior that increases the likelihood of the behavior repeating itself. The components contained in providing reinforcement include verbal reinforcement and non-verbal reinforcement.
Providing reinforcement in learning must pay attention to several principles of providing reinforcement, including providing warmth, enthusiasm, meaningfulness, avoiding negative responses, providing reinforcement immediately, and varying various forms of reinforcement.
Dr. Wartono. 2003. Basic Teaching Skills. Kanjuruan University. Malang Blog of Young Teachers of Islamic Religious Education. 2010. Variations in Learning (online),
Aini, Nur. 2010. Strengthening Skills, (Online), (http://zanuraini.blogspot.com, accessed March 28 2017).
Wartono. 2003. Basic Teaching Skills. Malang: Kanjuruhan University.