Jumat, 20 Januari 2023

Definition of Observation (Observation), Types, and Guidelines for Making Observations

Observation is a way of collecting information material (data) which is carried out by systematically observing and recording the phenomena that are being made the target of observation/observation. Observation as an evaluation tool is widely used to assess individual behavior or the process of occurrence of an activity that can be observed, both in actual situations and in artificial situations.

2. Kinds of Observations
Observations can be made by:
1. Participatory
Observer (in this case educators who are carrying out observation activities) involve themselves in the midst of observe activities (observed).
2. Non-Participatory
The evaluator/observer is “outside the line”, as if a mere spectator.
3. Experimental
Observations made in artificial situations. In experimental observation, students are subjected to treatment or certain conditions, so careful planning and preparation is needed.
4. Non-Experimental
Observations made in reasonable situations, implementation is much simpler
5. Systematic
Observations are made by first planning carefully. In this type, observations are carried out based on a framework that contains factors that have been categorised.
6. Non-systematic
Observation where the observer or evaluator in observing and recording is not limited by a definite framework, so observation activities are limited only by the purpose of the observation itself.

3. Create
Observation Guidelines
The steps taken in making direct observation guidelines are as follows:
1. First make direct observations of a behavioral process, for example the teacher’s appearance in class. Then record the activities carried out from the beginning to the end of the lesson. This is done in order to determine the type of teacher behavior when teaching as aspects to be observed.
2. Based on the description of step (a) above, the assessor determines which aspects of the teacher’s behavior will be observed in relation to their needs. Sort these aspects according to what should be based on scientific knowledge, for example based on teaching theory. The formulation of the behavior must be clear and specific so that it can be observed by the observer
3. Determine the form of the observation guide, whether it is free form (no need for answers, but records what appears) or structured guidelines (using possible answers). If a structured form is used, specify answer choices as well as indicators and each answer is provided as a guide for observers when making observations later
4. Before the observation is carried out, first discuss the observation guidelines that have been made and the prospective observer so that each observed aspect can be understood and how to fill it in.
5. If there are special things of interest, but not in the observation guideline, it is best if a special note or observer comment is made at the end of the observation guideline.
Recording the results of these observations is generally much more difficult than recording the answers given by students to the questions given in a test. Recording of everything that can be witnessed in the observation is very important because the results will be used as a basis for assessing the meaning contained behind the student’s behavior. The observation guideline in its concrete form is one or several forms (blanks or forms) which contain aspects, aspects or behavior that need to be observed and recorded during student activities.

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