Imam Hanafi's Biography, Development, Thought Patterns and Methods of Istinbath Imam Hanafi
Imam Hanafi Biography, Development, Thought Patterns and Methods of Istinbath Imam Hanafi
- The Abu Hanifah Schoolis one of the four triad schools in the school of fiqh, Imam Abu Hanifah is indeed better known as a faqih (jurist) rather than a muhaddits (hadith expert) . His expertise in the field of fiqh has been recognized by many experts, even the imams themselves such as Imam Malik and Imam Shafi'i. However, that does not mean that he is less skilled in the field of hadith because his great teachers such as Atha', Nifi', Ibnu Hurmuz, Hammad bin Abi Sulaiman, Amr bin Dinar and others have taught him hadith besides fiqh.
There are several kinds of opinions from Muslims about the position of this school. Some of them are of the opinion and consider that the Abu Hanifah school is a new school and different from other schools.
Biography of Imam Hanafi
This school is named after the name of its founder scholar, namely Abu Hanifah, whose real name is Nu'man bin Thabit Ibn Zufy al-Taimy , who still has a family relationship with 'Ali bin Abi Talib, even Ali once prayed for Thabit so that Allah would bless his descendants. , so it is not surprising if in the future from his descendants emerged great Ulama' like Abu Hanifah. He was born in Kufah in 80 H/699M and died in Baghdad in 150 H/767 AD. He is of Persian descent, who lived in two different social and political caliphate periods, namely the end of the Umayyad Caliphate and the beginning of the Abbasid Caliphate. 
He is known as " Abu Hanifah ", because in Arab culture, the son's name (namely Hanifah) is used as a nickname for his father by using the word "Father (Abu / Father)", so he is better known as "Abu Hanifah".
In relation to this designation, Yusuf Musa argues that this designation is more due to his daily life which is always friendly with ink (dawat) to write and record all the knowledge he gets from his friends and the word "Hanifah" in the language means "ink". Because of this, he was known as a young man who was diligent in all things, both his studies and his worship, because the word "hanif" in Arabic also means "inclined" to the right things, so that during the second period of the caliph, he still did not serve as qadli, because he was not happy with the luxury after he held that position.
In his studies, at first Abu Hanifah was very happy to learn the fields of Qira'ah and tajwid from Idris 'Asham, al-Hadith, Nahwu Sharaf, literature, poetry and science which were developing at that time, including the science of kalam (theology). . Because of his sharpness in solving all problems, he was able to make arguments that could attack the Khawarij group and their very extreme doctrines, so that he became one of the leaders of Islamic theology.
In the 2nd Century of the Hijriyyah, Imam Abu Hanifah began studying jurisprudence in Iraq at the Madrasah of Kufa, which was pioneered by Abdullah bin Mas'ud (d. 63 AH / 682 AD) and he studied for 18 years under Hammad bin Abu Sulaiman al -Ash'ary, student of 'Alqamah bin Qais and Ibrahim al-Nukhaiy al-Tabi'i (al-Qadli Syuriah), then the leadership of the Madrasah was handed over to Hammad bin Abi Sulaiman al-Ash'ary and this is where Imam Abu Hanifah learned a lot from the jurists from Tabi'in, such as Atha' bin Rabah and Nafi' Maula bin Umar. It was from Guru Hammad that Imaam Abu Hanifah learned a lot of Fiqh and al-Hadith.
To seek addition to what has been obtained in Kuffah, Abu Hanifah several times went to the Hijaz and Makkah even though it was not that long to study Fiqh and al-Hadith and it was also in this place that he could meet and discuss various fields of Fiqh with one of Abdullah bin Abbas's students, so it is not surprising that ten years after the death of his great teacher ( Hammad bin Abi Sulaiman al-Asy'ary in 130 H), the Majlis Madrasah Kuffah agreed to appoint him Abu Hanifah as Head of the Madrasa and during that time he served and issued many of his fatwas in the field of fiqh. Then those fatwas became the basis for Hanafi's thinking until now. His success was essentially driven by the advice of his loyal teachers, including Imam Amir ibn Syahrilal-Sya'biy and Hammad ibn Sulaiman al-Asy'Ary.
Besides that, during his lifetime, he was known as a 'ulama' figure who was very deep in his religious knowledge, expert on asceticism, very humble and firm in upholding the principles of Islamic teachings, in fact he was not at all interested in the government positions that had been offered to him. .
The knowledge possessed by Abu Hanifah is so extensive, especially his findings in the field of law and solving his problems totaling 60,000 problems, so that he is held with Imam al-A'zdam and the power of his knowledge is recognized by Imam Shafi'i, he said: "humans in the field of law are people who hold on to Abu Hanifah”. It seems that Abu Hanifah's knowledge is not only in the field of law but also covers other fields including Sufism.
The life of Abu Hanifah during the Umayyad Dynasty for 52 years, and during the Abbasid Dynasty for 18 years. Thus he knew the frenzy of change of Islamic power between the two dynasties. When Umar bin Abdul Aziz came to power (99-101 AH), Abu Hanifah was approaching adulthood.
To guarantee its economy, Abu Hanifah is known as a silk trader. In trade he is known to be honest and straightforward. The prosperity of his life is obtained from this trade. His trading talent was obtained from his father who was also a native Persian silk cloth trader, who converted to Islam during the reign of Khulafaur Rashidin.
Abu Hanifah grew up in Kufa. At least four of the Prophet's companions were still alive when Abu Hanifah was born. Anas bin malik in Basrah, Abdullah bin Abi Aufa in Kufah, Sahal bin Sa'ad al-Sa'idi in Medina, Abu al-Thufail, Amir bin Wailah in Mecca. Some even say that he had met Anas bin Malik in Mecca. If this is true then Abu Hanifah is a tabi'in. But because most of his knowledge was obtained from generations of tabi'in-tabi'in, it would be inappropriate to call him tabi'in. Like other scholars, Abu Hanifah mastered the science of kalam (known as fiqh al-Kabir) and the science of fiqh. In terms of the location where he grew up, it can be assumed that the religious thought developed by Abu Hanifah is rational thought.
Imam Abu Hanifah died in 150 H/767 AD at the age of 70 and was buried in the Khizra cemetery, then in 450 H/1066 AD, a school was founded which was named "Al-Jami' Abu Hanifah".
From the success of Abu Hanifah in educating hundreds of students who have extensive knowledge in the field of fiqh, it is only natural that after his death, his teachings and knowledge spread widely through his quite a number of students. Among them were Abu Yusuf, Abdullah bin Mubarrak, Waki' bin Jarah bin Hasan al-Syaibaniy and others, so it is not surprising that his students served as Judges in the Abbasid, Seljuq, Ottoman and Mongol dynasties.
Pattern of thought and method of Istinbath Imam Hanafi
Imam Abu Hanifah is a scholar' who is tough in holding on to his principles of thought. This can be proven from the offer of several official positions in the government, but they still did not want to accept it, both during the Umayyad caliphate in Kuffah which he served for 52 years and the Bani Abasiyyah caliphate in Baghdad for 18 years, even those who offered him were the rulers of the kingdom himself. namely Yazid bin Umar from the Umayyad empire and Abu Ja'far al-Mansur from the Abbasid empire as a Judge. As a result, he was imprisoned until he died.
In the course of his life, Imam Abu Hanifah for 52 years (where the government was held by the Umayyads based in Kufa) had witnessed major tragedies, so that on the one hand, this city gave meaning to his life in making himself one of the great scholars'. with the nickname "Al-Imam al-A'dlam". However, on the other hand, he felt that the city of Kufa was a city full of terror, which was colored by political upheaval.
As for knowing the Istidlal method of Imam Abu Hanifah , it can be seen from the confession he made himself, namely:
"Indeed, I take the book of the Qur'an in establishing the Law, if it is not found, then I take it from the authentic al-Hadith and which is published famously among trusted people. If it is not found from both of them, then I take it from the opinion of trusted people whom I want, then I do not go out of their sight. If the problem reaches Ibrahim al-Sya'by, Hasan ibn Sirin and Sa'id ibn Musayyab, then I will ijtihad as they ijtihad."
Abu Hanifah said: "First of all I look for a legal basis in the Qur'an, if there is none I look for it from the al-Sunnah of the Prophet, if there is none, I study the fatwas of the companions and I choose which one I think is the most strong, but if people have done ijtihad, then I also do ijtihad."
In responding to problems, Imam Abu Hanifah always said: "This is my opinion and if someone has a stronger opinion than mine, then that opinion is more correct."
He was once asked by someone: "Is what you have fatwa true and there is no doubt?" Then he replied: "By Allah, it may be that it is a fatwa that is wrong that there is no doubt about its guilt."
Based on the fact of the statement above, it can be seen that Imam Abu Hanifah in establishing syar'i law (beristilal), did not always decide through his dalah in qath'i from the Qur'an and al-Sunnah whose validity is still doubtful, but used al- ra'yu, because he is very selective in accepting al-Sunnah, so he still pays attention to human mu'amalah and their customs and 'urf.
Thus, in his beristinbath, imam Abu Hanafi still uses al-Qiyas as the basis of his belief, if it is not possible to use al-Qiyas, then hold on to istihsan as long as it can be done. If he can't then he sticks to custom and 'Urf.
In establishing the law, Abu Hanifah adheres to the Qur'an and is very careful in using the Sunnah. In addition, it uses a lot of qiyas, istihsan and urf. According to Manna' al-Qatthan, Abu Hanifah also often used the trick of al-Shari'ah, which he used when conditions and circumstances were urgent. Later it became known that Imam Abu Hanifah also collected hadiths in a book called Musnad Abu Hanifah. The Hanafi school of thought is widely followed by Muslims in Pakistan, India, Afghanistan, Turkey, Central Asia, Egypt, Brazil and Latin America.
The Works and Followers of Imam Hanafi
In tracing the extent to which the funds for the development of a school are distributed, it is necessary to disclose the extent to which the works that have been produced have been circulated and developed by subsequent generations. Therefore, the works that have been produced by Imam Abu Hanifah as the main basis for the development of his school can be seen from his three major works, although they are still in the form of a concise magazine, but are very famous, namely as follows:
Kitab Fikh al-Akbar
Kitab al-'Alim wa al-Mu'allim
Kitab al-Musnad fi Fiqh al-Akbar
In response to this problem, Ayeed Amir Ali stated that the works of Abu Hanifah, both related to his fatwas and ijtihads at that time (when he was still alive) had not been published, but only after his death, his students and followers published them. , until it became the Ahl al-Ra'yi sect, it became alive and developed and in the further development a Madrasah was established which was later known as "Hanafi Madrasah or Madrasah Ahl al-Ra'yi, besides its famous name according to the historical version of Islamic law as " Madrasa Kufa".
Abu Hanifah's Disciples
System The spread of a figure's thought, can be seen from the presence or absence of students and supporters, including the following:
Abu Yusuf Ya'qub bin Ibrahim al-Auza'iy (113-182 H)
And he became a "Qadlibal-Qudhat (chief magistrate who was given the power to appoint regional judges) during the time of the caliph Harun al-Rashid and compiled a book with the title: "al-Kharaj" which discussed "Land Tax Law".
Muhammad bin Hasan bin Farqad al-Syaibany (132-189 H)
And it is he, one of Abu Hanifah's students who compiled and developed a lot of Abu Hanifah's works, one of which is well-known is Al-Kutub al-Sittah (six books), namely:
Kitab al-Jami' al-Shaghir
Kitab al-Jami' al-Kabir
Kitab al-Siyarul Kabir
Kitab al-Siyarul Shaghir
Zufar bin Huzaili (110-189 AH)
He was one of Abu Hanifah's scholars who followed the example of his teacher, and refused to accept the offer as Qadli even though many attractive offers were made to him. Zufar preferred to teach, which he continued until he died at the age of 42 in Basrah.
Thus, it was through those works that Abu Hanifah and his sect had a very wide influence in the Islamic world, especially those with a Sunni orientation, so that during the reign held by the Bani Abbasid caliphs, Abu Hanifah's sect became a sect that was most followed and embraced by The Muslim community, even in the "Ottoman" government, became one of the official sects of the country and until now remains the majority group alongside the Shafi'i school of thought.
The Followers of the Hanafi Madhhab
The followers of the Hanafi school of thought are currently mostly scattered in the regions of India, Afghanistan, Iraq, Syria, Turkey, Guyana, Trinidad, Suriname and some of them are also in the area of Egypt. When the rulers of the Ottoman Empire drew up Islamic law based on the Hanafi school of law in the 19th century and made it the official state law, any cleric who wished to become a judge was obliged to study it. Thus, this school spread throughout the territory of the Ottoman empire in the late 19th century.
Development of the Imam Hanafi School
The Hanafi school is reflected in Iraq, the country of his birth, and in Syria. Initially the school expanded into Afghanistan, the Indian subcontinent (where the Shi'ite minority resides), and central Asian Turkey. The school was a favorite of the Seljuk and Ottoman rulers and it enjoyed official recognition throughout the Ottoman Empire, a status which was preserved in the courts of the qadli, even in the former Ottoman provinces where the majority of the earth's population were followers of other schools, such as the Egyptians.
It can be said that the development of the Hanafi School can be said to occupy the highest and broadest position compared to other schools. This is caused by the following things:
At the time of the Abbasid caliphate, it became a sect that was generally held by the people in Iraq that could defeat other sects because of its influence in the Courts of Justice.
During the Ottoman Empire, this school became the official school of government, and even turned into the only source of the state committee in compiling the book “Majallah al-Akhkam al-'Adaliyyah (Compilation of Islamic Law).
It was from these two caliphs that the Hanifah school of thought developed rapidly in various countries, especially countries that were subject to both of them in the past, such as:
Egypt, Syria and Lebanon
Tunisia became an emirate's sect.
Turkey and in several countries that were previously subject to Turkish rule
Albania which is a school of thought that is commonly used by the community.
Balkan and Tanzaniyyah who became role models in the field of worship.
Pakistan, Afghanistan, Turkinistan and Muslim residents who live in India and China, as well as adherents in other countries.
Thus, it can be concluded that all adherents of the Hanafi school of thought are more or less one-third of the total number of Muslims in the world.
The Abu Hanifah school is one of the four schools of thought in the school of fiqh, he is indeed better known as a faqih (jurist) rather than a muhaddits (hadith expert). His expertise in the field of fiqh has been recognized by many experts, even the imams themselves such as Imam Malik and Imam Shafi'i. However, that does not mean that he is less skilled in the field of hadith because his great teachers such as Atha', Nifi', Ibnu Hurmuz, Hammad bin Abi Sulaiman, Amr bin Dinar and others have also taught him hadith apart from fiqh.
In the 2nd Century of the Hijriyyah, Imam Abu Hanifah began studying jurisprudence in Iraq at the Madrasah of Kufa, which was pioneered by Abdullah bin Mas'ud (d. 63 AH / 682 AD) and he studied for 18 years under Hammad bin Abu Sulaiman al -Ash'ary, student of 'Alqamah bin Qais and Ibrahim al-Nukhaiy al-Tabi'i (al-Qadli Syuriah), then the leadership of the Madrasah was handed over to Hammad bin Abi Sulaiman al-Ash'ary and this is where Imam Abu Hanifah learned a lot from jurists from Tabi'in, such as Atha' bin Rabah and Nafi' Maula bin Umar. It was from Guru Hammad that Imaam Abu Hanifah learned a lot of Fiqh and al-Hadith.
In establishing the law, Abu Hanifah adheres to the Qur'an and is very careful in using the Sunnah. In addition, it uses a lot of qiyas, istihsan and urf. According to Manna' al-Qatthan, Abu Hanifah also often used the trick of al-Shari'ah, which he used when conditions and circumstances were urgent. Later it became known that Imam Abu Hanifah also collected hadiths in a book called Musnad Abu Hanifah. The Hanafi school is widely followed by Muslims in Pakistan, India, Afghanistan, Turkey, Central Asia, Egypt, Brazil and Latin America.
The Hanafi school is reflected in Iraq, the country of his birth, and in Syria. Initially the school expanded into Afghanistan, the Indian subcontinent (where the Shi'ite minority resides), and central Asian Turkey. This school was a favorite of the Seljuk and Ottoman rulers and it enjoyed official recognition throughout the Ottoman Empire, a status which was preserved in the courts of the qadli, even in the former Ottoman provinces where the majority of the earth's population were followers of other sects, such as the Egyptians.
Ameenah, Abu, Origins and Development of Fiqh: Historical Analysis of Schools of Doctrine and Contribution, Translator: M. Fauzi Arifin, Bandung: Nusamedia and Nuansa, 2000
Ma'shum Zein, Muhammad, The School of Thought of the Four Madzab: An Analysis Study of Istinbath Para Fuqoha', Jombang: Darul Hikmah, 2008
Mansur, Laily, Teachings and Examples of Sufis, Jakarta: Raja Grafindo Persada, 2002
Schacht, Joseph, Introduction to Islamic Law, Yogyakarta: Impremium, 2012
Sopyan, Yayan, Date Tasry', Depok: Gramata Publishing, 2010
Suryadilaga, M. Alfatih, et al, Ulumul Hadith, Yogyakarta: Teras, 2010
Zuhri, Muh, Islamic Law in the Trajectory of History, Jakarta,: Raja Permai Grafindo Persada, 1997
 M. Alfatih Suryadilaga et al, Ulumul Hadis, (Yogyakarta: Teras, 2010) p.188
 Ibid, 189
 Muhammad Ma'shum Zein, The Flow of Thought of the Four Madzabs: An Analysis Study of Istinbath Para Fuqoha', ( Jombang: Darul Hikmah, 2008), Pg.129.
 Ibid., p. 129-130
 Ibid., p. 131
 Laily Mansur, Teachings and Examples of Sufis, (Jakarta: Raja Grafindo Persada, 2002), Pg. 30
 Ibid, p.30
 Muh Zuhri, Islamic law in the trajectory of history, (Jakarta,: Raja Permai Grafindo Persada, 1997), pp.94-95.
 Ibid., p. 95
 Abu Ameenah, Origins and Development of Fiqh: Historical Analysis of Schools of Doctrine and Contributions, Translator: M. Fauzi Arifin, (Bandung: Nusamedia and Nuansa, 2000), Pg. 87
 Muh Zuhri, Op.cit, p. 95
 Muhammad Ma'shum Zein, Op.Cit, p.132
 Ibid, p.133
 Ibid, p.134
 Yayan Sopyan, Date Tasry', (Depok: Gramata Publishing, 2010) , p. 121.
 Muhammad Ma'shum Zein, Op.Cit, Pg.137
 Ibid, Pg.138
 Ibid, Pg.138-139
 The six books have been collected in one book named al- Kafi by al-Hakim al-Shahid.
 Abu Ameenah, Op.Cit, p. 91
 Muhammad Ma'shum Zein, Op.Cit, Pg.139
 Abu Ameenah, Op.Cit, Hlm.92-93
 Joseph Schacht, Introduction to Islamic Law, (Yogyakarta: Impremium, 2012), p. 97.
 Muhammad Ma'shum Zein, Op.Cit, Pg. 139
 Ibid., p. 140