A NEW REVIVAL OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD
The seeds of renewal of the Islamic world actually appeared around the XIII century AD. In the midst of the Mongol rule over Islam under the command of Hulaghu khan, Taqiyyudin Ibn Taimiyah was born in the city of Harran, Syria (1263-1328). Later, after Ibn Taimiyah developed into a pious person, he was very concerned about the fate of Muslims. He was supported by the presence of a student, Ibn Qayyim Al-Gauziyah (691-751 H). These two figures are known as figures who first purified Islamic teachings (Tajdid) from various beliefs and actions that could damage the foundations of Islam. The characteristics of the flow that he developed:
1. Providing space and opportunities for ijtihad in various religious studies related to worldly muamalah
2. Not absolutely bound by the opinions of previous scholars
3. Fight those who deviate from the aqidah of the salaf, such as polytheism, superstition, bid'ah, taqlid, and tasawul. Also towards people who claim to be Sufis and philosophers who have openly violated and deviated from the principles of Islamic aqidah.
4. Return to the Al-Qur'an and Sunnah as the main sources of Islamic teachings.
Ibnu Qayyim Al-Jauziyah died on the 20th of Dzul Qaidah 728 H 27 September 1328 AD.
In 1703, a great scholar was born in Uyainah, a village in Najed in the eastern part of Saudi Arabia. He is familiarly called Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab. He is the pioneer of Wahhabism. This movement is also called the Muwahhidin Movement , which is a movement that aims to purify and glorify Allah SWT as pure as possible, easy to understand and practice as brought by the Prophet SAW.
This movement is the second link in the ranks of the reform movement in Islam, because this movement has even concretely actualized the spirit, soul and spirit of the Taqiyyudin Ibn Taimiyah movement . It was even at this time that the thoughts of Taqiyyudin Ibn Taimiyah were fully realized . Principles of Wahhabi teachings:
1. Continuing the struggle of Taqiyyudin Ibn Taimiyah
2. One thing that is no less important is the issue of monotheism which is very emphasized.
a. Worshiping the idols of Allah SWT, and whoever does that is killed
b. People who seek God's forgiveness by visiting the graves of pious people, is shirk
c. Giving an introduction in prayer to the names of prophets or guardians or angels (such as Sayyidina Muhammad), is shirk
d. Denying Qadar in all actions, and interpretation of the Qur'an by way of takwil, including kufr and ilhad
e. Providing knowledge without being based on the Al-Qur'an and Sunnah, or based solely on reason, is kufr
f. It is forbidden to use tasbih in reciting dhikr and praying, just use your knuckles
g. The only source of Islamic law is the Al-Qur'an and the Sunnah as an explanation. Ijtihad if it is not based on both of them may not be used as the basis of Islamic shari'ah
h. The door of ijtihad is wide open for anyone if they fulfill the conditions.
1. Salafi movement
Sayyid Jamaluddin Al-Afghany (1838-1897). He was born in As'ad Abad (Afghanistan). He is a prominent Islamic thinker, the initiator of the salafiyah movement.
He first studied religion from his father Sayyid Shaffar (a well-known businessman, as well as a pious).
At the age of 16 he was sent to study in India (which at that time was under British rule). He strongly condemned the colonial actions carried out by the British. From this, his thoughts arose on how to restore Islamic identity.
He completed his studies in India and soon returned to Afghanistan. He immediately plunged into politics. In a short time he was well known as a popular figure in society. This is because he is very abstinent from prostitution of Islamic principles, even though they are exchanged for all the luxuries of the world.
All of that ultimately made the rulers very worried about his presence in the political arena at that time. He was finally expelled.
He went to Egypt in 1877. Here he found a friend who at the same time considered him a teacher. That person was the young Muhammad Abduh (Student of Al-Azhar). At the first meeting he was involved in a discussion with Abduh regarding Islam, especially in the field of knowledge of tasawuf and interpretation of the Qur'an.
Muhammmad Abduh was very impressed with his wisdom, breadth of knowledge, and modern ways of thinking from him. Since then Muhammad Abduh has always been by his side, as well as making him a teacher and role model.
Shaykh Jamaluddin Al-Afghany and Shaykh Muhammad Abduh differed in their views on Islamic issues at that time.
Shaykh Jamaluddin Al-Afghany argues that the first step that Muslims must take is "jihad", fighting in Islamic ways, with all the risks, so that political power can be seized.
According to Shaykh Muhammad Abduh, politics usually uses the principle of tending to Machiavellian (where in an effort to achieve goals it ignores the norms, religious ethics). This is “ la'natulllahi 'ala assyiasah” (God's curse on politics). This does not mean that he is allergic to politics, it's just that he will follow politics as practiced by Rasulullah SAW. According to him, the first step that must be done now is through educational institutions by producing cadres of Islamic reformers.
On September 23, 1897 Shaykh Jamaluddin Al-Afghany went to London, and immediately sent a letter to his friend Shaykh Muhammad Abduh. But after some time in England he did not feel at home. He eventually moved to France. France is a country that upholds democratic values and human rights.
Shaykh Muhammad Abduh answered his call, and immediately went to France. Here he both founded the association "Al-Urwatul Wustqa" (a solid brotherhood). And also published the magazine Al-Urwatul Wustqa.
It was through this magazine that the two figures disseminated reform ideas throughout the Islamic world. Shaykh Jamaluddin Al-Afghany's aspiration to foster unity and oneness of Muslims around the world is called "Pan-Islamism".
This magazine was positively received by all Islamic countries at that time, as well as Indonesia. But in the end the French government banned the publication of this magazine, because it was felt to be disturbing the authorities. England also gave a strong reaction to this magazine. Finally, on the 18th issue, it was the last day for Al-Urwatul Wustqa magazine.
Shaykh Jamaluddin Al-Afghany returned to Najed, then moved to Iran, and finally to Turkey. At the age of 58 he suffered from cancer, and went to the Almighty on March 9, 1897.
While Shaykh Muhammad Abduh went to Beirut. This is where he started a new struggle. During his time with Shaikh Jamaluddin Al-Afghany, his struggle was more towards politics, but now he focuses more on education issues. He was accepted as a teacher at Madrasah Sultaniyah. Among his students are Amir Syakib Arslan, and Rashid Ridha. In 1889 he returned to Egypt. The first position given by the government to him was a judge. His peak career was as mufti of the Egyptian government, he died in 1905.
This movement was finally continued by Shaykh Rashid Ridha (1865-1935). He was born in Lebanon. His thoughts on Islamic reform can be said to be similar to the thoughts of Shaykh Jamaluddin Al-Afghany and Shaykh Muhammad Abduh.
In his writings, he often attacked the absolute government of the Ottoman Empire, and it was not uncommon for him to openly attack British and French politics which had divided the Arab world under their rule.
The main ideas of his renewal are as follows:
1. Many Muslims understand their religion and their behavior have deviated from the true teachings of Islam. Muslims must be guided back to the pure teachings of Islam
2. In order to immediately realize the unity and integrity of the Muslim Ummah, it should not be based on national unity or language, but on the basis of the unity of faith and Islam. In addition, it is recommended for Muslims to maintain harmony on the basis of full tolerance, even in different schools of thought.
3. Women must be included in various community activities
4. Some understandings and teachings of the Sufis weaken the religion of Islam because they neglect their duties on earth.