The scope of Islamic teachings includes three main things, namely: Aqidah, Worship, and Muamalah. Aqidah in the narrow sense is a bond, namely the bond between humans and what they believe in.
Meanwhile, sharia contains rules and regulations that regulate activities that should be carried out. Sharia is a value system which is the core of Islamic teachings. In the Syriat there is a vertical regulation of human relationships with Allah. In this context, the Shari'a contains provisions regarding the procedures for human worship with God. This relationship between humans and Allah is called mahdhah worship or special worship.
Besides that, there is sharia which regulates human relations horizontally, namely: relations between humans and other creatures. Which is called muamalah. The existence of this muamalah subsystem proves that Islam does not abandon world affairs and does not even separate world affairs from the afterlife. This horizontal relationship is also called ghair mahdhah worship or public worship because of its general nature and does not specify the type and type.
It is believed that the presence of the Islamic religion brought by the Prophet Muhammad SAW can guarantee the realization of a prosperous human life physically and mentally. Religious instructions regarding various human lives, as contained in the sources of its teachings, the Koran and Hadith, appear very ideal and sublime. Islam teaches a dynamic and progressive life, respecting the mind through the development of science and technology, being balanced in meeting material and spiritual needs, always developing social awareness, respecting time, being open, democratic, quality-oriented, egalitarian, partnership, anti- feudalistic, loves cleanliness, prioritizes brotherhood, has noble character and other positive attitudes.
According to Fazlur Rahman, the basic teachings of the Koran are explicitly moral which emphasizes monotheism and social justice, which can be seen for example in the teachings about worship which are full of the content of increasing faith, devotion which is manifested in noble morals.
The value of a knowledge is determined by the content of that knowledge. The greater the value of the benefits, the more important the knowledge is to learn. The most important knowledge is knowledge that introduces us to Allah SWT, the Creator. So people who do not know Allah SWT are stupid, because there is no person more stupid than someone who does not know their creator.
Allah created humans with the most beautiful and complete forms compared to other creatures/creations. Then Allah guided them by sending His Messengers (according to the hadith conveyed by Abu Dzar, the number of Prophets was 124,000, but only Allah knows the actual number), all of whom called for monotheism (narrated by Al Bukhari in At Tarikhul Kabir 5 /447 and Ahmad in Al Musnad 5/178-179). Meanwhile, from the path of Abu Umamah's friend, it is stated that the number of the Apostles was 313 (narrated by Ibn Hibban in Al Maurid 2085 and Ath-Thabrani in Al Mu'jamul Kabir 8/139) so that they would walk in accordance with the will of the Creator through the revelations brought by the Apostle . People who accept it are called believers, people who reject it are called unbelievers and people who doubt are called hypocrites which is part of disbelief.
This aqidah is so important, that the Prophet Muhammad, the last of the Prophets and Apostles, guided his people for 13 years while in Mecca by emphasizing the issue of this aqidah, because the aqidah is the foundation of all actions, and is even the foundation of the building of Islam. Therefore, the preachers and religious straighteners at all times have always started their preaching with monotheism and the straightening of the aqeedah.
Sharia is a term for the main teachings of Allah and His Messenger which is a way or guideline for human life in carrying out vertical relationships with the Creator, Allah SWT, and also with fellow humans.
There are two approaches in defining Sharia, namely:
· In terms of objectives, Sharia has the meaning of teachings that maintain human honor as the noblest creatures by maintaining or guaranteeing five important things, namely:
1. Guarantee religious freedom (belief in the Almighty God)
2. Guarantee a decent life (care for the soul)
3. Ensure family survival (protect offspring)
4. Guarantee freedom of thought (maintain reason)
5. Guaranteeing life with the availability of suitable employment opportunities (maintaining assets)
These five things of maintenance will be the measure of the five Islamic laws, such as obligatory, sunnat, haram, makruh, and permissible.
Below is the meaning of Worship, according to Ustadz Yazid bin Abdul Qadir Jawas:
Worship linguistically (etymologically) means to humble oneself and submit. Meanwhile, according to syara' (terminology), worship has many definitions, but the meaning and intent is one. These definitions include:
. Worship is obeying Allah by carrying out His commands through the words of His Messengers.
. Worship is to humble oneself to Allah Azza wa Jalla, which is the highest level of submission accompanied by the highest sense of mahabbah (love).
. Worship is a term that includes everything that Allah Azza wa Jalla loves and pleases, whether in the form of words or deeds, spiritual or spiritual. This third is the most complete definition.
This worship is the purpose of human creation. Allah says:
"Meaning: And I did not create jinn and humans except so that they worship Me. I do not want any provision from them and I do not want them to feed Me. Verily Allah is the Giver of sustenance Who has strength and is very strong." [Adz-Dzaariyaat: 56-58.
In carrying out our daily lives, it is important for us to remember the two principles above. Worship cannot be done at will because all the provisions and rules have been stipulated in the Al-Qur'an and Sunnah, and examples and procedures have been taught by the Prophet Muhammad during his lifetime. Doing something in worship that is not mentioned in the Qur'an and Sunnah means doing something that is not commanded by Allah SWT, and this is truly a heretical act.
In terms of language, muamalah comes from the words aamala, yuamilu, muamalat which means treatment or action towards other people, relationships of interest. Words like this are active verbs which must have two actors, one of whom does the work actively, so that the two actors suffer from each other.
The definition of Muamalah in terms of terms can be interpreted with a broad meaning and can also be interpreted with a narrow meaning. Below are several definitions of muamlah;
According to Louis Ma'luf, the meaning of muamalah is sharia laws relating to world affairs and human life, such as buying and selling, trade, and so on. Meanwhile, according to Ahmad Ibrahim Bek, stating that muamalah are regulations regarding everything related to world affairs, such as trade and everything regarding material things, marriage, talak, sanctions, justice and those related to office management, both general and specific, which have been the basics are determined generally or globally and in detail to serve as a guide for humans in exchanging benefits between themselves.
Meanwhile, in the narrow sense, the meaning of muamalah is that muamalah is all transactions or agreements carried out by humans in terms of exchange or in terms of debts and receivables.
Allah SWT said in Surah Al Baqarah Verse 280 which reads
Meaning: And if (the debtor) is in difficulty, then give him a reprieve until he is able to afford it. And giving charity (part or all of the debt) is better for you, if you know.
From the various meanings of muamalah, it is understood that muamalah is all the rules that govern the relationship between fellow human beings, both those of the same religion and those who are not of the same religion, between humans and their lives, and between humans and the surrounding environment. And Allah SWT also commands humans to interact and muamalah by spreading on the face of the earth to seek Allah's sustenance. As Allah SWT said in Surat Al Jumah verse 10 which reads:
It means: When the prayer has been performed, then you are scattered on the face of the earth; and seek God's bounty and remember God a lot so that you will be successful.
Prayer is one of the acts of worship that upholds the foundations of the Islamic religion. Prayer in Islam has a very important position for humans who are devoted to Allah SWT. The main goal of prayer is so that people who do it always remember Allah SWT at all times. So that humans are always alert to all vile and evil deeds that will plunge them into the valley of misery in this world and the hereafter. As the Word of Allah SWT. Thaha's letter: 14.
Meaning: Verily, I am Allah, there is no (rightful) god but me, so worship me and establish prayer to remember me. (QS. Thaha: 14)
Someone who always remembers Allah SWT, will always perform Salat, because he obeys His command, then Allah will shower His mercy. As His words: Meaning: And Establish prayer, pay zakat, and obey the messenger, so that you will be given mercy. (QS. An-Nur: 56)
According to Lughat, prayer comes from Arabic which means "prayer" (a good request to Allah) and "surrender".
According to istilakhi, prayer is a particular form of worship which is composed of several words and actions which start from takbirotul ikhrom and end with nature, with predetermined conditions and pillars.
Prayer is a basic practice that has more value compared to other forms of worship. It is also a tool that is a benchmark for human deeds and is a differentiator between believers and unbelievers. And prayer is also an effective medium for communicating between humans and Allah. For this reason, prayer has a very important position in Islam.
Prayers can be grouped into two groups, namely:
1. Obligatory prayers: Prayers that must be performed by every Muslim who has matured (Islam, attained maturity and is of sound mind) under any circumstances 5 times a day and night or what is usually called maktubah.
2. Sunnah prayers: Prayers that are recommended to be performed, but if you leave them, it is not a sin. This prayer is usually called the nawafil prayer. Among them are the sunnah rowatib prayer, Eid al-Fitr, Eid al-Adha, istiqo' prayer, istikharah prayer, tahiyatul mosque prayer, eclipse prayer, witr prayer and so on.
Position of Prayer
1. Prayer is a pillar of religion, as the Messenger of Allah said. Meaning: Prayer is a pillar of religion, whoever establishes prayer means upholding religion, whoever abandons it means he has destroyed religion. (HR. Baihaqi)
This hadith shows how important the position of prayer is, every Muslim who performs prayer destroys his religion. Therefore, we as Muslims must always pay attention to prayer as best as possible. Performing prayers properly and correctly so that Islam remains strong and stands tall.
2. Prayer is worship ordered directly from Allah SWT to the Prophet Muhammad SAW without intermediaries. This order occurred during the Isro' Mi'roj incident.
3. Prayer is the first form of worship for which we will be held accountable in the afterlife. As the hadith of the prophet: Meaning: The first thing to be reckoned with from a person's actions on the Day of Judgment is prayer. If the prayer is good then all the good deeds are good, and if the prayer is broken, then all the good deeds are broken. (HR. Tabrani from Umar)
4. Prayer is a benchmark for human deeds. If a person prays well, in the sense of correct terms and harmony and on time, then his prayer will be able to animate his behavior in everyday life. As in the hadith above.
5. Prayer is the difference between believers and unbelievers, as the Prophet SAW said: Meaning: The difference between a believer and an unbeliever is abandoning prayer. (HR. Ahmad and Muslim)
6. Prayer is the second pillar of Islam. Islam has 5 pillars, all five are one complete unit and cannot be separated from one another, they all unite and support each other, while prayer is the second joint of these 5 pillars.
The Wisdom of Prayer
The wisdom of prayer for human life is as follows:
1. Get into the habit of living a clean life, before praying you must be clean from hadats and uncleanness. Both body, clothes and place. As in the hadith of the Prophet SAW.
Meaning: Cleanliness is part of faith. (HR. Muslim)
2. Create a healthy life, including: improving blood circulation from the heart to the entire body, correcting poor fetal position, healing the spine and so on.
3. Practice discipline, prayers must be on time. As Allah says QS. An-Nisa: 103. Meaning: In fact, prayer is a fardhu that is determined by the time. (QS. An-Nisa': 103)
4. Prevent cruel and evil acts. (QS. Al-Ankabut: 45)
It means : . . . Indeed, prayer prevents evil and evil (deeds). . .
5. Calm the mind (QS. Toha: 14 and Ar-Rakdu: 28)
Meaning: Verily, I am Allah, there is no (rightful) god but me, so worship me and establish prayer to remember me. (QS. Toha: 14)
6. Practice patience (QS. Luqman: 17)
Meaning: O my son, establish prayer and order (people) to do good and prevent (them) from doing evil and be patient with what befalls you.
7. Increase brotherhood ties. As the hadith of the Prophet:
Meaning: Believers and other believers are like a building, some parts strengthen other parts. (HR. Buchari and Muslim)
8. Educate people to trust, be obedient and obedient to the leaders who give commands.
9. Becomes a cover for small sins, as long as big sins are not committed.
Fasting comes from the Arabic word saum which means giving up something or refraining from something. Meanwhile, according to the term, saum is refraining from something that breaks the fast from sunrise to sunset accompanied by the intention to fast. The wisdom is as follows:
1. A sign of gratitude to Allah, because all worship contains the meaning of gratitude to Allah as He says. Meaning: If you counted Allah's blessings (gifts) to you, you would certainly not be able to count them. (QS. Ibrahim: 34)
2. Practice discipline. Fasting is a means of trying to control oneself from being greedy, eating according to the specified time and not speaking at will.
3. Formation of noble character. Fasting is a means of education and training in order to become Muslim men and women who are able to familiarize themselves with commendable behavior. As the words of the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, which means: "When you fast, do not speak dirty words and shout saying: I am fasting for the sake of God in whose power Muhammad is, indeed the smell of the mouth of a fasting person is more fragrant in the sight of God than the smell of oil musk, the fasting person will get two joys, when breaking the fast and when meeting his Lord. (HR. Bukhari and Muslim)
4. Development of social values. Encourage people who are fasting, especially rich people, to provide assistance to the poor, orphans and abandoned children. The hunger that rich people feel when fasting will encourage them to pay zakat, infaq and sadakah to help their suffering brothers and sisters. As Allah says in Surah Al-Baqarah: 261. Meaning: The parable of (the income spent by) those who spend their wealth in the way of Allah is similar to a seed that grows seven spikes, in each spike a hundred seeds. Allah multiplies (rewards) for whom He wills. and Allah is all-encompassing (His bounty) and all-knowing. (QS. Al-Baqarah: 261)
5. Maintain health. According to research by doctors, fasting means emptying the stomach of accumulated food. This is useful for emptying the stomach and resting the digestive muscles so that they can concentrate more perfectly, which in turn makes the body healthy. As Rasulullah SAW said, which means: "Fast, then you will be healthy". (HR, Abu DawuD0
6. Training patience, the act of fasting is an act of worship that requires patience in its implementation. People who do not have patience will not be able to fast. Rasulullah SAW said: It means: "Fasting is half patience". (HR. Ibnu Majah and Abu Hurairah) People who practice fasting are trained to be able to have patience, namely: a) patience in obeying God's commands, b) patience in controlling oneself from committing sins, and c) patience in facing suffering As the words of SWT: Meaning: And as for those who fear the greatness of their Lord and restrain themselves from the desires of their lusts. So verily heaven is his abode. (QS. An-Nazi'at: 40-41)
7. Erase sins. Fasting will be able to erase sins, as the prophet hadith:
Meaning: Whoever observes the fast of Ramadhan with full faith and kindness, his past sins will be forgiven. (HR. Bukhari Muslim)
Zakat comes from the word zaka which means: holy, clean, growing and praiseworthy.
According to Islamic jurisprudence: Zakat is a certain amount of property that Allah requires to be handed over to people who are entitled to receive it, with certain conditions. The wisdom of zakat is as follows:
1. Helping weak people and people in need so that they can fulfill their obligations towards Allah and towards Allah's creatures (society).
2. Cleanse yourself of stinginess and despicable morals, and educate yourself to be noble and generous by getting used to paying your trust to people who have the rights and interests. As Allah says:
Meaning: Take zakat from some of their wealth, with that zakat you cleanse them and erase their mistakes. (QS. At-Taubah: 103)
3. As a manifestation of gratitude and gratitude for the blessings of wealth given to him. It is no longer valid that gratitude shown by those who give to those who give is the most important obligation according to the meaning of politeness.
4. In order to take care of the evils that will arise from the poor and from the difficult. How much we see for ourselves every day how great the struggle of life is, how many good people still become big criminals, and then destroy the society, the nation and the country. As Allah SWT said: Meaning: Never let those who are stingy with the wealth that God has given them from His bounty think that being stingy is good for them. In fact, that miserliness is bad for them. (QS. Ali Imron: 180)
5. To bring closer the relationship of affection and love between the poor and the rich. The meeting of these relations will produce some goodness and progress, as well as be beneficial for both groups and the general public.
According to language, Hajj is going to a place repeatedly, to a place that is glorified or in the environment. What is glorified and sacred by Muslims is the different Baitullah in the city of Makah.
According to the term, Hajj is deliberately visiting the Baitullah and other glorified places with the intention of carrying out worship in certain ways, conditions and at certain times, in accordance with the guidance of the Prophet Muhammad.
• The time for the Hajj pilgrimage is 1 Shawwal to 9 Dzulhijah.
• The places for the Hajj pilgrimage are the cities of Makah and Medina (kharomain).
• The law for carrying out the Hajj pilgrimage is fardhu 'ain for Muslims who can afford it, for the first time, also for nadzar, while the second time and so on is punished by sunnah. As Allah says: Meaning: Carrying out the Hajj is a human obligation towards Allah for those who are able to travel to Baitullah. And whoever denies (the obligation of Hajj) then indeed Allah is the Richest in the worlds. (QS. Ali Imron: 98)
The wisdom of Hajj is:
1. Increase faith and devotion to Allah SWT. There are many Hajj and Umrah activities that can increase faith and devotion to Allah SWT, such as wukuf, towah and sya'i.
2. Strengthen Islamic brotherhood. During the Hajj pilgrimage you will meet Muslims from various countries who are present so you can increase your friendship.
3. Develop an attitude of willingness to make sacrifices. During the Hajj pilgrimage, you are taught to develop a willingness to sacrifice, whether in wealth, energy, mind or soul, to achieve the pleasure of Allah SWT.
4. Foster a sense of equality. When carrying out the Hajj pilgrimage, you are required to wear ihrom, this ihrom clothing shows equality between human beings.
5. Show gratitude to Allah for the blessings He has given you.
6. Increase knowledge and experience, because you know historical places that are very famous in the world.
7. Become a forum for the grand conference of Muslims throughout the world, every year. During the Hajj pilgrimage, Islamic believers from all over the world gather so that it is a grand conference activity as a forum for communication and exchange of information.
8. Practice discipline. During the Hajj pilgrimage you are always accustomed to complying with various rules of what must be done and what must not be done so that the Hajj pilgrims are accustomed to developing discipline.
Principles of Islamic Inheritance Law
Ijbari Principle Etymologically, the word ijbari contains the meaning of compulsion, namely doing something against one's own will. In terms of inheritance law, it means the transfer of assets of someone who has died to someone who is still alive automatically, meaning without any legal action or statement of will from the heir, even the heir (during his lifetime) cannot refuse or prevent the transition from occurring.
Individual principle, where inherited assets can be divided among heirs according to their respective shares, except in the case of inherited assets in the form of land of less than 2 ha (Article 189 KHI in conjunction with Article 89 Law Number 56/Prp/1960 concerning Determination of Agricultural Land) and in the event that the heirs agree not to divide the inheritance but form a joint business in which each has shares according to their portion of the inheritance.
The principle of balanced justice, where the ratio of men's share to women's share is 2:1, except in certain circumstances. The difference between men and women is because men's obligations and women's obligations in the household are different. The man as head of the household has the obligation to support his wife and children, while the wife as a housewife does not have the obligation to support her family members except for the children if the husband does not have the ability to do so. Regarding the men's share being twice the women's share, it can be distorted if the heirs agree to divide the men's and women's shares equally after they know their respective shares according to the law.
The principle of inheritance by death means that the transfer of material and immaterial rights from a person to his relatives by way of inheritance takes effect after the person dies.
The principle of blood relationship
namely blood relations resulting from legal marriage, subhat marriage and recognition of children (Islamic fiqh principles).
The principle of obligatory will,
This means that the adopted child and the adoptive father can reciprocally make wills regarding each other's assets. If there is no will from the adopted child to the adoptive father or vice versa, then the adoptive father and/or adopted child can be given a mandatory will by the Religious Court or Sharia Court. Yes, ex officio, a maximum of 1/3 of the inheritance (Article 209 KHI).
Egalitarian principle, meaning that relatives by blood relationship who embrace religions other than Islam receive a mandatory will of a maximum of 1/3 of the share, and cannot exceed the share of heirs who are equal to them (Jurisprudence).
Limited Retroactivity Principle, the KHI does not apply retroactively in the sense that if the inheritance has been divided in real terms (not just a distribution on paper) before the KHI comes into force, then families who are related by blood as replacement heirs cannot file an inheritance lawsuit. If the inheritance has not been divided in real terms, then in cases of inheritance where the heir dies before the KHI is born, the KHI can automatically apply retroactively.
1. Worship linguistically (etymologically) means to humble oneself and submit. Meanwhile, according to syara' (terminology), worship is a term that includes everything that Allah Azza wa Jalla loves and pleases, whether in the form of words or deeds, spiritual or spiritual.
2. Muamalah are sharia laws relating to world affairs and human life, such as buying and selling, trade, and so on
3. Understanding Morals Etymologically. According to the etymological approach, the word "morals" comes from the Arabic plural from the mufrad form "Khuluqun" which according to dialect means: manners, temperament, behavior or character.
4. Aqidah is the foundation of Islam which is inseparable from other Islamic teachings: morality , worship and Muamalat. A strong faith will lead to true worship, praiseworthy morals and good deeds. Apart from being a foundation, the relationship between aqidah and other Islamic teachings can also be reciprocal and symbiotic. That is, obedience to performing worship, having good manners, and having a good prayer will preserve the faith.
5. If aqidah is owned and worship is carried out by humans, then both of these things must be carried out as well as possible, therefore there is a need for regulations that regulate all of this. The rule is called Muamalah. Muamalah are all Islamic rules that regulate relationships between human beings. Muamalah is said to be running well if it has had a good social impact. To be able to realize a strong aqidah, namely with the correct way of worship and also good muamalah, it is necessary to have something
Based on the discussion and conclusions, the author provides suggestions, namely that the Koran and the Sunnah are two guidelines, guidelines and guidelines for life as well as the main sources for Muslims to serve as analytical guides in studying every problem that arises in life. Therefore, it is important for Muslims to continue to adhere to the Al-Quran and As-Sunnah and to understand the meanings contained in the Al-Quran and As-Sunnah. And with the Al-Quran and As-Sunnah it can also strengthen the Aqidah, Worship, Muamalah and Morals of mankind.
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Muhammad, 2007. Legal Aspects in Muamalat. Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu.
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Rahmat, Jalaludin, 2007. Put Morals above Fiqh. Bandung: PT. Main Mizan.
Salih bin Fauzan bin Abdullah Al Fauzan, 2000. Book of Tauhid I. Jakarta: Al-Sofwa Foundation.
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