Rabu, 15 November 2023




The Nature of Quotations 

Citation Type

Citing Techniques in Research Proposals

Research Tips

Lecturer: Afdhal Divine, S.Pd.I., M.Pd

Arranged by :


Rahman Wahyuda (20140138)

Aini Putri (20140143)

Riza Saputri Rambe (20140106)

Hokipa Harahap (20140016)






 Praise be to the presence of Allah SWT, the Almighty God, who has provided health and ease in carrying out this paper assignment. Thank you to the course lecturer who has provided and entrusted this assignment to be prepared in the form of a paper. 

This paper aims to help students and other readers learn what the essence of quotations is, so that students and other readers can understand and understand them. Another goal is to fulfill and complete the tasks that have been given. 

It is well realized that there are still many errors and shortcomings in the preparation of this paper. Therefore, positive criticism and suggestions are expected to improve this paper, hopefully this paper can add new insights for writers and readers. Finally, I apologize if there are errors in writing this paper, because the author is still in the learning stage. That is all and thank you.

                                                              Padangsidimpuan, October 2023








Background 1

Problem Formulation 1

Objectives of Paper 2

Benefits of Writing 2


The Nature of Quotes 3

Quotation type 7

Quoting Techniques in Research Proposals 8

Research Tips 12


Conclusion 15

Suggestion 15





Writing is an activity to convey ideas or thoughts of a writer. This activity can also be used as a means of channeling writing talents, such as writing poetry, novels, stories or writing scientific papers. When writing scientific work, you also need to pay attention to several important things, such as punctuation, word choice, writing order, and writing correct quotations. 

Quoting is something that we cannot avoid when writing a scientific work. Because, it would be a waste of time if a truth that had been investigated and proven by an expert, and had been published widely, in a book or magazine, had to be investigated again by a writer to find the same conclusion.

Besides that, in certain circumstances a writer of scientific work does not have time to investigate a small aspect of his writing in depth. So, the author simply types the opinion he considers correct by stating where the opinion was read, so that readers can match the quote with the original source.

Even though an expert's opinion is introduced, too many quotations can lead an author to accusations of plagiarism. The author must be able to restrain himself from using too many quotations so that his essay is not considered a collection of various opinions. On the other hand, if the author does not quote at all, it will be questionable whether all the ideas, information, facts and findings he wrote about are actually his original ideas. A quote only supports a piece of writing.

Formulation of the problem

What is the essence of quotations?

What are the Types of quotations?

What are the techniques for citing in a research proposal?

What are the research tips?

Purpose of the Paper

To find out what the essence of quotations is 

To find out what types of quotations are

To find out techniques for citing in research proposals

To find out research tips

The benefits of writing

To understand the importance of writing quotations well and correctly.

to increase your knowledge of writing techniques,

To find out the types of quotations.



The Nature of Quotations

In scientific writing - whether writing scientific articles, written works, or writing theses and dissertations - quotations are often used to emphasize the content of the description, or to prove what is being said. A quotation is a loan of a sentence or opinion from an author, or a saying by someone famous, whether found in books or magazines. Apart from that, quotations can also be taken in oral form, for example through electronic media such as TV, radio, internet, and so on. The aim is to strengthen the arguments in an essay.

According to the Big Indonesian Dictionary, quoting is taking words or sentences from a book or something else. Quoting is different from plagiarism. Plagiarism is taking other people's articles or opinions and making them appear as if they were your own. Quotations are written to emphasize the contents of the description, strengthen evidence, and honestly use written sources. Quotations are one of the most essential things in writing scientific papers. When writing quotations, there are rules that must be followed by every writer of scientific work without exception.

According to the Big Indonesian Dictionary, quoting is taking words or sentences from a book or something else. Quoting is different from plagiarism. Plagiarism is taking other people's articles or opinions and making them appear as if they were your own. Meanwhile, according to Keraf, quotations are written to emphasize the contents of the description, strengthen evidence, and honestly use written sources. 

This is in line with Widjono's statement that citations are one of the most essential things in writing scientific papers. When writing quotations, there are rules that must be followed by every writer of scientific work without exception. 

According to Gorys Keraf (1997:213), a bibliography is a list containing the titles of books, articles and other published materials that are related to an essay or part of an essay that is currently being worked on. And, according to Ninik M. Kuntaro (2007:195), a bibliography is a scientific notation technique which is a collection of reading sources or reference sources when writing a scientific essay. We need expert opinions or writings from several articles or books to serve as references for the paper/writing/thesis we want to write. These references must then be made in a final page called the bibliography

By using quotations, a writer does not need to waste time investigating something that has been proven to be true by another writer, the writer simply quotes the other person's work.

A quotation is part of a proven statement, opinion, thought, definition, formulation or research result from another author, which is rewritten/quoted and examined in relation to the quoted material. Or it can be said that quoting is the activity of borrowing sentences or opinions from an expert or author, whether in the form of writing in books, magazines, newspapers or other electronic media. The aim is to strengthen the arguments in an essay.

The material included as a quotation is someone's opinion or the results of the latest research that has never become public knowledge. When quoting we are also required to mention the source, this is intended to respect the person whose opinion is quoted and as proof of the truth of the quotation. So that written work is not considered plagiarism or plagiarism.

Quote Function:

To support/support this opinion.

As a theoretical basis.

Strengthening the author's opinion.

Explanation of a description.

Evidence to support opinions

Improves writing aesthetics.

Makes it easier to review the use of references, and makes it easier to edit manuscripts related to the library.

The function of quotations in a scientific work is to confirm the contents of the description or prove the truth of what the author wrote. Quotations can be placed in two ways, namely in the text or as part of a footnote. Placing footnotes is generally done if the author does not want an explanation that will disturb the consistency of the description of the text.

Things to pay attention to when quoting:

The author considers that quotation is necessary

The author is fully responsible for the provisions and conditions of quotation

Quotes can be related to theoretical discoveries

Don't use too many direct quotes

The author considers the type of quotation and its relationship to the reference source

When quoting we must mention the source. This is intended as a statement of respect for the person whose opinion is quoted, and as proof of the truth of the quote. Some principles that must be considered when making quotations are:

Don't make changes

When quoting directly, the author must not change the words or techniques of the original text. If the author deems it necessary to make changes to his technique, then he must state or provide clear information that certain changes have been made. For example, in the original manuscript there are no sentences or parts of sentences that are placed in italics (cursive) or underlined, but at the discretion of the author certain words or parts of sentences are placed in bold, italics or stretched. Considerations for changing the technique can vary to provide accentuation, examples, contradictions and so on.

In such cases the author must provide information in rectangular brackets [. .] that the change in technique was made by the author himself, and was not in the original text. For example, the information in rectangular brackets reads as follows: [italics mine, Author].

If there is an error

If there are errors or oddities in the quotation, whether in spelling or grammatical matters, the author must not correct the errors. He just quotes as is. Likewise, if the author disagrees with a part of the quote.

In this case, the quotation remains, only the author is allowed to make corrections or notes on the error. The corrections or notes can be placed as footnotes, or can also be placed in rectangular brackets [. .] as is the case with the technical changes as stated above. Notes in rectangular brackets are placed directly behind the words or elements that are to be corrected, noted, or that are not approved. For example, if we don't agree with a part, we usually give a short note: [sic!] – the word sic! placed in rectangular brackets indicates that the author is not responsible for the error, he is simply quoting according to what is in the original manuscript.


"Similarly, with other language data in this paper, we always try to find word forms that contain eat [sic! ] the most central/distribution ingredients of the Swadesh list.”

The word eat in the quote above is actually a misprint; should be meaningful. However, in quotations, the author must not immediately correct the error. He must note that there are errors, and he simply quotes according to the original text. For scientific works use sic! In rectangular brackets placed directly behind the word or part in question, it feels more solid.

Remove the quotation section

In the quotations it is also allowed to remove certain parts on the condition that the removal of that part may result in a change in the original meaning or the overall meaning. The omission is usually expressed using three spaced dots [. .]. If the omitted element is found at the end of a sentence, then the three spaced dots are added after the dot that ends the sentence. When the omitted part consists of one or more paragraphs, it is usually expressed with dots spaced along one line of the page. In this case it is absolutely not allowed to use a connecting line [-] instead of dots. If there are quotation marks, then the dots - both at the beginning of the quotation and at the end of the quotation - must be included in the quotation marks because the omitted element is considered part of the quotation.


Hal ini cocok dengan kehidupan para kepala itu sebagai pemimpin masyarakat, tetapi juga sebagai pemimpin upacara-upacara keagamaan. Kata Mallinckrodt: “… in primitive regions, activity of the head in relation to religion is one of its principal functions and the administration of justice, understood in the above-mentioned manner, becomes partly a religious function, which must restore the magical balance of the community.” 

Things you need to pay attention to when quoting include:

The author considers that quotation is necessary

The author is fully responsible for the accuracy and thoroughness of the quotation

Quotes can be related to theoretical discoveries

Don't use too many direct quotes

The author considers the type of quotation and its relationship to the reference source.

Type of quote

Direct quote

If the author takes someone else's opinion completely word for word, according to the original text, no changes may be made at all. In other words, a direct quote is a borrowing of opinion by taking it completely or exactly from the original text source. Direct quotations consist of short direct quotations and long direct quotations.

Indirect quotation

The author uses sentences he has composed himself (only taking the main ideas or essence of the quoted source) to restate with sentences compiled by the quoter into an overview or essence based on what he quoted. Indirect quotations are written together with the text we create and do not need to be enclosed in quotation marks. Mention of sources can be with a footnote system, it can also be with a direct note system (poster notes).

Indirect quotations consist of short direct quotations and long direct quotations. How to write it as follows:

Short indirect quotations are indirect quotations consisting of three or less.

Long indirect quotations are indirect quotations that are more than three lines long (four lines and above).

Citing Techniques in Research Proposals

How to write direct quotes is as follows:

Short direct quotations are direct quotations that consist of three or fewer typed lines:

Typed like typing text

Begins and ends with quotation marks (" " )

The distance between quotation lines is two spaces

After the quotation is complete, it is given a serial number indicating half a space upwards, or written directly behind what is quoted in brackets, written behind what is quoted in brackets, write the source from which the quotation was taken, by writing the short name or surname of the author, year of publication, and number. the page where the quote was taken. (author, year : page.)

.If there is something that is considered wrong/doubtful, we put a mark (sic!), which means we are simply quoting according to the original and are not responsible for the error.

When there is a wrong letter or word in the quote and it is corrected by the quoter, siku letters [ ….. ] should be used.

The procedure for writing direct quotations of more than four lines follows the rules:

Quotations are separated from the text by 1.5 spaces

The distance between lines is one space

The end of the quotation is followed by brackets containing the author's name, year of publication and page

All quotes are indented

Example :

 The conclusion of this research is "there is a tendency for more and more 'interference' from company leaders, the lower the level of employee participation in urban areas" (Soebroto, 1990:23).

 “There is misleading short message information. "We will continue to investigate because the source already exists," said Head of the Public Relations Division (KABID) of Polda Metro Jaya, Senior Commissioner Boy Rafli Amar, in Jakarta, Saturday (6/3).

“Manipulative movements are skills that require coordination between the eyes, hands, or other body parts. "manipulative movements include catching the ball, kicking the ball and drawing" (Asim, 1995:315).

“And among humans there are those who sacrifice themselves to gain the pleasure of Allah SWT. And Allah is most merciful towards His servants." (Al-Baqarah: 207).                        

The way to write an indirect quote is as follows: 

Sentences containing this idea are written with double spaces as normal text

All quotes must be referenced

Quotes are integrated with the text

Quotations are not enclosed in quotation marks

Reference sources can be written before or after sentences containing quotations.

If written before the quoted text, the last name as listed in the bibliography is included in the bibliography included in the text, followed by the year of publication between brackets.

If written after the quoted text, the reference is written between brackets, starting with the last name as listed in the bibliography, a colon, and ending with the year of publication.

For example:

Anderson and Clancy (1991: 2) In this opinion, Anderson and Clancy state that cost is an exchange value or a sacrifice to obtain a benefit or "Cost is an exchange price, or a sacrifice made to obtain a benefit.

There are examples of other quotations, such as:

Citation in footnote

Quotation of spoken word

Quotes within quotes

Direct quotation of the material

The Qur'an commands Muslims to use their minds to observe the nature of the universe. Such orders are contained in surrah arrum [30] verse 22.

In its essay, the institution again made it clear that the excavation was only a few tens of meters from the Al-Aqsa mosque, and that as the day progressed the excavation would be increased to a depth of 10 meters, up to the Al-Aqsa mosque area (Eramuslim.com, 16/3/ 2010).

The Corruption Eradication Commission (KPK) ensures that there will be no intervention in the investigation of the Century Bank case which is suspected to be a violation of criminal acts of corruption (Republika, Sunday 7 March 2010 page 1).

There are many opinions that put forward the definition of prose, which is contained in various forms of a series of words, one of which is "prose is a literary work in the form of a free story. The form of prose is generally a combination of monologue and dialogue. However, there is also prose which is only a monologue and consists of dialogues" (Juanda, Intisari of Indonesian Literature, 2007: 95).

 In a particular case, for example there is a transfer of property rights, both parties must make a power of attorney, so that there are no problems in the future "a power of attorney is a letter that states the transfer of power from one person to another person to act or have the right to act on behalf of the giver power” (Sukamto et al., Indonesian Language Module for SMA/MA 11a, 2011:30).

If the book referred to is written by two authors, the quotation is written in this way: the name of the first author is written by his last name, while the name of the second author is written as is (in full).

example: Muhammad Rohmadi and Aninditya Sri Nugraheni, written in the following quote:

Rohmadi and Aninditya Sri Nugraheni (2011: 38) state that Indonesian...

If a book is written by three or more authors, the way to write it is by stating the name of the first author followed by the abbreviation et al.

Example: Yulianto, Eddy Sugiri, and Yakub Nasucha, written in the following quotation:

Yulianto, et al. (2007: 14) states that...

If the reference source referred to is not from the original book but is found in someone else's work, the way to write it is to include the word in, in the quotation.

example: Widjono (in Rohmadi, 2011:71) says that there are many definitions of paragraphs, namely...

There are two ways to adapt quotations, namely:

Summarizing, namely presenting a long essay or part of an essay in a concise form. Summarizing aims to develop the writer's expression, save words, make it easier to understand the original text and strengthen proof.

Example :


Argumentation is basically writing that aims to influence the reader's beliefs so that they are sure that the writer will even do what the writer says (Keraf, 1983: 3)


Summary method, namely presenting a long essay in concise form, starting from the original text, but not maintaining the sequence, not presenting the entire content, going straight to the core of the discussion related to the problem to be solved.

Example :


As Karft (1983: 3) said, argumentation is basically writing that aims to influence the reader's beliefs so that they are convinced of the author's opinion and even want to do what the author says.


Research Tips

The first tip for writing scientific articles is to keep a journal of at least 20 references. So, before making a journal, we have to prepare 20 references first. Because that way, we will get lots of references and knowledge in the article and can put it together to create a quality journal article.

Article Writing With the Team

The second tip for writing scientific articles is to write with a team. Creating a reputable journal is not easy. However, it will be easier if we write a journal manuscript with a team. Because, with a team, we will help each other. For example, we don't necessarily read all 20 references, therefore we need a team.

Max Plagiarism Value 15%

So, the third tip for writing scientific articles is to ensure that the plagiarism value of your manuscript must be below 15%.

Because the value of plagiarism is one of the most striking in a publication, because the value of plagiarism is high, if the author commits plagiarism, it will have an impact on the journal being of lower quality.

Avoid entering papers in journal predators

The next tip for writing scientific articles is not to make the mistake of choosing a predatory journal publisher.

When the manuscript we write is good and of high quality, it will be a waste if it turns out we chose the wrong publisher.

Because there are so many predatory publishers, you have to be more careful when entering a reputable journal.

It would be a shame if we had made a good journal but we chose the wrong publisher.

Practice a lot

The fifth tip for writing scientific articles is to practice writing more journals.

We have to have lots of references that we can combine together, we have to write a lot.

When we want to enter a Scopus/Reputable Journal, we must have the knowledge and have a strategy about what we have to do. With that, it will be easier for us.

Prepare Figures and Tables

The sixth tip for writing scientific articles is to prepare pictures and tables.

Don't let our scientific articles present scientific information and presentations only with written descriptive content.

Also add useful images and tables or diagrams to support the information presentation model to make it more effective and easier to read.

How to create scientific articles with interactive presentations and models like this will make our scientific articles straightforward and easy to understand.

Present Conclusions Clearly

The next tip for writing scientific articles is to present a clear conclusion.

This section also shows how our research contributes to current science. In some journals, this is a separate section; in another part, the conclusion is in the last paragraph of the Discussion.

Without a clear conclusion section, readers will find it difficult to assess our scientific article and whether it is worthy of publication in a journal.

We can propose global or specific conclusions, related to the objectives included in the Introduction.

Write an Abstract

The final tip for writing scientific articles is to write an abstract.

The abstract also tells readers what we did and what the important findings were in our research.

Together with the title, the Abstract is the 'advertisement' of our article. Make the abstract as interesting as possible and easy to understand without having to read the entire article.

Avoid using jargon, abbreviations and unusual references. The abstract also provides a brief description of the perspective and objectives. It is also written with research results that are not very detailed.


So, those are some tips for writing scientific articles that we can convey.

So, writing scientific papers is actually not as difficult as you imagine. The most important thing is how you increase your literacy so that the ideas you get can develop very well.

Apart from that, don't forget to always be thorough and careful when writing scientific work. Come on, immediately write your best scientific work.

What is the Difference Between Journals and Scientific Articles?

Articles are writing that aims to provide information to readers about a topic that is supported by facts. Meanwhile, a journal is a piece of writing that contains informative and academic articles about a topic that are published periodically.

Does the article have to have a cover?

Each article has a different cover. It is also based on different types. Each type is able to provide convenience to everyone if everything is conveyed well. Scientific articles are one of the most common types of writing found in the world of education.

What is the Ethics in Writing Scientific Papers?

The ethical nature of scientific writing consists of honesty, freedom from plagiarism, upholding copyright, validity and reliability: accuracy and consistency. Honesty is a basic characteristic and requirement that must be possessed by writers.




Quotations are one of the accessories in writing a paper which can provide confirmation that a work, whether a paper or scientific work written or compiled by the author, is not entirely based on the author's personal opinions, ideas and material, but rather borrows or takes other sources either from books or the media. others to support the author's material and ideas. So that's where the truth of the written work is known. That is the essence of the function of quotation and writing in a scientific work.

And you need to pay attention to comply with EYD and not ignore the source of the quotation.



In preparing this paper, there are many shortcomings and it is still in the learning process. The author hopes that this will be understood and given positive criticism and suggestions for preparing a better paper or scientific work. 


HS, Widjono. 2007. Indonesian: Personality Development Courses in Higher Education. Cet. 2. Jakarta: PT Grasindo 

Gorys Keraf, 1997. Composition: An Introduction to Language Skills, Cet. 11 Ende: Nusa Indah.

https://www.academia.edu/9717369/MAKALAH_BAHASA_INDONESIA_KUTIPAN_, accessed on October 21 at 20.00 WIB

http://studyinglathif.blogspot.com/p/kutipan.html, accessed on 22 October 2023 at 18.10 WIB

https://internationaljournallabs.com/blog/tips-menulis-article-ilmiah/, accessed on 22 October 2023 at 21.00 WIB

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