Rabu, 27 Desember 2023

As we know, being suspicious of other people is a despicable moral and is prohibited in religion. Allah says:

Avoid too much suspicion, for some suspicion is sinful.

"Stay away from most assumptions, indeed some assumptions are sins" (QS. Al-Hujuraat: 12).

The Prophet, may God bless him and grant him peace, also said:

Beware of suspicion, for suspicion is the most false of speech

"Avoid prejudice, because prejudice is the most false word" (HR. Bukhari-Muslim).

This is the law where prejudice against fellow Muslims originates, namely that it is prohibited. Because the honor of a Muslim is originally maintained and noble.

Prejudice is allowed

But be aware, there are bad prejudices that are allowed. Shaykh As Sa'di explained the letter Al Hujurat verse 12 above: "Allah Ta'ala prohibits most prejudices against fellow believers, because 'indeed, some prejudices are sins'. "That is, prejudice that is not in accordance with facts and evidence" (Taisir Karimirrahman). This means that if a prejudice is based on evidence or facts, then it does not include 'some prejudice' which is prohibited.

Shaykh Abdul Aziz bin Baz also said:

It is obligatory for a Muslim not to have a bad opinion of his Muslim brother except with evidence. It is not permissible for him to doubt his brother and have a bad opinion of him unless he sees signs that indicate a bad opinion, in which case there is no blame.

“So what is the obligation of a Muslim is not to prejudice his fellow Muslims except with proof. "You must not doubt the goodness of your brother or have bad prejudice towards your brother unless he sees signs that confirm the bad prejudice, if so then there is no problem" (Source:http://www.binbaz.org .sa/node/9619).

He also said:

It is obligatory for every Muslim, man or woman, to beware of bad thoughts, except for clear reasons. Otherwise, it is obligatory to abandon bad thoughts, not about the woman, nor about the husband, nor about the children, nor about the husband’s brother, nor about his father, nor anything else. What is obligatory is to have a good opinion of God, and have a good opinion of your brother. Muslim, or your Muslim sister, and do not think badly, except for clear reasons that necessitate the accusation, otherwise the principle is innocence and safety.

"So it is the duty of a Muslim, whether male or female, to avoid prejudice. Unless there are clear reasons (which show the badness). If there is none, then it is obligatory to leave bad prejudices. Do not be prejudiced against the wife, the husband, the child, the husband's brother, the father or another Muslim brother. And it is obligatory to be kind to Allah, as well as to fellow Muslim brothers and sisters. Unless there are clear reasons that prove the accusation. If there is none, then the original law is bara'ah (no claim) dansalamah (no guilt)" (Fatawa Nurun 'alad Darbi, 21/147-148,http://bit .ly/1K2eJBN).

So prejudice based on evidence, or signs, or causes that strengthen the accusation is permissible. For example, if we see someone come to the motorbike parking lot and then forcefully unlock one of the motorbikes in a hurry, we may assume that he wants to steal. Or if we see people gathered on the side of the road accompanied by bottles of khamr with haggard faces and glazed eyes, we may assume that they are drunk. And examples like that.

All kinds of bad prejudices

If we have understood the explanation above, we know that scholars divide bad prejudice or suuzhan into 4 types:

Haram suuzhan, namely suuzhan to Allah and suuzhan to fellow believers without real evidence or signs. Permissible suuzhan, namely suuzhan to fellow human beings who are known to be full of doubts, often commit immorality. Also includes suuzhan to infidels. Shaykh Muhammad bin Salih Al Utsaimin said:

It is forbidden to have bad thoughts about a Muslim, but for an unbeliever, it is not forbidden to have bad thoughts about him. Because he is qualified to do so, and as for someone who is known for immorality and debauchery, there is no harm in us thinking badly of him. Because he is worthy of that, and despite this, a person should not follow people’s private parts and search for them; Because he may be a spy in this work

“Suuzhan is prohibited for fellow Muslims. As for disbelievers, it is not haram to be prejudiced against them, because they are experts in evil. As for people who are known to often commit wickedness and immorality, there is no reason for us to be prejudiced against them. Because they are crazy about it. However, it is not appropriate for a Muslim to look for and investigate the bad things of other people. Because this attitude sometimes includes tajassus."

The recommended suuzhan is suuzhan to the enemy in a fight. Abu Hatim Al Busti stated:

Whoever has enmity or resentment between him in religion or this world, fears for himself and his deception, then he is bound to have bad suspicions about his machinations and deception. Lest he encounter him by surprise with his cunning and destroy him

"A person who has enmity and fights with someone over religious or worldly issues, which threatens the safety of his life, because of the plot of his enemy. So at that time it is recommended to be prejudiced against the deception and plot of the enemy. Because if not, he will be surprised by his enemy's deception and will perish."

Compulsory Suuzhan, namely suuzhan that is needed for the benefit of the Sharia. Like suuzhan to the narrator of the hadith who was jailed. (summarized from Mausu'atul Akhlak Durar Saniyyah,http://www.dorar.net/enc/akhlaq/2283)

Who is given the excuse?

From the explanation above, we also know that the sayings of the Salaf are, for example:

The believer seeks the excuses of his brothers

"A believer looks for excuses (good reasons) for his brother"

It does not apply to believers who are known to be fond of disobedience or wickedness. As for a believer who is not known for disobedience and wickedness, then it is forbidden to tarnish his honor and it is forbidden to make sex with him. And this is the original law of a believer.

Especially the believers who are known for their kindness, should find more reasons to be kind to him. In fact, if it is wrong, we should forgive. The Messenger of Allah, may God bless him and grant him peace, said:

Dismiss those who commit their transgressions

"Forgive the slippage of good people" (HR. Ibnu Hibban 94).

in another story:

Remove those who have stumbled bodies, except for the limits

"Forgive the slippage of dzawil haiah (people whose name is good), except if it affects the hadd" (HR. Abu Daud 4375, Authenticated by Al Albani in Ash Shahihah, 638).

Stay away from accusations and things that could cause prejudice

If you have understood the explanation above, it is permissible to prejudice someone if it is accompanied by clear evidence or signs. So, as a consequence, a believer should distance himself from things that can give rise to accusations and prejudice. Rasulullah Sallallahu'alaihi Wasallam said:

And beware of what excuses are made for it

"Leave the things that make you need to apologize afterwards" (HR. Dhiya Al Maqdisi in Ahadith Al Mukhtarah, 1/131; Ar Ruyani in Al Musnad, 2/504; Ad Dulabi in Al Kuna Wal Asma'; Hasanized by Al Albani in Silsilah Ahadith Sahihah, 1/689).

The Messenger of Allah, may God bless him and grant him peace, also said:

So whoever avoids doubtful things will be clear of his religion and honor, and whoever falls into doubtful things will fall into forbidden things, like a shepherd grazing around a fever area, about to be grazed therein. Every angel has a protector. Indeed, God protects his tissues.

"Whoever keeps himself away from suspicion, he has truly safeguarded his religion and honor. Whoever falls into doubt, will fall into haram. Just like a shepherd who grazes his animal near the border until it almost crosses the border. Know that Allah's limits are the things He has forbidden" (Muttafaqun 'alaih).

For example, it is not appropriate for a believer to be near a place of adultery (even if he has not committed adultery) without any intention, it is not appropriate for a believer to deliberately carry a bottle of khamr (even if he does not drink it) for joking or just for fun, it is not appropriate for a believer to be in a restaurant with haram food. (even if not eaten) without intention, and other things that could give rise to other accusations.

Hopefully this little bit is useful, wabillahi at taufiq was sadaad.


Author: Yulian Purnama

Article Muslim.or.id

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