Selasa, 26 Desember 2023

Qada and qadar in the discussion of the pillars of faith are a unity that cannot be separated. These two words basically have the meaning of determination, although they contain different meanings. According to the language, the word qada means decision or decree. According to the term, qada is a decision or decree of a plan from Allah to be implemented. Qadar according to language means term or measure. According to the term, qadar means a plan that has been implemented by Allah for His creatures so that it cannot be contested. So we can conclude the difference between Qada and Qadar that, Qada is Allah's provisions in which His iradat is contained for all creatures, while qadar is the embodiment of existing provisions. The word qadar can be found in several verses which read as follows.
(And He created everything and determined it with a precise determination...)
It means: . . . . And He created everything, then determined its exact dimensions. (Q.S. al-Furqan [25]: 2)
Thus, everything that happens in this universe, such as the circulation of the sun, stars, moon, the rotation of the earth, and the orbits of the planets, is not a coincidence, but has been determined by God. All of that would not be able to run smoothly if Allah SWT. does not want and regulate it. Pay attention to the words of Allah SWT. following.
(And the sun runs to a resting place for it. This is the decree of the Mighty, the All-Knowing)
Meaning: And the sun walks in the place of its circulation. Such is the decree of (Allah) the All-Mighty, All-Knowing. (Q.S. Yasin [36]: 38)
The verse above confirms that the sun's circulation has been determined by Allah SWT. Because it has been determined by Allah SWT, the sun and the universe run according to His decrees.
His or often referred to as sunnatullah. (Quraisy Shihab. 1997. Page 63)
The sun moves according to the qada and qadar determined by God.
It is clear that everything that happens in the universe is based on His qada and qadar. The happiness and misery felt by humans are His qada and qadar. The disaster that befalls is His qada and qadar. Allah SWT. said as follows.

No calamity has befallen on earth or within yourselves except that it is in a Book before We bring it forth. Indeed, that is easy for God.

Meaning: Every disaster that befalls on earth and that befalls you, everything has been written in the Book (Lauh Mahfuz) before We made it happen. Indeed, this is easy for Allah. (Q.S. al-Hadid [57]: 22)
God's decree even applies to everything in the universe. This can be found in the hadith of the Prophet. which means, "Indeed, one of you has collected his events in his mother's stomach for 40 days, then he was there as before (40 days) in the form of a blood clot, then he was still there as before in the form of a lump of flesh. After that, God sent an angel who was ordered to write four sentences, namely about his deeds, his sustenance, his misery or his happiness. Then a spirit was breathed into him."
(H.R. Bukhari)
Based on the translation of the hadith above, it is known that since it was still in the womb of Allah SWT's provisions. regarding the baby has been determined. Nevertheless, we must not stand idly by and be apathetic towards His qada and qadar. This is because of the destiny of Allah SWT. some involve human effort in it.

Examples of Qada and Qadar
Examples of qada and qadar Allah SWT. we encounter many in everyday life. For example, conditions that occur in the universe, humans and other creatures. Thus, we need to understand the events that are closely related to the qada and qadar of Allah SWT. the.
1. Creation of the Universe
Allah SWT. has created the universe and He also regulates it. Allah SWT. set certain rules for the universe so that it can continue to run and not perish. This is a manifestation of Allah SWT's destiny. If the universe ran solely based on natural laws without any provisions from God, it would certainly be damaged. For example, the sun will freely rise one day and set for several days. The earth will freely circulate and rotate for a few hours and stop for a few hours later. Likewise, the moon and stars will run according to their own will. If this is allowed, the universe will not be sustainable. The universe will be damaged without the control that God has established. Therefore, for the perfection of creatures, natural laws always operate based on the destiny of Allah SWT.
2. God's Fate on Animals
There is a lot of evidence that shows examples of Allah SWT's destiny. in animals. There are some animals that have strength beyond humans, but are subdued by Allah SWT. to be used for human benefit. For example, there are livestock such as horses, camels, buffalo or goats. To clarify, we can take the following example. Around you, of course, there is an animal called buffalo. Buffaloes have strength beyond humans. With his qada and qadar, buffalo can be subdued and can be used by humans to plow fields. To strengthen your belief, pay attention to the verse which means, "And do they not see that We have created livestock for them, namely part of what We have created with Our power, and then they control it? And We subjected them (those animals) to them; then some for them to ride on and some for them to eat. And they get various benefits and drinks from it. So why are they not grateful?” (Q.S. Yasin [36]: 71–73)
3. Fate in Plants
We can take an example of Allah SWT's destiny for plants from when we try to cultivate plants using superior seeds, fertile land, good irrigation, but it turns out that this does not guarantee that the plants we plant will grow well. It could be the opposite, crop failure due to damage without knowing the cause. The conditions above show God's destiny in dealing with plant creatures. Allah SWT. said which means, "And his wealth was destroyed, then he turned his palms back and forth (a sign of regret) for what he had spent on it, while the vine collapsed along with its support (parapara) then he said, "What if I had not associate anything with my Lord." (Q.S. al-Kahf [18]:42)
4. Creation of a Living Environment
God's destiny is also visible if we look closely at the surrounding environment. Allah SWT. By His will, certain areas have been destined to have high rainfall, while other areas are dry or rarely rain. Based on God's destiny in this environment, humans can make maps by including the boundaries of areas with high rainfall and dry areas. However, Allah SWT. can determine an area that previously had a lot of rainfall to become dry without rain. On the other hand, areas that were originally dry can also become fertile. The changes that occur in the environment around us are not caused by the law of cause and effect alone. However, Allah is Willing with His destiny.
5. God's Destiny on Humans
An example of the destiny that God has determined for humans is in the process of human creation. Like other creatures, humans were born due to a relationship between a man and a woman. If a man and a woman have sexual relations, pregnancy will occur and a child or baby will be born. This is what applies in the law of cause and effect. In reality, this process sometimes does not end with the birth of a child. Listen to the verse which means, “To Allah belongs the kingdom of the heavens and the earth; He creates what He wills, gives daughters to whom He wills and gives sons to whom He wills, or He bestows male and female kinds, and makes barren whom He wills. He is All-Knowing, All-Powerful. (Q.S. ash-Shura [42]:49–50)
The verse above explains that Allah SWT. stipulates in the law of cause and effect that if a man has intercourse with a woman, a child is born. However, Allah SWT. shows the greatness of His destiny by not creating children for humans as a warning so that we do not only believe in the certainty of cause and effect. With the various examples mentioned above, we should become more solid in believing in Allah's qada and qadar. A firm belief in God's destiny has a positive impact on our lives.

Understanding Faith in Qada and Qadar
In order for us to better understand the meaning of faith in qada and qadar, we need to understand the meaning of faith first. Faith means confirming in the heart, saying it verbally, and practicing it with the body. The meaning of Qada and qadar is simply defined as a decision or decree from Allah or what we often call destiny. Thus, believing in qada and qadar means confirming with the heart the decision or decree of Allah SWT. which is pledged verbally and proven by deeds. Faith in qada and qadar is part of the pillars of faith.
There are several proofs that explain the belief in qada and qadar. One of them is in the hadith as explained by the Prophet narrated by Umar r.a., "One time we (Umar r.a. and the companions) were in an assembly with the Messenger of God peace be upon him. Suddenly there appeared in our midst a man dressed all in white, with very black hair, no signs of previous travel were visible on him and none of us recognized him. Further, he sat in front of the Prophet and rested his knee on the Prophet's (Muhammad) knee and placed his hand on the Prophet's (Muhammad) thigh. Then he said, "O Muhammad, tell me about Islam!" Rasulullah saw. answered, "Islam, you testify that there is no God but God and that Muhammad is God's messenger, you perform prayer, give zakat, fast in the month of Ramadan, and perform Hajj to Baitullah if you are able to do it." The man said, "You are right." We were also surprised, he asked then allowed. The man said again, "Tell me about faith!" Prophet peace be upon him. replied, "You believe in God, in His angels, in His books, in His messengers, in the Day of Resurrection, and in good and bad destiny." Said the person earlier, "You are right.". . . . (H.R. Muslim).

The hadith narrated above clearly places fate or qada and qadar as one of the pillars of faith. Thus, someone who believes in Allah SWT, angels, books, messengers and the last day, is not yet perfect if he does not believe in destiny or qada and qadar of Allah SWT. Believe in the qada and qadar of Allah SWT. means believing in His decrees that apply to all creatures.

Types and Examples of Destiny

Qada and qadar are often also termed God's destiny. If we discuss Allah's destiny, that automatically means discussing qada and qadar. Likewise, vice versa, when discussing the issue of destiny it means discussing the qada and qadar of Allah SWT. According to language, fate means decree. There are those who interpret destiny by believing in the existence of God's decrees that apply to all His creatures, whether the provisions have been, are being, or will happen. Thus, it can be understood that destiny means the result of a combination of decrees, both in qada and qadar Allah. (Islamic Encyclopedia 5. 1994. Page 47)
The understanding of destiny here is certainly somewhat different from what happens in society. Meanwhile, there are those who understand fate simply as the cause of everything, so it seems as if fate is understood negatively. Like the expression, "It's fate that we are stupid, it's fate that we can't play well," and several other negative expressions. Basically, there is destiny which is absolutely in the power of Allah SWT. and cannot be avoided. There are also provisions of Allah that can be changed through the efforts or endeavors of creatures with His permission. Thus, destiny can be broadly divided into two types, namely:
1. Appreciation Mubram
Linguistically, mubram means something that is certain and cannot be avoided. Mubram's destiny in terms can be interpreted as the decree of Allah SWT. which must happen to every creature
so it cannot be rejected or negotiated any longer. There are many decisions that are certain to happen, examples of mubram destiny are the events of the doomsday, gender or time of death, soul mate, and several other events. This incident was entirely arranged by Allah SWT. Humans do not determine it. No human being knows his soul mate or ordered gender before his birth.
2. Takdir Mu‘allaq
Mu'allaq linguistically means something that is suspended or postponed. The opposite of mubram's destiny, mu'allaq's destiny is Allah's provision which may be changed by humans through the efforts they make if Allah SWT. allow. Thus, in the destiny of the mu'allaq the decision of Allah SWT. depending on human effort or effort, of course with His permission.
The existence of mu'allaq destiny causes people to strive to achieve their ideals. Humans cannot just remain silent to change their destiny. The evidence that explains the provisions of mu'allaq's predestination is the word of Allah SWT. which reads as follows.
...God will not change the condition of a people until they change what is in themselves...
Meaning: Verily, Allah will not change the condition of a people before they change the condition of themselves. . . . (Q.S. ar-Ra'd [13]: 11)
Based on the verse above, if we do not want to try to change ourselves, Allah SWT. won't change it either.
Examples of Muallaq's destiny are decisions regarding scientific abilities, abundance of wealth, maintaining health, personal safety, and various other events. Allah SWT's decree. regarding these matters depends on human efforts themselves. Thus, people must make efforts or efforts and then pray for the success of these efforts. Next, we fully surrender the results of the efforts we have made to Allah SWT. Whatever the results of efforts that Allah SWT has determined. we accept it sincerely and gracefully.
The size of the wealth obtained is influenced by human effort.

Characteristics of Faith in Qada and Qadar
Faith in qada and qadar must be carried out perfectly, namely by believing it in your heart, pledging it verbally and proving it with good deeds. A person who believes in qada and qadar must be able to prove it by doing good deeds in everyday life. Someone who believes in the qada and qadar of Allah SWT. can be seen from his behavior and actions. In particular, faith in qada and qadar can be demonstrated by the following characteristics:
1. Diligent Worship
Everything that happens in this world is the qada and qadar of Allah SWT. which cannot be resisted by creatures. A firm belief in Allah's qada and qadar will encourage a person to be more active in worship. Worship to get closer to Allah SWT. With the greatness and will of Allah Swt., we no longer hesitate to get closer to Him.
2. Believing in the Greatness of God
Someone who believes in Allah's qada and qadar means they believe in His greatness. Whatever Allah SWT decrees. is the best decision on His side so we are prohibited from blaming or complaining. Allah SWT's decree. for humans is the best for him. The disaster that befalls is a trial and humans must be able to endure it. Because Allah SWT. will not reduce trials if the creature is unable to endure them.
3. Work diligently
To achieve whatever we want must be accompanied by effort and hard work. Faith in qada and qadar encourages a person to work hard. This is because no one knows for sure the qada and qadar of Allah SWT. will happen. In this way, a person is encouraged to try and work hard in the hope of getting the best results from Allah SWT. Imagine if someone already knew a result before the effort was made, he would be lazy to try.
Working diligently is a sign of faith in God's destiny.
4. Trust in Allah SWT
Everything happens by Allah's will. His qada and qadar apply to all creatures, not just humans. Therefore, believe in the qada and qadar of Allah SWT. guides us to always put our trust in ourselves, that is, surrender ourselves to Allah SWT. after maximum effort has been made. Put your trust in Allah SWT. done because only He has the power to make everything happen. Faith in qada and qadar of Allah SWT. must at the same time believe in Him with all His power. For example, believing in Allah SWT. as a Being who is omniscient and controls knowledge, His decrees, and His will which is independent of creatures, as well as the ability to create and regulate His creatures.
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