The Latest and Most Complete Paper About Juvenile Delinquency.
A teenager can no longer be said to be a child, but he is still not mature enough to be called an adult. He is looking for the most suitable lifestyle for him and even this is often done through trial and error, even though he has gone through many mistakes. The mistakes he makes often cause anxiety and unpleasant feelings for his environment, his parents. Mistakes made by teenagers will only please their peers. This is because they are all still in the search for identity. These mistakes that cause environmental annoyance are often referred to as juvenile delinquency.
Youth is the future asset of a nation. In addition to the things that are encouraging with the activities of youth in recent times and the coaching carried out by student and student organizations, we also see a current of moral decline that is increasingly sweeping among some of our youth, which is more known as juvenile delinquency. In the newspapers we often read news about student fights, the spread of narcotics, the use of drugs, alcohol, snatching by teenagers who are in their teens, the increasing cases of pregnancy among young women and so on.
This is a problem faced by today's increasingly widespread society. Therefore, the problem of juvenile delinquency should receive serious and focused attention to direct adolescents in a more positive direction, the emphasis is on creating a system for tackling delinquency among adolescents.
B. The subject matter
1. What is juvenile delinquency?
2. What are the causes of juvenile delinquency?
3. Consequences of juvenile delinquency?
4. What is the solution to overcome juvenile delinquency?
1. Definition of juvenile delinquency
Adolescence is a period when an individual experiences a transition from one stage to the next and experiences changes in both emotions, body, interests, behavior patterns, and is also full of problems (Hurlock, 1998). Therefore, adolescents are very vulnerable to experiencing psychosocial problems, namely psychological or psychological problems that arise as a result of social change. There are indeed many changes in a person as a sign of youth, but often these changes are only physical signs and not as an endorsement of one's youth. But one thing is certain, the conflicts faced by adolescents are increasingly complex along with changes in the various dimensions of life within them.
Education experts agree that teenagers are those aged 13-18 years. At that age, a person has gone beyond childhood, but is still not mature enough to be considered an adult. He is in a period of transition and searching for identity, which is why he often commits acts known as juvenile delinquency.
Juvenile delinquency includes all behavior that deviates from criminal law norms committed by adolescents. Such behavior will harm himself and those around him. The problem of juvenile delinquency began to receive special public attention since the establishment of a juvenile court in 1899 in Illinois, United States of America.
Some experts define juvenile delinquency as follows:
1. Kartono, a sociologist
of juvenile delinquency or known in English as juvenile delinquency is a social pathological symptom in adolescents caused by a form of social neglect. As a result, they develop deviant forms of behavior.
2. Santrock "Juvenile delinquency is a collection of various juvenile behaviors that are socially unacceptable to the point where a crime occurs."
3. Bakolak Presidential Instruction No: 6/1977 guidebook 8
That juvenile delinquency is a disorder of juvenile behavior/actions that are anti-social in nature, violating social, religious and legal norms in force in society.
4. According to Paul Moedikdo, SH
Ø All actions that adults are a crime for children are delinquency, so everything that is prohibited by criminal law, such as stealing, molesting and so on.
Ø All acts of deviation from certain group norms to cause chaos in society.
Ø All actions that show the need for social protection
2. Causes of juvenile delinquency
Teenagers who are still in the process of searching for identity often disturb the peace of others. Mild delinquency that disturbs the peace of the surrounding environment, such as frequenting out at night and spending time just having fun, such as drinking, using illegal drugs, fighting, gambling, etc., will harm himself, his family and other people around him.
Quite a lot of factors behind the occurrence of juvenile delinquency. These various factors can be grouped into internal factors and external factors. The following is a brief explanation:
1. Internal factors
Internal factors are factors that come from within the adolescent's own body. This internal factor, if you get examples that are less educational from television shows, will lead to the intention of teenagers to imitate the scenes witnessed in the contents of the television program. This is particularly the case with regard to the problem of the association of teenagers nowadays who are increasingly daring to put forward external cultural values that are not in accordance with the nation's cultural customs. Finally, the desire to imitate is done just for fun to seek sensation in a social environment where they associate without boundaries and norms so that their friends and society see them as teenagers who are slang and not out of date.
The emergence of interest or pleasure for teenagers who really like watching television shows is due to the condition of teenagers who are still in the puberty stage. So the curiosity to emulate these various shows which are considered to lack moral value for the development of adolescents makes them interested. And the desire to seek sensation arises by imitating these shows, the result of a lack of self-control due to the unstable emotions of the adolescent soul.
2. External factors
are factors that come from outside the adolescent body. This factor can be referred to as an environmental factor that provides negative examples or role models and is also supported by an environment that provides opportunities. This is due to the influence of the current trend of television media which displays many scenes of pornography, violence, hedonism and things that deviate from the nation's current moral and ethical values. it seems that the television media has forced teenagers to get lost in the stories they show as if that's how teenage relationships should be nowadays. Many have been adopted by outside cultural values that they cannot select which are appropriate and which are not worthy of being imitated.
Some of the factors of juvenile delinquency that come from outside the adolescent are:
A. Lack of attention from parents, and lack of affection
Family is the smallest social unit that provides the primary foundation for child development. Meanwhile, the surrounding environment and school contribute to the nuances of child development. Because of that, the merits of the family structure and the surrounding community have a good or bad influence on the growth of a child's personality.
Circumstances in the family environment that cause juvenile delinquency such as broken-home families, messy households caused by the death of a father or mother, families covered in violent conflict, poor family economy, all of which are fertile sources for causing juvenile delinquency.
Dr. Kartini Kartono also believes that the factors that cause juvenile delinquency include:
1. Children do not get enough attention, affection and educational guidance from their parents, especially their father's guidance, because their father and mother are each busy dealing with their own problems and inner conflicts.
2. The physical and psychological needs of adolescents are not met, the wishes and hopes of the children cannot be satisfactorily channeled, or they do not receive compensation 3.
Children have never received the physical and mental training that is very necessary for a normal life, they are not used to it with good self-discipline and self-control.
Thus, the attention and affection of parents is an influential encouragement in the psyche of a teenager in shaping the personality and attitudes of adolescents on a daily basis.
B. Lack of understanding of religion
In family life, the lack of religious guidance is also a factor in the occurrence of juvenile delinquency. In moral development, religion has a very important role because the moral values that come from religion remain unchanged due to changes in time and place.
Moral or religious development for adolescents through the household needs to be carried out from an early age according to their age because every child born does not understand what is right and what is wrong, nor do they understand the boundaries of moral provisions in their environment. Because of this, moral development was initially carried out in the household with exercises and advice that was considered good.
So moral development must start from parents through good role models in the form of things that lead to positive actions, because what is obtained in the youth household will be brought into the community environment. Therefore moral and religious development in the family is very important for teenagers to save them from delinquency and is a way to prepare for the future of future generations, because mistakes in moral development will have negative consequences for the youth themselves.
Understanding of religion should be done since childhood, namely through both parents by providing moral guidance and guidance on religion, so that later when they are teenagers they can sort out the good and bad actions they want to do something every day.
The condition of today's society that has so glorified science has resulted in the moral principles and ethical systems upheld by the ancients being left behind. In a society that has gone too far from religion, the moral decline of adults is common. Moral decline, behavior and actions of adults who are not good become examples or role models for children and adolescents so that it results in juvenile delinquency.
C. The influence of the surrounding environment,
SKILL PAPERS VARIE AND GIVE STRENGTHENING The influence of western culture and association with peers often influence him to try and eventually fall into it.
The environment is the factor that most influences the behavior and character of adolescents. If he lives and thrives in a bad environment, his morals will be like that too. Conversely, if he is in a good environment then he will be good too.
In social life, teenagers often make trouble and disturb the peace of society because they are influenced by western culture or association with their peers which often influence them to try. As it is known that teenagers are generally very happy with the new lifestyle without seeing the negative factors, because the assumption is outdated if they don't follow it.
D. Places of education
Places of education, in this case more specifically, are educational institutions or schools. Juvenile delinquency often occurs when children are at school and class time is empty. Not long ago we have even seen in the media the existence of violence between students that occurred in their own schools. This is proof that schools are also responsible for the delinquency and moral decadence that is happening in this country.
3. Consequences caused by juvenile delinquency
1. For the teenager himself.
The consequences of delinquency committed by adolescents will have an impact on themselves and be very detrimental both physically and mentally, even though the act can provide pleasure, it is all just momentary pleasure. The impact on the physical is often attacked by various diseases due to an irregular lifestyle. While the impact on the mental, namely juvenile delinquency will lead him to a soft mentality, unstable thinking and his personality will continue to deviate from a moral perspective which will ultimately violate ethical and aesthetic rules. And that continues as long as the teenager does not have anyone to guide and direct.
2. For families
Children are the successors of the family who can later become the backbone of the family when their parents are no longer able to work. If adolescents as children in the family behave deviate from religious teachings, it will result in disharmony within the family and a breakdown in communication between parents and children. Of course this is not very good because it can result in teenagers often going out at night and rarely going home and spending time with their friends having fun by drinking or taking drugs. In the end, the family will feel ashamed and disappointed for what the teenager has done. Even though all of this is done by teenagers just to vent their disappointment with what is happening in their family.
3. For the community environment
If teenagers make mistakes in people's lives, the impact will be bad for themselves and their families. Society will assume that youth is the type of person who often causes trouble, gets drunk or disturbs the peace of society. They are considered members of society who have corrupted morals, and the public's view of the attitude of these teenagers will be ugly. To change everything back to normal takes a long time and a heart full of sincerity.
4. Solutions to overcome juvenile delinquency
Of the various factors and problems that occur among today's youth as mentioned above, then of course there are several appropriate solutions in fostering and improving today's youth. Juvenile delinquency in any form has negative consequences both for the general public and for the youth themselves. Juvenile delinquency countermeasures can be divided into:
1. Preventive Measures
Efforts to prevent juvenile delinquency in general can be carried out in the following ways:
Ø Recognize and know the general characteristics and characteristics of adolescents
Ø Know the difficulties that are generally experienced by
Ø Which difficulties are usually the cause
the emergence of an outlet in the form of delinquency.
Efforts to foster youth can be done through:
1. Strengthen the mental attitude of adolescents so that they are able to solve the problems they face.
2. Providing education not only in the addition of knowledge and skills but also mental and personal education through teaching religion, manners and etiquette.
3. Providing facilities and creating an optimal atmosphere for reasonable personal development.
4. Give advice in general with the hope that it will be useful.
5. Strengthen motivation or encouragement to behave well and stimulate good social relations.
6. Organize discussion groups by providing opportunities to express the views and opinions of youth and provide positive direction.
7. Improving the condition of the surrounding environment, social conditions in families and communities where juvenile delinquency occurs.
2. Repressive Measures
Efforts to crack down on violations of social and moral norms can be carried out by imposing penalties on every act of violation. With the existence of strict sanctions for the perpetrators of juvenile delinquency, it is hoped that later the perpetrators will be "deterrent" and not do things that deviate again. Therefore, follow-up must be enforced through punishment or direct punishment for those who commit crimes indiscriminately.
For example, teenagers must obey the rules and procedures that apply in the family. Besides that, there needs to be some kind of punishment made by parents for violations of family rules and procedures. The implementation of the rules must be carried out consistently. Each of the same violations must be subject to the same sanctions. While the rights and obligations of family members change according to development and age.
3. Curative and Rehabilitative Actions
This action is carried out after other preventive measures have been implemented and it is deemed necessary to change the juvenile offender's behavior by providing further education. Education is repeated through special coaching which is often handled by a special institution or individual who is an expert in this field.
Internal solutions for a teenager in controlling juvenile delinquency include:
1. Failure to achieve role identity and weak self-control can be prevented or overcome by exemplary principles. Teenagers should be able to get as many adult figures as possible who have passed their teenage years well as well as those who have managed to improve themselves after failing at this stage.
2. There is motivation from family, teachers, peers to do the first point.
3. Teenagers channel their energy into various positive activities, such as playing sports, painting, participating in competition events, and channeling hobbies.
4. Teenagers are good at choosing friends and a good environment and parents give directions with whom and in which communities teenagers should associate.
5. Adolescents form self-resilience so that they are not easily influenced if it turns out that their peers or community do not live up to expectations.
The problem of juvenile delinquency began to receive special public attention since the establishment of a juvenile court in 1899 in Illinois, United States of America. Juvenile delinquency includes all behavior that deviates from criminal law norms committed by adolescents. Such behavior will harm himself and those around him.
Factors behind the occurrence of juvenile delinquency can be grouped into internal factors and external factors. Internal factors in the form of identity crisis and weak self-control. While external factors in the form of lack of attention from parents; lack of understanding of religion; influence from the surrounding environment and the influence of western culture and association with peers; and place of education.
The consequences caused by juvenile delinquency will have an impact on the juvenile himself, his family, and the community environment. Solutions to tackling juvenile delinquency can be divided into preventive measures, repressive measures, and curative and rehabilitation measures. All efforts to control juvenile delinquency must be addressed towards achieving a stable, harmonious and mature adolescent personality. Teenagers are expected to become adults who have strong personalities, are physically and spiritually healthy, firm in their beliefs (faith) as members of society, nation and homeland.
Based on the conclusions above, the authors suggest to pay more attention to social problems, especially juvenile delinquency. We should be able to prevent and control adolescent behavior so that it does not cause social problems that occur as a result of these juvenile delinquencies.
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