Complete Science Philosophy Papers, Read This
Complete Science Philosophy Papers
By: Husein Al-Kaff
Theory of Knowledge
Knowledge (knowledge or knowledge) is an essential part of human accidents, because knowledge is the fruit of "thinking". Thinking (or natiqiyyah) is a differentia (or fashl) that separates humans from their fellow genus, namely animals. And actually human greatness and "perhaps" superiority over other species because of his knowledge. Human progress today is none other than the knowledge they have. Then what has and wants to be known by humans? How is man knowledgeable? What did he do and with what in order to have knowledge? Then is what he knows true? And what is the yardstick for truth?
The questions above are actually very simple because these questions have been answered by themselves when humans have entered the realm of reality. However, when these problems are raised and dissected with a knife of knowledge, things don't become simple anymore. The problems will change from something easy to something difficult, from something simple to something complicated (complicated). Because these problems are brought into the dissection of science, they become something that is disputed and debated. Disputes about it cause differences in the way of looking at the world (world view), so that in turn emerges differences in ideology. And that is the reality of human life which has various viewpoints and ideologies.
On that basis, humans -at least those who consider the issues above important- need to discuss science and knowledge itself. In this case, knowledge is no longer an activity of the brain, namely receiving, recording, and processing what is in the mind, but it becomes an object.
Thinkers call the science of this science with epistemology (theory of knowledge or nadzariyyah al ma'rifah).
Epistemology has become a study, in fact, not too long ago, namely since three centuries ago and developed in the western world. While in the Islamic world the study of this as a separate science is not yet popular. Recently, several Islamic thinkers and philosophers have written books on epistemology in particular, such as Mutahhari with his book "Syinakht", Muhammad Baqir Sadr with his "Falsafatuna", Jawad Amuli with his "Nadzariyyah al Ma'rifah" and Ja'far Subhani with " Nadzariyyah al Ma'rifah” Previously, the discussion of epistemology was discussed on the sidelines of classical philosophy books and mantiq. They -the West- are very concerned about this study, because of the situation and conditions they face. western world (read: Europe) experienced an explosion of freedom of expression in all things which was very big and great which changed their way of thinking. They have been free from intellectual trauma. It was the Renaissance that contributed most to them in closing the long dark ages of Europe and opening a new page of their history. The supremacy and domination of the church over science has been shattered. As a result of the collapse of the church which views the world with an a priori view on behalf of God and religion, they try to find other alternatives in viewing the world (read: reality). Because of that, various schools of thought have emerged that have alternated and not a few are contradictory. However, broadly speaking, there were two schools of thought, namely the rationalist and empirical schools. And part of it has disappeared. From the rationalists emerged Descartes, Immanuel Kant, Hegel and others. And from the empiricists are Auguste Comte with his positivism, William James with his pragmatism, Francis Bacon with his sensualism.
In contrast to the west, in the Islamic world there was no such explosion, because in Islam religion and science go hand in hand and side by side, although there is some friction between religion and science, it is very small and occurs due to premature interpretation of religious texts. But overall religion and science support each other. In fact, not a few Islamic scholars, as well as scientists such as: Ibn Sina, al Farabi, Jabir bin al Hayyan, al Khawarizmi, Sheikh al Thusi and others. Therefore, the intellectual explosion in Islam did not happen. The development of science in the Islamic world is relatively stable and calm.
Philosophy comes from Greek which has been Arabicized. This word comes from the two words "philos" and "shopia" which means lover of knowledge. It is said that the first to use the word "philoshop" was Socrates. (and it is still said that) He used this word for two reasons. First, his humility. Although he is a clever and knowledgeable person, he does not want to call himself a smart person. But he chose to be called a lover of knowledge.
Secondly, at that time, in Greece there were some people who considered themselves shopis. They are good at fighting their tongues, so what they think is right is right. So the truth depends on what they say. There is no real truth. Finally, people at that time were infected with skepticism, meaning they were doubtful about everything, because what they considered to be true was not necessarily true and the truth depended on shopaholics. Under these circumstances, Socrates felt the need to build trust in humans that truth exists and does not have to depend on shopists. He succeeded in his attempt and defeated the shopis. Even though he was successful, he didn't want to be called smart, but he chose the word philoshop as a satire for those who were smart.
Then his struggle was continued by Plato, who was further developed by Aristotle. Aristotle compiled the principles of thinking and postulating which became known as Aristotelian logic (mantiq).
In the beginning, the word philosophy meant all the knowledge possessed by humans. They divide philosophy into two parts, namely, theoretical philosophy and practical philosophy. Theoretical philosophy includes: (1) natural sciences, such as: physics, biology, mining science and astronomy; (2) exact sciences and mathematics; (3) the science of divinity and metaphysics. Practical philosophy includes: (1) norms (morals); (2) household affairs; (3) social and political. Philosophers are people who know all these branches of knowledge.
Can Humans Have Knowledge?
The epistemological problem that has always been and is currently being studied is, is it possible to have knowledge? Can the world (read: reality) be known? At first glance, this problem is ridiculous and ridiculous. But there are some people who deny knowledge or doubt knowledge. For example, the father of the sophists, the Georgias, once quoted from him a saying, “Everything is nothing. If there is, then it cannot be known, or if it can be known, then it cannot be informed.”
They have some pretty strong reasons when they argue that knowledge is something that doesn't exist or can't be trusted. Pyrrho, one of them, said that when humans want to know something, they use two tools, namely the senses and reason. The senses which are the most basic tools of knowledge have many errors, both the senses of sight, hearing, touch, smell and taste. They say that one sense has hundreds of errors. If this is so, then how can knowledge through the senses be trusted? Likewise with reason. Humans are often mistaken in thinking. The clearest evidence is that among the philosophers themselves there are clear differences, it is impossible that everything is right, there must be something wrong. So reason can not be trusted.
When Pyrrho postulated that knowledge was impossible due to errors of the senses and reason, in fact, he already knew (read: believed) that knowledge was impossible. And that is knowledge. That's first. Second, when he says that the senses and reason are often at fault, or say, are always at fault, he means that he knows that the senses and reason are wrong. And that is knowledge too.
The reasons put forward by Pyrrho do not come to the conclusion that knowledge is impossible. That reason can only prove that there is error in reason and senses but not all knowledge through them is wrong. Therefore, there must be a way to make reason and senses innocent.
According to Ibnu Sina, there is another, more effective way to deal with them, namely to beat them. If he feels pain, it means they know there is pain (ending dawa' kay).
Descartes' "Cogito, ergosum".
Rene Descartes is a rationalist thinker. He was quite instrumental in reviving rationalism in the west. Muhammad Baqir Sadr included it in the rationalists. He is a thinker who has experienced skepticism about knowledge and reality, but he survived and rose to become a believer in reality. Its rational building departs from doubts about reality and knowledge. He seeks the basis of his belief in God, nature, soul and the city of Paris. He finds that the basis or tools of his belief and knowledge are the senses and reason. It turns out that both of them still need to be discussed, meaning that both of them do not provide certain and convincing things. Then he thought that everything could be doubted, but he could not doubt his mind. In other words he believes and knows that he doubts and thinks. His popular expression and at the same time the foundation of his beliefs and knowledge is "I think (read: doubt), then I exist".
His argument for reality uses the first form of a categorical syllogism, but without mentioning the major premise. I think, anyone who thinks exists, then I exist.
Al Ghazzali's doubts.
From the Islamic world is Imam al Ghazzali who was once skeptical of reality, but he survived and became a great thinker in philosophy and tashawwuf. His popular saying is "Doubt is the vehicle that takes a person to faith".
Knowledge Tools Funding Resources.
After knowledge is something that is possible and realistic, the problems discussed in Islamic epistemology literature are problems related to sources and tools of knowledge. In accordance with the law of causality that every effect must have a cause, then knowledge is something that is accidental in nature - both according to Plato's recollection theory, Aristotle's rationalist-paripatetic theory, Suhrawardi's theory of illumination, and the materialist philosophy of the empiricists - and must have cause or source. Of course what is considered as a source of knowledge is as varied and different as the various and different schools of human thought. Besides that knowledge has sources, also when someone wants to make contact with these sources, he uses tools.
The Islamic philosophers mention several sources and at the same time tools of knowledge, namely:
1. Natural tabi'at or physical nature
2. Nature of Reason
3. Analogy ( Tamtsil)
4. Heart and Inspiration
1. Natural tabi'at or physical nature
Human being is a material being, so while in this material world he will not be separated from his relationship with matter in an interactive way, and his relationship with matter requires him to use tools that are also material in nature, namely the senses (al hiss), because something material cannot be changed. to become immaterial. The most concrete example of a relationship with matter in a material way is the daily activities of humans in this world, such as eating, drinking, marital relations and so on. Thus, nature of tabi'at which is material is the source of knowledge which is "perhaps" the earliest and the senses are a tool for knowledge which is the source of tabi'at.
Without human senses can not know nature tabi'at. It is stated that, whoever does not have one sense, he will not know some knowledge. In classical Aristotle philosophy, knowledge through the senses is included in the six axiomatic knowledge (badihiyyat). Even though the senses play a very significant role in knowledge, the senses are only a normal condition, not a sufficient condition. The role of the senses is only to photograph partial material reality, and to generalize it requires reason. In fact, in the most recent study of Islamic philosophy, knowledge obtained through the senses is actually not through the senses. They say that there are two kinds of knowledge objects (al ma'lum), namely, (1) substantial knowledge objects and (2) accidental knowledge objects. What is substantially known by humans are objects that exist in the mind, while the external reality known to him is only accidental. According to this view, the senses only respond from outer reality to inner reality.
Views of Sensuality (al-hissiyyin).
Sensualists, especially John Locke, assume that knowledge is valid and true only through the senses. They say that when the human brain is born empty of all forms of knowledge, then through the senses external realities are embedded in the mind. The role of reason is only two, namely, compiling and sorting, and generalizing. So the most important role is the senses. Pure knowledge through reason without the senses does not exist. The consequence of this view is that reality which is not material or which cannot be touched by the senses, cannot be known, so that in turn they deny metaphysical things such as God.
2. Nature of Reason
The Rationalists, apart from the natural world or the physical world, believe that reason is the second source of knowledge and also a means of knowledge. They think that reason is actually a tool of knowledge while the senses are only helpers. Indra only records or takes pictures of the reality related to him, but what stores and processes is reason. Because they say, senses without reason are meaningless. But without the sense of knowledge, reason is only imperfect, not non-existent.
1. Draw conclusions. What is meant by drawing conclusions is drawing a law on a particular case from general law. This activity in logical terms is called a demonstrative categorical syllogism.
2. Knowing general concepts. There are two theories that explain the activity of this mind. First, the theory says that reason first removes the distinctive characteristics of several persons and leaves them with points of similarity. This theory is called the tajrid and intiza' theory. Second, the theory says that intellectual knowledge of general concepts goes through three stages, namely the contact of the senses with the material, recording the mind, and generalizing.
3. Grouping of Beings. Intellect has the ability to classify everything that exists in the realm of reality into several groups, for example realities are grouped into substances, and into accents (of which there are nine kinds).
4. Sorting and Decomposition.
5. Merger and Compilation.
3. Analogy (Tamtsil)
Included in the tools of human knowledge is an analogy which in fiqh terminology is called qiyas. An analogy is establishing a law (read; predicate) for something with a law that already exists in something else because of the similarity between the two things.
The analogy is composed of several elements; (1) origin, namely partial cases whose law has been known. (2) branch, which is a partial case whose law is to be known, (3) point of similarity between origin and branch and (4) law that has been determined on origin.
The analogy is divided into two;
1. Interpretive analogy: When there is a case where the law is clear, but the cause or reason for its determination is not known.
2. The analogy that explains the illat: A case where the law and illat are clear.
4. Heart and Inspiration
The empiricists who view that there is the same as matter so that something immaterial does not exist, then knowledge about in matter cannot exist. On the other hand, the Divine (theosophy) who believe that there is more than just matter, they believe in the existence of material things. Knowledge of it is not possible through the senses but through the mind or heart.
Of course what is meant by knowledge through the heart here is knowledge of external material reality, while internal ones such as pain, sadness, joy, hunger, thirst and other intuitive things are believed to exist by everyone without exception.
How to know by heart?
Divine Philosopher Mulla Shadra ra. said, "Verily, if the human spirit leaves the body and migrates towards its Lord to witness His great signs, and if the soul is clean from sins, passions and attachments, then the light of understanding and faith in Allah will appear in it. His very high angel. If that light strengthens and becomes substance, then it becomes a qudsi substance, which in terms of theoretical wisdom by experts is called effective reason and in terms of prophetic law is called the holy spirit. With the strong light of reason, then the secrets that are in the earth and in the heavens are reflected in it - namely the holy human spirit - the secrets that are in the earth and in the sky and will appear from it the essence of everything as seen by the sensual light of the eye (alhissi) the images of conception in the power of the eye if it is not hidden by a veil . The veil here -in this discussion- is the influences of nature, character and the busyness of the world, because the heart and spirit -according to the form of their creation- have the eligibility to receive the light of wisdom and faith if they are not infested by darkness which destroys them such as disbelief, or a veil which destroys them. hinder it such as disobedience and related to it "
Then he continued, "If the soul turns away from the promptings of nature and the darkness of lust, and faces itself to Alhaq and the realm of evil, then that soul will be in touch with a very high happiness and will see the secrets of the realm of evil and be reflected in it purity (qudsi) Lahut .” (al-Asfar al-Arba'ah volume 7 pages 24-25).
Regarding the truth of the reality of the spirit and heart realms, Ibn Sina said, “Actually the 'arifin have tombs and special degrees for them. They are in the life of the world below the others. It is as if they, even though they are with their body, have let it go and left it for the qudsi realm. They can witness subtle things that cannot be imagined and explained verbally. Their pleasure with something that can not be seen and heard by the eye. People who don't like him will deny him and people who understand him will raise him." (al-Igest volume 3, chapter nine about the tombs of the wise, pages 363-364)
Then he continued, “If news reaches you that a wise man spoke -previously- about something unseen (or that will happen), with pleasant news or a warning, then believe it. And sometimes you object to believing in him, because what he preaches has clear reasons in the views of tabi'at (schools).
The knowledge of the supernatural that humans reach through the heart if it is related to a person's personality is called inspiration or ishraq, and if it is related to the guidance of mankind and the perfection of their souls with the law is called revelation.
Islam and the Sources of Knowledge
In the Islamic texts -Qur'an and Sunnah- it is explained about the sources and tools of knowledge:
1. The senses and reason
Allah SWT. said, "And Allah who has brought you out of the wombs of your mothers, while you do not know anything, and (then) He created for you hearing, sight and heart (or mind) so that you are grateful". (QS. al-Nahl: 78).
Islam not only mentions God's gifts to humans in the form of senses, but also encourages us to use them, for example in the Qur'an God swt. said, "Say, look at everything in the heavens and on the earth." (QS. Yunus: 101). And there are many other verses about the encouragement to meditate. The Qur'an also proves the existence of God with the approach of the material world and the approach of pure reason such as, "If there were many gods in the heavens and on earth besides God, surely both would be destroyed." (QS. al-Anbiya': 22). This sentence uses the rational approach commonly referred to in Aristotelian logic with hypothetical syllogism.
Or another verse which reads, "God gave a parable, a person who is fought over by many masters with someone who surrenders himself to only one person, are the two the same?" (QS. al-Zumar: 29)
Allah swt said, "O you who believe, fear Allah, surely He will give you furqon." (QS. al-Anfal: 29) The meaning of this verse is that Allah swt. will provide light with which they can distinguish between the right and the wrong.
Or the verse that reads, "And fear Allah and He will teach you. And God knows all things." (QS. al-Baqarah: 282). And other verses.
Knowledge Requirements and Barriers.
Although knowledge cannot be separated from humans, there are often things that humans should know, but they do not know.
Therefore there are several pre-requisites to have knowledge, namely:
People who do not concentrate (focus) their senses and minds on external objects, then they will not know what is around them.
2. Common sense
An unsound mind cannot think properly. This unhealthy mind may be due to disease, congenital defects or improper education.
3. Healthy senses
People who have one or all of their senses are impaired, so they don't know the material world around them.
If these conditions are met then a person will get knowledge through the senses and reason. Then knowledge can be possessed through the heart. This knowledge will be achieved with conditions such as cleansing the heart of disobedience, focusing the heart on a higher realm, emptying the heart of fanaticism and following the rules of sayr and mysticism. A person whose heart is like that will reflect in it the Divine light and His perfection.
When these conditions are not met then knowledge will be hindered from humans. Specifically, there are several characteristics that hinder knowledge, such as arrogance, fanaticism, blind taqlid (without a solid foundation), arrogance because of knowledge, a weak soul (a soul easily influenced by big personalities) and excessive love of material things.