Senin, 09 April 2018

Definition and Explanation of Hadith Sahih, Hasan, are doubtful, and is fabricated

Hadith or Sunnah is the second source of Islamic teachings after the Koran. Where both a guide and control the behavior and actions of man. For the Koran all the verses of narration has a position as an absolute truth of the news while the Prophet was not accountable narrations from the Prophet or not.

However Hadith have a role in explaining the verses of the Koran were down both muhkamât and Mutasabihat. So this hadith is necessary to serve as a backup Muslims in mastering the essentials of the teachings of Islam.

In the factual conditions are traditions in periwatannya that meet certain conditions for acceptance as a hadith known as Hadith maqbul (accepted); Sahih and hasan. On the other hand there are traditions in the chain of transmission does not meet certain criteria, or better known as Hadith mardūd (rejected); weak or even false (maudhu '), it is produced after their research efforts Sanad and Matan criticism by scholars to the highly committed to the Sunnah.

This happens due to the diversity of those who receive and narrated the Prophet. A wide variety of traditions that give rise to controversy from various circles. various analyzes on the validity of a tradition in terms of both rupture and spill tindihnya Sanad meaning of Matan also appear to determine the quality of a tradition.

From the description above it is necessary to know and follow the methods used by the scholars of hadith in determining the quality of a tradition, so that we can distinguish between an authentic hadith, hasan is weak and maudhu 'and can figure out the problem-the problem.

B. Problem Formulation

With the above background description the author has tried to provide a paper

revolves around the problems of his Sahih, hasan weak and fabricated 'which starts at issue, as follows:

· Definition, requirements, division, kehujjahan and authentic tradition books;

· Understanding, Sharing, Kehujjahan, Books of Hadith Hasan;

· Definition, division, practice and the books of hadith is weak;

· Definition, history, appearance, motivator, rules to learn, and law books narrated fabricated ';



A. Hadith Sahih

1. Definition and terms hadeeth

Shalah proposed definition of an authentic tradition, namely:

"Hadith Sahih Hadith that the chain is connected through the narration of a just and fair person dhabit dhabit again anyway, until the end, not syaz and not mu'allal (exposed illat)[1]

Ajjaj al-Khatib provide authentic tradition definition, namely:

"Tradition is connected through the transmission chain of narrators narrators tsiqah tsiqah other hand from beginning to end (Mohammed) without syuzuz without illat"[2]

Thus Ajjaj al-Khatib to submit the terms of a tradition to be known as the Hadith is authentic, namely: a. muttashil chain, b. The narrator-narrators fair[3] c. The narrator-narrators dhabit[4] d. Narrated not syaz, d. Narrated avoid illat qadihah (illat mar)

Shubhi Salih also provide signs that must be considered in view keshahihan a hadith, namely:

a. The Hadith Saheeh Musnad, which continued until the top sanadnya.

b. Hadith is not authentic hadith narrators who narrated syaz is indeed reliable, but it is against the other narrators higher.

c. Hadith Sahih Hadith not affected 'illat. Illat is: the hidden nature of the defect in the adoption of these traditions, although apparently spared from illat.

d. The whole character sanad authentic tradition was fair and accurate[5]

Definitions and signs expressed by muhaddisin of authentic hadith above, in different words, but did not indicate any difference in understanding the characteristics of an authentic tradition. In other words, it is said that a hadith is authentic, if the tradition is to have a chain of connected (muttashil) up to Mohammed. quoted from and by people who are fair and there is an element dhabittanpa syaz and mu'allal (exposed illat).

Thus when there is a hadith that the chain munqathi ', Mu'dal and muallaq and so on, it can not be said of the tradition as the authentic tradition. Likewise with illat sebuat tradition, if a hadith has illat and syaz, it can not be called an authentic tradition.

Although the definitions and the guidelines set forth by the muhaddisin of authentic hadith above, there are no differences in understanding the characteristics of an authentic tradition, but in the application of each requirement is sometimes not the same, for example in terms of linkage chain, some say that is to connect the chain is when the narrator to narrator thabaqah one right next to "handover" hadith, the handover can be seen from the editorial to be not enough to ensure that the process is not reason enough to transfer it directl

2. The division of Hadith Sahih

The scholars of hadith authentic tradition divides into two kinds

a. Sahih li Dzatihi, the Hadith which includes all the conditions or attributes Hadith maqbul perfectly, named "authentic li Dzatihi" because it has met all the conditions of authentic, and do not need a history different to get on top of keshahihan, keshahihannya has been reached by itself.[6] For more details, the writer suggested following the example hadith related by al-Bukhari:

Hadith qtybh bin, Hadith Jarir, Ibn al-building alqqa become shbrmh, agriculture Al Abi, Abi al hryrh Allah, said: rujul smart place Prophet Muhammad, fqal Messenger of Allah de hq public gracious man? He said: Omsk. He said: his mind? He said: Then Omsk. He said: his mind? He said: Then Omsk. He said: his mind? He said: Then bvk 

Hadith narrated by Abu Huraira above, is one of the authentic tradition that is not available to early-syaz and illat.

b. Sahih li ghairihi, the hadith is hasan li dzatihi (does not meet perfectly the requirements of the highest traditions maqbul), narrated through a chain of other similar or stronger than her, called Hadith Sahih li ghairihi as predicate keshahihannya achieved through the chain supporting the other.[7] The following examples li ghairihi authentic hadith narrated by at-Tirmidhi:

Hadith Abu crab, Hadith bdh Bin Sulaiman, Al Mohammad bin Amr, narrated from Abu Salamah, Al Abi hryrh, said: Messenger of Allah and peace be upon him: his lover Lola Ali follower lamrthm balsvak Fear prayer tomorrow.

Hadith is rated by muhaddisin as authentic tradition li ghairihi as described above. In the hadith chains, there are Muhammad bin 'Amr known person shooter, but kedhabitannya less than perfect, so the hadith history only up to the level of hasan. But the tradition keshahihan supported by another Hadith, the highest rank as the hadith narrated by al-Bukhari from Abu Hurayrah A'raj (on the example of an authentic tradition li dzatihi).

From this we can see that the dignity of authentic tradition depends on the dhabit's and all fair-an perawinya. The dhabit and the objective of the narrator, the higher the level of quality Hadith diriwayatkannya.yang muhaddisin as termed by the father, ashahhul.

Ashahhul Asanid, the circuit sanad highest rank, al-Khatib argued that there is disagreement among scholars about ashahhul asanid, some say:

1) History of az-Zuhry Ibn Shihab from Salim ibn Abd Allah ibn Umar Ibn Umar.

2) Some of them said: ashahhul father, is of Sulaiman al-A'masy of Ibrahim an-Nakha'iy of Alqamah Ibn Qais Abdullah ibn Mas'ud.

3) Imam Bukhari and others say, is history imam ashahhul asanid Anas ibn Malik from Nafi 'Ibn Umar Maula from ibn Umar. And because the imam Shafi'i a key most people who narrated from Imam Malik and Imam Ahmad is the most important person who narrated from Imam Shafi'i, then some scholars muta'akhirin tend to judge that ashahhul asanid is narrated from Imam Ahmad Shafi from Malik from Nafi 'from Ibn Umar is called ad-Zahab pedigree (chain of gold).[8]

3. Kehujjahan Sahih Hadith.

Regarding kehujjahan authentic tradition, there were no differences among scholars about the power of the law, especially in determining the halal and haram (legal status) something. It is based on the word of God, (Surat al-Hashr: 59):

"What the Messenger to you, then accept it. And what he forbids you, then leave. And fear Allah. Verily, Allah is severe in punishment".

4. The books containing Sahih Hadith.

Manna 'Khalil al-Qatthan in Mabahits Fi' Ulum al-Hadith, said that among the books that contain an authentic tradition is[9] :

a. Sahih Bukhari d. Sahih Ibn Hibban

b. Sahih Muslim e. Saheeh Ibn Khuzaimah

c. Mustadrak al-Hakim

Meanwhile, according to al-Khatib Ajjaj that the books contain authentic hadith is:

a. Sahih Bukhari e. Sunan an-Nasa'i 

b. Saheeh Muslim f. Sunan Ibn Majah

c. Sunan Abu Daud g. Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal

d. Sunan at-Tirmidhi

Nur al-Din 'Itr in his book an-Naqd Manhaj Fi' Ulum al-Hadith argued that the books that contain authentic traditions among others[10] :

a. al-Muwatta ' 

b. Sahih Bukhari 

c. saheeh Muslim

d. Saheeh Ibn Khuzaimah

e. Sahih Ibn Hibban

f. Al-Mukhtarah[11]

B. Hadith Hasan

1. Definition of Hadith Hasan

Hadith is hasan hadith chain attached, by going to 'fair but not all dhabit-her (his memory is not too strong) and avoid Syaz and illat.[12]

The difference between Hasan and Sahih Hadith lies in dhabit destination for authentic tradition and dhabit less for hasan hadith[13]

Ibn Hajar as quoted Mahmud Thahhan in Musthalah Hadith suggests that the Sunday newspapers narrated by a narrator who just yet perfect all his dhabithan, mutthashil without syaz and illat. That's called li dzatihi authentic. When kedhabithannya less then that hadith is hasan li dzatihi[14]

Thus it can be said that the hadith is hasan hadith which meets the requirements of an authentic tradition entirely, just that all the transmitters or in part, less all its dhabitan compared with the authentic tradition narrators. [15]

Based on the notions that have been mentioned above, the scholars of hadith hasan hadith formulate criteria, the criteria are the same as the authentic tradition, just that the hasan hadith narrators are less kedhabitannya level or lower than the transmitters of authentic tradition.

It can be concluded that the hasan hadith has the following criteria:

a. Sanad tradition should be continued.

b. narrators fair

c. Narrators have dhabit nature, but the quality is lower (less) than those of the authentic hadith narrators

d. Hadith narrated not syaz

e. Hadith narrated avoid damaging illat (qadihah)[16]

2. The division Hadith Hasan

Hasan hadith is divided into two, namely:

a. Hasan hadith li dzatihi

Hadith is hasan hadith li dzatihi in themselves meet the criteria hasan hadith as mentioned above, and does not require any other history to lift it to the level of hasan.

b. Hasan hadith li ghairihi

Hadith is hasan hadith li ghairihi dha'if when road (coming) of his multiple (more than one), and the reasons for their transmitters kedha'ifannya not wicked or deceitful.[17]

Thus the hadith hasan li ghairihi was originally a dha'if tradition, which rose to hasan because there is a history of the amplifier, so it is possible hasan quality because the amplifier history, if no amplifier is certainly still a dha'if.

Imam adh-Zahaby said the level of the highest hasan ibn Hukaim Bahz history of the father from his grandfather, Amr ibn Shu'ayb from his father from his grandfather, Ibn Ishaq of at-Taimy and similar sanad by scholars regarded as authentic chain of transmission, namely a degree lowest authentic.[18]

Example hasan hadith:

Hadith Affan, Hadith Thiqah, Mrs. Amban Saad bin Ibrahim, al temple'Uqba, said: from mavyh qlma yhds prophet Muhammad shyya vyqvl guest Hualina qlma ydhn, oh yhds bhn no aljm Al Nabi Muhammad, said: Jordan also yfqh de charity Din, Van NDOSH Peoples shayd collapse fmn yakhzh bhqh ybark material huhusay, vayakm Valtmadh fanh alzbh. (Rvah Ahmed)

The above hadith continued sanadnya and all its narrators including those reliable except Ma'bad al-Juhany by adh-Zahaby, Ma'bad including those who lack all his'adilan.[19]

Sample authentic tradition li ghairihi:

Tell us the Division Asim bin Obeid-Allah, he said I heard Abdullah bin Amer bin Rabia, from his father: that a woman of the sons Fazarah married on Ni'lin. The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him: "satisfy yourself and the owner Benalin?" She said: Yes. He said: Vojazh. (Narrated by al-Tirmidhi) 

Reported by at-Tirmidhi from Shu'bah pathways of 'Asim bin' Ubaidullah, from Abdillah bin Amir bin Rabi'a, from his father that a woman of the sons Fazarah married with a dowry pair of slippers.

Then, at-Tirmidhi said, "in this chapter also narrated (the same hadeeth) from 'Umar, Abu Hurairah, Aishah and Abu Hadrad." Line' Asim didha'ifkan as bad on occasion, then this hadith classed as hasan by at-Tirmidzy through of others.[20]

Hadith dha'if can be increased in rank to the level of hasan two conditions, namely:

a) The hadith narrated by narrators other through other avenues, with the proviso that the narrators (street) the others are the same quality or better than him.

b) that the reason for the ugliness Memory kedha'ifannya narrators, she decided sanad.serta the unknown narrator.[21]

So saying dha'if position that could rise to hasan hadith hadiths are not too weak, too weak while the hadith like the hadith evil, Hadith Struk however martyr and muttabi 'position remains dha'if, can not be turned into good.

3. Kehujjahan Hadith Hasan.

Hasan hadith position as an authentic tradition, though in rank below the authentic tradition, is a determination can be made as hujjahdalam law and in charity.

The scholars of hadith and fiqh fiqh scholars and jurists agree on kehujjahan hadith is hasan.[22]

4. Books of The Loading Hadith Hasan

Scholars who first split the Hadith as an authentic tradition, hasan and da'eef is the Imam at-Tirmidzy, so normal that Imam at-Tirmidzy have a role in raising hasan hadith. Among the books that contain the hadith is hasan[23] :

a. Sunan at-Tirmidzy

b. Sunan Abu Daud

c. Sunan ad-Dar Quthny

C. Hadith da'eef

1. Understanding and Sharing Hadith Dha'if 

Da'eef according to opponents of the language is strong. Da'eef there are two kinds of physical and heavenly. While that is meant here is the heavenly dha'if.

Weak hadith by definition is "a hadith which is not available Conditions authentic hadith and did not appear conditions hasan hadith."[24]

Among the scholars there are differences in defining the formulation of this hadith is weak, but basically the same content and meaning.

An-Nawawi define it:

"Hadith in which there is no authentic hadith terms and conditions of the hadith is hasan"[25]

As-Suyuti defines a weak hadith is:

"Tradition is missing one of the requirements or all of the terms of the hadith maqbul, or in other words the hadith are not met the requirements therein hadith maqbul"

Weak hadith when viewed in terms of the reasons kedhaifannya, it can be divided into two parts, first: are doubtful due to ineligible connected chains. Second: da'eef because there are defects in the transmitter.

Is weak due to ineligible bersambungnya Sanad. Are doubtful of this type again divided into:

1) Hadith Mu'allaq

Hadith mu'allaq ie traditions in sanadnya has discarded one or a narrator either in sequence or not. For example in the hadith narrated by Bukhari:

Malik said about syphilis from Abu Salamah from Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet "not strayed between TVA Alonbeo

It is said that Imam Bukhari Muallaq directly mention Imam Malik when he was with Imam Malik never met. Another example is,

Said Al-Bukhari said Aihh was the prophet of God he reminds all conditions of

Here Bukhari did not mention the narrator before Ayesha

2) Hadith Mursal

Hadith mursal according to the autumn term is hadith narrators of sanadnya after tabi'in, such as when a tabi'in said, "The Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wasallam said this or do like this"[26] . Examples of these are:

Malik said Jaafar ibn Muhammad from his father that the Messenger of God and the witness spent in Yemen

Here Muhammad bin Ali Zainul Abidin not to mention friends who mediated between the prophet and his father.

3) Hadith munqathi '

Hadith munqathi 'in the words of the scholars of hadith mutaqaddimin as "traditions that chain is not connected from all sides". Meanwhile, according to the scholars of hadith mutaakhkhirin is "a tradition that fall in the middle of a chain of narrators or several narrators but not in a row"[27]

Examples of these are;

What was narrated by Abd al-Razzaq al-revolutionary from Abu Zaid ibn Ishaq Ithia Hudhayfah and that brought Eetmoha Abu Bakr Amin forces of

The actual history is narrated from Abdul Razak bin Abi Nukman Saybah al-Jundi not of Syauri. While Syauri not narrated from Abi Isaac, but he narrated the hadith of Zayd. From history we actually are able to know that the above hadith is included Hadith munqthi '.

4) Hadith Mu'dhal

Hadith mu'dhal according to the terms is "tradition which fall on sanadnya two or more in a row."[28] .

Example :

Narrated by al-Hakim and al-Qa'naby chain from Malik that he delivers, that Abu Hurayrah said, "The Prophet said,

Owned by the food and Ksute Virtue, it does not cost work, but what tolerate "

Al-Hakim said, "This hadith mu'dhal of Malik in the book al-Muwatta '., Location of all mu'adalahan her for the death of two narrators of sanadnya, Muhammad bin' Aljan, from his father. The narrators second consecutive fall[29]

5) habit Mudallas

That is the hadith narrated by eliminating the narrator thereon. Tadlis itself is divided into several kinds;

a. Tadlis Isnad, is the hadith narrated by a narrator of people during her own and she meet with him but he had not heard the hadith directly from him. When the narrator explains that he heard the hadith directly when it is not, it does not exclude mudallas but a lie / wickedness.

b. Tadlis qath'i: When the narrator of aborting some of the narrators on it by summarizing using for example the transmitters guru name or say "has been said to me", and then paused for a moment and continued, "al-Amasi. , . "For example. Things like that look as though he had heard of al-Amasi directly when they are not. Hadiths as it is also called the tadlis Hadf (dumped) or tadlis sukut (still with the aim of cutting).

c. Tadlis' Athaf (stringing with conjunctions such as "Dan"). That is when the narrator explains that he obtained the traditions of his teacher and connect with other teachers when he did not hear the tradition of the two teachers he called.

d. Tadlis Taswiyah: if the transmitters abort narrators in it are not his teacher for being weak so the tradition is only narrated by those who trusted it, in order to be accepted as an authentic tradition. Tadlistaswiyah is tadlis worst kind because it contains an outrageous fraud.

e. Tadlis shuyukh: That tadlis giving properties to the narrator of the properties over the fact, or give it a name with chewable (nickname) that is different than the famous with the intent to disguise the problem. Example: Someone says: "People are very pious and firm establishment told me, or a very strong memorizers hafaleannya brkata me".

f. Included in the group is tadlis Bilad tadlis suyukh (incognito Gated name). Example: The user Haddatsana andalus fi (though the question is somewhere in the cemetery). There are some things that underlie the narrators do tadlis suyukh, sometimes due to the weak teacher needs to be given the nature of the unknown, because the narrators want to point out that he has a lot of teachers or for teacher younger age until he was ashamed narrated from him and others.

Weak because there are defects in the transmitter

The causes blemish on ke'adalahan narrators narrators relating to five, and those related to kedhabithannya also five.

As related to ke'adalahannya, namely: a) Lies, b) The charges, c) lie, d) Wicked, e) heresy, f) al-Jahalah (vagueness)

As related to ke'adalahannya, namely: a) mistake, very bad, b) sorted by rote, c) Negligence, d) The number of delusions, e) menyelisihi the transmitters are tsiqah

And here are the kinds of traditions that because of causes above:

1) fabricated Hadith '

Fabricated Hadith 'is controversial hadith that in a person with no policy at all. According to the newspaper Subhi Salih was made by a liar then ascribed to Nabi.karena caused by a factor of importance.[30] An example is the hadith about the virtues months rajab Maimun ibn Ziyad narrated from Anas shabat:

God has not been said, Oh Messenger called Rajab said, because it Atrajab the good Kthber

According to Abu Dawud and Burhan ibn Yazid, Ziyad ibn Maimun is a liar and a fake hadith maker.

2) Hadith Matruk

Hadith Struk is the hadith narrated by a narrator that seems like a lie.[31] An example of this tradition is a tradition of making up 'al intent narrated by Ibn Abi Dunya Juwaibir ibn Sa'id al Asdi of dhahak of Ibn' Abbas.

The Prophet said, you Bastnaa known, it prevents bad wrestler ... etc

According to the Nasa and Daruqutni, Juwaibir is a person who is not considered hadith.

3) Hadith Munkar

Hadith evil is diriwatkan hadith by narrators that are weak, which violate the trust.[32] The narrator does not meet the usual conditions of a dhabit said. Or with pengetian rawinya weak Hadith and contradict the narrator of tsiqah. Munkar itself not only in the chain but can also be found in the material.

4) Hadith majhul

a. Majhul 'Aini: only known a time without knowing jarh and ta'dilnya.Contohnya hadith narrated by Ibn Sa'd ibn Qutaibah Luhai'ah from Hafs ibn Hashim ibn' Utbah ibn Abi Waqas of Saib ibn Yazid ibn Yazeed from his father Sa 'id al-Kindi

The Prophet was called if he raised his hands wiping his face with his hand. Directed by Abi Dawood

Ibn Luhai'ah just a narrated from Hafs ibn Hashim ibn 'Utbah ibn Abi Waqas unnoticed jarh and ta'dilnya.

b. Majhul hali: know more than one person but not known jarh and ta'dilnya.contoh this hadith is hadith Qasim ibn Yazid ibn Walid from Madkur.

The graduate may Allah be pleased with him stoned gay. Directed by al-Bayhaqi

Yazid ibn Madkur considered majhul Hali.

5) Hadith abstract

Mubham Hadith Hadith does not mention that person's name in its chain network, both men and women.[33] An example is the tradition of Hujaj ibn Furadhah of someone (rajul), from Abi Salamah from Abu Hurayrah.

Anchoring said God for the believer and impudent Gore cream Khabb to Iamz narrated by Abu Dawood

6) Hadith syadz

Syadz Hadith traditions that are opposite to another tradition that history is stronger[34] .

7) Hadith maqlub

The meaning of the hadith is maqlub counter (put) a word, phrase, or name should be written on the back, and end a word, phrase or name that should come first.

8) Hadith mudraj

In the terminology of hadith mudraj is which there are inserts or additions, either in honor or in sanad. In honor of transmitters could be the interpretation of the hadith of his transmission, or it could merely supplementary, either at the beginning of honor, in the middle, or at the end.

9) Hadith mushahaf

Mushahaf hadith is that there is a difference with the hadith narrated by a person of trust, because in it there are some letters that changed. These changes can also occur in lafadz or on meaning, so that the intent of hadith be much different from the original meaning and intent.

In addition to the above hadith there are some traditions that included dha'if again, among others, mudhtharab, mudha'af, mudarraj, mu'allal, musalsal, mukhtalith for more details can be seen in the book as-Shiddieqy Hasby; The principal dirayah science of Hadith and also 'Ajjaj al-Khotib; Usul al-hadith

2. Practice Hadith Da'eef

Basically weak hadith is rejected and can not be practiced, when compared to authentic hadith and the hadith is hasan. But the scholars doing research into the possibility of weak hadith used and practiced, so that there is a difference of opinion among them.

There are three opinions among the scholars regarding the use of weak hadith:

a. A weak Hadith can not be carried unanimously, either on fadhail a'mal and Ahkam. This opinion diperpegangi by Yahya bin Ma'in, Bukhari and Muslim, Ibn Hazm, Abu Bakr ibn Araby.

b. Weak hadith can be used as absolute, this opinion attributed to Abu Dawood and Imam Ahmad. Both were found weak hadith ra'yu stronger than individuals.

c. Some scholars argue that a weak Hadith can be used in problem fadhail mawa'iz or similar if they fulfill several requirements.[35]

Scholars who use weak hadith in fadhilah charity, requires the ability to take them with three conditions:

1) The weakness of the tradition is not how.

2) What does the tradition is also shown by others to diperpegangi basis, meaning that the holding is not opposed to a basic law that is justified.

3) Do not believe it when using it that the tradition of a true prophet. He only used in lieu of holding opinions that are not based on the texts at all.[36]

D. fabricated Hadith '

a. Understanding fabricated Hadith '

Fabricated 'by means of a parked language, while according to terms are:

"Something created and made-up and attributed to the Prophet a liar"[37] .

This hadith is the most bad and the ugly among other weak hadiths. In addition to the Hadith scholars divide into four parts: authentic, good, weak and fabricated '. So maudhu make a separate section.[38]

Fabricated Hadith is the worst of weak hadith, hadith fabricated 'hadith also named musqath, Hadith Struk, mukhtalaq and muftara.[39]

b. The emergence of fabricated Hadith History '

The scholars have different opinions about when to begin the tradition of forgery, following their opinion:

a. According to Ahmad Amin that the tradition maudhu 'happened since the days of the prophet is still alive.

b. Saladin ad-Dabi said that forgery of hadith regarding the mundane problems that occur at the time of the prophet of Allah.

c. According to al-muhaddin jumhur, Hadith forgery occurred during the caliphate of Ali ibn Abi Talib.[40]

c. Emergence Motivation Motivation-fabricated Hadith '

Hadith maudhu 'is not less than the increase of heresy and dissension. Based on historical data, Hadith forgery not only by the people of Islam, but also carried out by non-Islamic people.

There are several motives that prompted them to create false hadiths, among others:

a. Political Conflicts

The split Muslims occurred due to the political problems that occurred during the caliphate of Ali ibn Abi Talib, a large impact on the appearance of false traditions. Each faction trying to defeat his opponent and trying to influence certain people, one effort is to create a false hadiths.

b. The efforts zindiq

The zindiq are those who hate Islam, both as a religion and as a government policy. They find it impossible to falsify the Qur'an so that they make an effort to switch counterfeiting Reports.[41] With the aim to destroy Islam from within.

c. Rabid attitude Blind

One factor is the effort of making false hadiths of the nature of the ego and blind fanatics tehadap tribe, nation, country and leadership

Examples of groups which are ash-Syu'ubiyah rabid fanatic Persian nation, he said, "If God's wrath, he lowered revelation with Arabic and delighted when he lowered the persian language support.[42]

d. Affect the Laity With Stories and Advice

Groups that have forged this tradition aim of gaining the sympathy of the audience so that they were amazed to see his ability.[43] Hadith which they say is too exaggerated.

There was even a fake hadith that reads: "The prophet sat side by side with God on his Throne".

e. Disputes in fiqhi and theology

The emergence of false hadiths in fiqhi problems and theology, derived from the followers of sects. They have forged the tradition because they want to strengthen madzhabnya respectively.

f. Lobby with ruler

An event that occurred in the children of the Abbasid caliphate, a man called Ibrahim ibn Ghiyats never made Hadith mentioned in front of the Caliph al-Mahdi concerning pleasure caliph.[44]

g. Worship excessive zeal without knowledge based.

Among experts there who think that religious traditions make is to encourage enterprising worship (targhib) is allowed, in order to air taqarrub to God.[45]

d. Norms To Know fabricated Hadith '

The scholars of hadith establishes rules to help track the whereabouts of fabricated hadith ', so that the hadith fabricated' can be determined by several things, among others[46] :

a. Recognition of those who forged traditions: as confession Abi 'Ismat Nuh ibn Abi Maryam, who dubbed him al-Jami', saying that he had falsified the Ibn Abbas about the virtues of the Koran sura persurah.

b. An indication of the narrator's point of duplicity: for example, a narrator who Rafidhah and his hadith about the virtues of the Household.

c. Indications on the content of the hadith, as it is contrary to common sense, or contrary to the sense of reality, or contrary to the provision of strong and light, or order lafazhnya weak and chaotic, like what was narrated Rahman bin Zaid bin Aslam from his father from marfu grandfather ', "the ship that Noah tawaf around the Ka'bah seven times and prays two rak'ahs at the station of Abraham."

e. Law narrates fabricated Hadith '

The scholars agreed bahwanya banned narrated maudhu'dari people who know naught of any kind, unless accompanied by an explanation will kemaudhu'annya, based on the words of the Prophet:

"He who tells the hadith from me while he knew that it was a lie, he included the liars." (HR.Muslim)



From the description of papers the writer explained above, we can conclude several things.

1. Hadith Sahih

Hadith Sahih Hadith that the chain is connected through the narration of a just and fair person dhabit dhabit again anyway, until the end, not syaz and not mu'allal (exposed illat).

Conditions authentic hadith, among others: a. Muttashil chain just c.Perawi b.Perawi-narrators-narrators narrated dhabit d.yang not syaz e.yang narrated avoid illat qadihah (illat the damage it).

Authentic tradition is divided into two:

1.shahih lidzatihi

2.shahih li ghairihi

No difference scholars about kehujjahannya especially in matters of legal determination something.

The books contain an authentic tradition, among others:

1) Sahih Bukhari 7) Saheeh Ibn Khuzaimah

2) Sahih Muslim 8) Sunan Abu Daud

3) Mustadrak al-Hakim 9) Sunan at-Tirmidhi

4) Sahih Ibn Hibban 10) Sunan an-Nasa'i

5) Sahih Ibn Khuzaimah 11) Sunan Ibn Majah

6) Sunan Abu Daud

2. Hadith Hasan

Hadith Qudsi hadith is hasan chain attached, by going to the fair, but less-dhabit-her (his memory is not too strong) and avoid Syaz and illat.

Hasan hadith criteria:

1) Sanad tradition should be continued.

2) the narrator fair

3) The narrator has dhabit nature, but the quality is lower (less) than those of the authentic hadith narrators

4) Hadith narrated not syaz

5) Hadith narrated avoid damaging illat (qadihah)

a. Hasan hadith is divided into two, namely:

a. hasan li dzatihi

b. hasan li ghairi

b. Hasan Hadith position as an authentic tradition, though rank below the authentic tradition, is able to be used as evidence in establishing law and in practice

c. Books of The Loading Hadith Hasan

a. Sunan at-Tirmidzy

b. Sunan Abu Daud

c. Sunan ad-Dar Quthny

3. Hadith doubtful!

a. Hadith is weak "hadiths which are not found eligible authentic hadith and did not appear hasan hadith conditions

b. in terms of the reasons kedhaifannya, it can be divided into two parts:

1. are doubtful due to ineligible bersambungnya sanad, classified therein, among others:

a. Mu'allaq

b. mursal

c. Munqathi'

D. Nu'dl

e. Mudallas

2. da'eef because there are defects in the narrators, who belongs in it include:

a. Maudhu 'g. Mudhtharab

b. Munkar h. Mudarraj

c. Majhul i. mu'allal

d. Matruk j. musalsal

e. Abstract k. Mukhtalith

f. Syadz l. mudha'af

c. There is a difference of opinion among the scholars as to practice a weak hadith, on this point there are three opinions:

1) a weak Hadith can not be carried unanimously, either on fadhail a'mal and Ahkam.

2) a weak Hadith can be used absolutely, Hadith da'eef stronger than individual ra'yu

3) Some scholars argue that a weak Hadith can be used in problem fadhail mawa'iz or similar if it fulfills several conditions

4. fabricated Hadith '

a. Fabricated Hadith 'is "something created and made-up and attributed to the Prophet a liar"

b. Emergence Motivation Motivation-fabricated Hadith '

1). Political Conflicts

2). The efforts zindiq

3). Rabid attitude Blind

4). Affect the Laity With Stories and Advice

5). Disputes in fiqhi and theology

6). Lobby with ruler

7). Excessive spirit of worship without being based on knowledge

c. Norms To Know fabricated Hadith '

1) Recognition of a person who forged traditions

2) There is no indication in the narrator's point of duplicity

3) The indications on the content of the hadith

d. Law narrates fabricated Hadith '

The scholars agreed bahwanya banned narrated maudhu'dari people who know naught of any kind, unless accompanied by an explanation will kemaudhu'annya Fsafsa


Hashim, Ahmad Umar, Musthalah Taysir al-Hadith, [td]

Rahman, Fathur Ikhtishar, Mushthalah Hadith, Bandung: al-Ma'arif, 1991

Fattah, Ibrahim Abdul, Alqaul al-Bayani Hasif Fi al-Hadith ad-da'eef, Cairo: Dar al-Muhammadiyah Thiba'ah, 1992

'ITR, Nur al-Din an-Naqd Manhaj Fi' Ulum al-Hadith (Damascus: Dar al-Fikr) translated by Mujiyo, 'Ulum al-Hadith, Bandung: Teen Rosda paper, Cet.II, 1997

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Mudassir, Hadith Sciences, Bandung 2007

Yuslem, Nawir, Ulumul tradition, [tt], Pearl source Widya, 2001

al-Qatthan, Manna 'Khalil, Mabahits Fi' Ulum al-Hadith translated by Abdurrahman Mifdol in the title Introduction to the science of Hadith, Jakarta: Pustaka Kauthar cet.II 2006

Sayyidi, Taufiq Umar, Manhaj ad-dirayah riwayah wa al-Mizan, [b]

Salih, Subhi, Hadith Ulumul Wamustalahatuhu, Beirut; Dar al'Ilm, 1988.

(Of / ulivinalfaris)


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