Selasa, 26 Desember 2023

Views on the Knowledge of Kalam: According to Imam Abu Hanifah, Imam Malik, Imam Shafi'i and Imam Ahmad

The term Ilmu Kalam refers to scholars who discuss the problems of Allah's "kalam". “Kalam Allah” has two references.

First, it refers to the words of God that He spoke. It is called kalam science because this science discusses the problem of Allah's word.

Second, refers to the Mutakallimin (pen writers) who debate or exchange thoughts (pen) on divine issues.

The main aim of kalam science is to explain the basis of the Muslim faith in a philosophical and logical order. For believers who follow the Sunnah correctly, the evidence regarding the existence and all things related to Allah has been explained thoroughly and is fulfilled by the Qur'an, Hadith, and the sayings of friends who have heard it. directly the words of the Prophet and so on .

Unfortunately, many da'i-da'i actually feel and claim to be intellectual, especially happy with their knowledge of philosophy, except for those- Those who know the badness of this knowledge are given guidance by Allah Ta'ala to return to the right knowledge.

Kalam science is the opposite of religious science, especially Hadith science. And hadith experts agree that there is no benefit in studying kalam science except that it only brings doubts and doubts about religious knowledge, because to refute kalam experts it is enough to study hadith science.

Pay attention to the opinions of the FOUR IMAMs regarding the knowledge:

Imam Abu Hanifah About the Knowledge of Kalam

Imam Abu Hanifah said:

“In the city of Basrah there are many people who follow their desires (appetites). I came to Basrah more than twenty times. Sometimes I stayed in Basra for more than a year, sometimes a year, and sometimes less than a year. This is because I think that Kalam science is the most noble science."

(Al-Kurdi, Manaqib Abi Hanifah, hal.137)

He said:

I have studied Kalam Science, until I am considered a rare person in Kalam Science. Once upon a time I lived near Hammad bin Abu Sulaiman's study. Then a woman came to me;

he said: "There is a man who has a wife like her. The man wants to divorce her with a divorce according to the Sunnah. How much should he turn it down?”

At that time I didn't know what to answer. I just suggested that he come to Hammad to ask about it, then come back to me, and what Hammad's answer was.

It turned out that Hammad answered: "The man can divorce her when his wife is pure from menstruation and also has not had sexual intercourse, with just one divorce. Then his wife was allowed to menstruate twice. If the wife is pure again, then it is lawful for her to marry."

That's how, the woman then came to me again and told Hammad's answer earlier. Finally I concluded, "I don't need to learn Kalam anymore. I took my sandals and went to teach Hammad"

(Baghdad Date XIII/333)

He said again:

“May God curse Amr bin Ubaid, because he has pioneered the way for those who study Kalam, even though this knowledge is useless for them".

(Al-Harawi, Dzamm ’Ilm Al-Kalam, hal. 28-31)

He was also once asked by someone,

"What do you think about the new problem that people are discussing in Kalam Science, namely the problem of traits and jism?"

He replied,

'Those are the sayings of philosophers. You must follow the hadith of the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam and the methods of the Salaf scholars. Stay away from every new thing because it is heresy."

(Al-Harawi, Dzamm ’Ilm Al-Kalam, chapter 194-B)

The son of Imam Abu Hanifah, whose name is Hammad, said,

“One day my father came to my house. At that time there were people at home who were studying Kalam Science, and we were discussing a problem. Of course our voices were loud, so it seemed dad was bothered.

Then I met him, 'Hey Hammad, who are those people?', he asked. I answered by mentioning their names one by one. 'What are you talking about?', he asked again. I replied, 'There is such and such a problem'.

Then he said: "O Hammad, leave the Knowledge of Kalam". Hammad said further: "However, as far as I know, father never changed his mind, never ordered something and then forbade it. '

Hammad then said to him, 'Oh your father, didn't your father once tell me to learn Kalam?' "Yes, he did". He replied, "But that was first. Now I forbid you, don't study Kalam", he added. "Why, my father?", asked Hammad again.

He replied, "O my son, those who debate in the Science of Kalam, in the beginning are united in their opinions and their religion is one. Nemun satan disturbs them so that they are hostile and disagree".

(Al-Makki, Manaqib Abu Hanifah, hal.183-184)

Imam Malik about the Knowledge of Kalam

Imam Ibn 'Abdil Bar narrated from Mus'ab bin Abdullah bin az-Zubairi, he said, Imam Malik once said:

"I don't like Kalam in religious matters, the citizens of this state don't like it either, and forbid it, such as talking about the opinion of Jahm bin Shafwan, the issue of fate and so on. They do not like Kalam unless it contains charity. As for Kalam in religion, for me it is better to remain silent"

(Jami’ Bayan al-‘Ilm wa Al-Fadhilah, hal. 415)

Imam Abu Nu'aim also narrated from Abdullah bin Nafi, he said, I heard Imam Malik say:

"If a person commits all major sins except becoming polytheists. then he frees himself from these heresies of Kalam, he will enter heaven."

(Al-Hilyah, VI/325)

Imam al-Harawi narrated from Ishaq bin Isa, in addition to Imam Malik,

"Whoever seeks religion through the knowledge of Kalam will become an unbeliever, who seeks wealth through Chemistry, he will go bankrupt, and who seeks rare languages ​​in the Hadith (gharib al-Hadith) he will lie."

(Dzamm Al-Kalam, chapter 173-B)

Imam al-Katib al-Baghdadi narrated from Ishaq bin Isa, he said, I heard Imam Malik say:

"Arguing in religion is a disgrace (disability)."

He also said:

"Whenever someone comes to us, he wants to debate. Does it mean that we reject what the Angel Gabriel brought to the Prophet, may God bless him and grant him peace?"

(Syaraf Ash-hab Al-Hadits, hal. 5)

Imam al-Harawi narrated from Abdur Rahman bin Mahdi, he said, I entered the house of Imam Malik, and there was a person who was being asked by Imam Malik:

“Perhaps you are a student of 'Amir bin 'Ubaid. Hopefully Allah will curse 'Amr bin 'Ubaid because he is the one who created the heresy of Kalam Science. If kalam were a science, surely the Companions and Tabi'in would have discussed it, just as they also discuss matters of law (fiqh) and sharia."

(Dzan Al-Kalam, sheet 173-B)

Imam al-Harawi narrated from 'Aishah bin Abdul Aziz, he said, I heard Imam Malaik say:

"Avoid heresy".

Then someone asked,

"What is heresy, O Abu Abdillah?".

Imam Malik replied:

"Bid'ah adherents are people who talk about the names of Allah, the attributes of Allah, the word of Allah, the knowledge of Allah, and the qudrah of Allah. They don't want to be silent (don't debate) things that the Companions and Tabi'in don't talk about."

(Dzan Al-Kalam, sheet 173)

Imam Abu Nu'aim narrates from Imam Shafi'i, he said, Imam Malik bin Anas, when there is a person who follows his own taste in religion, he said:

"About myself, I have received clarity about religion from my Lord. While you choose to doubt. Just go to those who are still in doubt, and debate him.”

(Al-Hilyah, VI/324)

Imam Ibn 'Abdil Bar narrated from Muhammad bin Ahmad al-Mishri al-Maliki, where he said in the chapter of al-Ijarat in the book of al-Khilaf, Imam Malik said:

"It is not allowed to spread books written by people who in religion only follow lust, heresy and clinic; and those books are the books of followers of kalam, such as the Mu'tazilah group and so on."

(Jami’ Bayan al-‘Ilm wa Al-Fadhilah, hal. 416-417)

Imam Ash-Shafi'i About the Knowledge of Kalam

Al-Imam Ahmad said,

"It is Al-Imam Ash-Syafi'i when a hadith is established on his side, he makes it his opinion. His best trait is that he does not like the knowledge of the pen, but his passion is only jurisprudence."

(Tawali At-Ta'sis chapter 108)

Abu Tsaur and Husain bin 'Ali Al-Karabisiy, both said: We have heard Ash-Shafi'i say,

"In my opinion, the appropriate punishment for a scholar is to be beaten with a palm frond, placed on a camel, and taken around to the middle of the crowd, then called [to them]: This is the reward for those who leave the Bible and the Holy Prophet -sunnah and choosing the knowledge of the pen."

(Tawali At-Ta'sis chapter 111)

Abu Nu'aim Al-Jurjaniy, he said: Ar-Rabi' once said to me:

A man once exchanged views with Ash-Syafi'i on a deep problem. Ash-Syafi'i calmly answered and always excelled. Then the man turned to the knowledge of kalam in his conversation, so Ash-Syafi'i said to me, "This is not our group. This concerns penmanship, I am not the owner of penmanship, and the problem is unrelated."

(Tawali At-Ta'sis chapter 112)

[see: Tawali At-Ta'sis li Ma'ali Muhammad bin Idris by Al-Hafizh ibnu Hajar Al-'Asqalani. (can be downloaded at http://www.waqfeya.com/open.php?cat=17&book=618) The translation edition of this book by the publisher A scholar with the title Manaqib Imam Syafi'i]

Imam Ahmad About the Knowledge of Kalam

Said Imam Ahmad:

"Don't hold an assembly with ahlul kalam, even if he defends the sunnah. Because his affairs will not bring good!”

(Al-Ibanah, vol. 2/540 through the quotation of Lamu ad-Duur Minal Qaulil Ma'tsur, Shaykh Jamal Ibnu Furaihan, p. 40)

Said Abdul Harits:

"I heard Abu Abdillah say: "If you see someone who likes the knowledge of the pen, then be careful with him".

(The same)

Source: abuzuhry

Baca Artikel Terkait: