Minggu, 15 Januari 2023

History of Television and Telegram Complete 100%

Television that we see today is a result of technology invented by some experts in the field of electronics. The basic idea of ​​a television was first coined by Paul Gottlieb Nipkow, a 23-year-old student in Germany, who patented an electromechanical television system using Nipkow discs. But the famous figure who invented television and has been generally agreed by the world as the first television demonstration is John Logie Baird. In Indonesia, 'television' is informally often referred to as TV (read: tivi, tv or tipi.)

The following are some of the prominent scientists who have contributed to creating television towards perfection:

1880s: Discus Nipkow

In 1884, Paul Gottlieb Nipkow, a 23-year-old student in Germany, patented an electromechanical television system that used the Nipkow disc, a rotating disc with a series of holes spirally arranged to the center of the disc used in the centrifugal process. Each hole of the disc is positioned with the same angle difference so that in each rotation the disc can transmit light through each hole until it hits the light-sensitive selenium layer which produces an electric pulse. Along with positioning the focused image at the center of the disc, each hole will scan each horizontal "slice" of the entire image. Nipkow's device did not really become practical until advances in tube amplifier technology. However, the tool can only transmit images "phone .

A later design used a rotating mirror-drum scanner as the image recorder and a cathode ray tube (CRT) as the display device. In 1907, a Russian scientist, Boris Rosing, became the first inventor to use a CRT in the receiving device of an experimental television system. He used a "mirror-drum" scanner to send a simple geometric image to the CRT. However, it is still not possible to record moving images, due to the low sensitivity of the selenium detector.

1920s: Invention of John Logie Baird

Scottish inventor John Logie Baird successfully demonstrated the method of transmitting moving images in London in 1925, followed by monochrome motion pictures in 1926. Baird's scanning discs could produce a 30-line resolution image (enough to show a human face) from a lens with a double spiral .

This demonstration by Baird has been generally accepted by the world as the first television demonstration, even though mechanical television is no longer used. In 1927, Baird also invented the world's first video recording system, namely "Phonovision". By modulating the output signal of his TV camera into the audio range, he was able to record the signal on a 10-inch (25 cm) audio disc using common audio recording technology. Few of Baird's "Phonovision" recordings survive and these were decoded and processed into viewable images in the 1990s using digital signal-processing technology.

In 1926, a Hungarian engineer, Kálmán Tihanyi, designed a television system with a fully electronic scanning and display device, and using the principle of "charge storage" in the scan tube (or "camera").

In 1927, a Russian inventor, Léon Theremin, developed a mirror-drum television system that used a "intertwined video" system to produce a picture resolution of 100 lines.

That same year, Herbert E. Ives of Bell Labs successfully transmitted moving images from a 50-window disc producing 16 images per minute via cable from Washington, DC to New York City, as well as via radio waves from Whippany, New Jersey. . Ives uses a 24 x 30 inch (60 x 75 cm) display screen. The subjects of the recordings included one of the then American Secretary of Commerce, Herbert Hoover.

In the same year, Philo Farnsworth succeeded in making the world's first television system with electronic scanning on both display devices and pickups, where this invention was first demonstrated in front of the press on September 1, 1928.

> History of Telegram (Telegraph)

The first electric telegraph was discovered by Samuel Thomas von Sommering in 1809. Then in 1832, Baron Schilling made the first electric telegraph. Carl Friedrich Gauss and Wilhelm Weber were the first to use an electric telegraph for a fixed means of communication in 1833 in Gottingen. The first commercial telegraph was made by William Fothergill Cooke . This telegraph was patented in England in 1837. This telegraph was sent at a distance of 13 miles/21 km and began operating on April 9, 1839.

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In 1843, a Scottish inventor, Alexander Bain , invented what is arguably the first facsimile machine. He called this discovery the recording telegraph. The telegraph that Bain invented was capable of transmitting images using electric wires. In 1855, an Italian monk, Giovanni Caselli , also built an electric telegraph that could transmit messages. Caselli named his invention Pantelegraph. Pantelegraph was successfully used and accepted as a telegraph line between the cities of Paris and Lyon.

An electric telegraph was first independently invented and patented in the United States in 1837 by Samuel FB Morse . His assistant , Alfred Vail , created a Morse code that symbolized the letters with Morse. The first American telegraph was sent by Morse on January 6, 1838 via 2 miles/3 km of wire at Speedwell Ironworks near Morristown, New Jersey. His message read "A patient watchman is not a loser" and on May 24, 1844, he sent a message "What God has created" from the Old Supreme Court Chamber at the Capitol in Washington to Mt. Clare Depot in Baltimore. Morse/Vail the telegraph was quickly deployed in the following two decades.

Cross-Atlantic cables were attempted for use in 1857, 1858, and 1865. The cables in 1957 were operated only a few times. The first commercial telegraph cable capable of crossing the Atlantic Ocean was successfully completed on July 18, 1866.

Australia was the world's first link in October 1872 by means of an underwater telegraph in Darwin. This raises new news to the world. Further advances in telegraph technology occurred in the early 1970s, when Thomas Edison invented a full duplex two-way telegraph and doubled its capacity by inventing a guadruplex in 1970.

In the early 1830s, the electric telegraph developed by using an electric voltage to control the electromagnet which was heard at the ends of the transmission. The limitation of the technology at that time was that the result of sending the code via cable could not be printed. Later, the electric telegraph was developed using an electromagnet receiver . With an electromagnet receiver, Morse code can be translated from the listener in written form.

> History of telegrams

Samuel FB Morse , an American national, was the first to discover telegrams as a means of sending telegrams. Telegram began to be popularized in the 1920s. At that time telegram rates were cheaper than telephone rates. The tariff for sending telegrams is calculated based on the number of characters, including punctuation. The range of sending news via telegram includes local and international. The time it takes to send a telegram is less than a day. The peculiarity of the telegram is that the punctuation marks are written. Telegram which is popular in Indonesia is under the auspices of the Telkom company .
In 1873 a telegram operator from Valentia, Ireland named Joseph May discovered that light affects the electrical resistance of selenium. He realized it could be used to convert light into an electric current using a selenium photocell. Joseph May together with Willoughby Smith ( a technician from the Telegraph Construction Maintenance Company ) conducted several experiments which were later reported in the Journal of The Society of Telegraph Engineers. After some time, a small metal disc that could rotate with holes in it was found by a student who named Julius Paul Gottlieb Nipkow
(1860-1940) or better known as Paul Nipkow in Berlin, Germany in 1884 and is called the forerunner of the birth of television. Around 1920 John Logie Baird (1888-1946) and Charles Francis Jenkins (1867-1934) used Paul Nipkow's discs to create a system for image capture, transmission, and reception. They made this whole television system based on a system of mechanical movement, both in broadcasting and reception. At that time, the cathode ray tube (Cathode Ray Tube) electrical components had not yet been invented.

Source: http://nurizzahutami.blogspot.com/

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