Umar bin al-Khaththab Radhiyallahu 'anhu: Complete Life History and Leading Hadith Expert
His full name is Umar bin Khaththab bin Nufail bin Abdul Izzy bin Rabah bin Qirath bin Razah bin Adi bin Ka'ab bin Luay al-Quraisy al-'Adawy. Sometimes called Abu Hafash and nicknamed al-Faruq. His mother's name was Hantimah bint Hasyim bin al-Muqhirah al-Makhzumiyah.
The Beginning of His Islam.
Umar converted to Islam when there were approximately 40 (forty) people consisting of men and women.
Imam Tirmidhi, Imam Thabrani and Hakim have narrated with the same narration that the Prophet Shallallahu 'alaihi wassalam prayed, "Oh God, glorify this religion of Islam with the person You love the most between these two people, namely Umar bin al-Khatthab or Abu Jahl 'Amr bin Hisham."
Regarding the entry of Umar bin al-Khatthab into Islam which was narrated by Ibnu Sa'ad which was expressed by Imam Suyuti in the book "Tarikh al-Khulafa' ar-Rasyidin" as follows:
Anas bin Malik said: "One day Umar came out carrying his sword, then the Bani Zahrah asked "O Umar, where are you going?" Then Umar answered, "I want to kill Muhammad." Next the person asked: "What about the peace that has been made between the Bani Hashim and the Bani Zuhrah, while you want to kill Muhammad?" Then the person said, "Don't you know that your sister and brother-in-law have left your religion." Then Umar went to his sister's house and saw his sister and brother-in-law reading the Koran, then Umar said, "perhaps both of them have really changed religions." So Umar jumped up and stepped on him hard, then his sister (Fathimah bint Khaththab) came to push Umar, but Umar slapped him so hard that his sister's face bled.
Then Umar said: "Give me that sheet (of the Quran), I want to read it", so his brother said." You in a state of impurity cannot touch it unless you are in a state of purity, if you want to know then take a bath (do ablution/purify yourself). Then Umar stood up and bathed (purified) then read the sheet (Al-Quran) which is Surat Thaha until the verse,
Indeed, I am God, there is no god but Me, so worship Me and perform prayer in remembrance of Me
"Indeed, I am Allah, there is no god besides Me, so worship Me and establish prayer to remember me." (Qs. Thaha 20:14).
After that Umar said, "Take me to see Muhammad.". Hearing Umar's words, Khabbab immediately came out of hiding and said: "Oh Umar, I feel happy, I hope the prayer that the Prophet made on Thursday night come true, He (the Prophet) prayed "Oh God, glorify this religion of Islam with The person you love the most between these two people, namely Umar bin al-Khatthab or Abu Jahl 'Amr bin Hisham." Then Umar left for the place of Muhammad Shallallahu alaihi wassalam, in front of the door stood Hamzah, Talhah and other companions. Then Hamzah said, "if God wants good for him, he will convert to Islam, but if there is another purpose we will kill him". Then Umar announced his conversion to Islam in front of the Messenger of Allah, may God bless him and grant him peace.
Then the success of Islam and the Muslim people increased with the entry of Umar bin Khattab, as narrated by Imam Bukhari from Ibn Mas'ud, saying, "Our success increased since the entry of Umar." Umar participated in the war fought with the Prophet, and remained in the battle of Uhud with the Prophet as explained by Imam Suyuthi in "Tarikh al-Khulafa'ar Rasyidin".
The Messenger of Allah gave him the title of al-Faruq, as narrated by Ibnu Sa'ad from Dzakwan, while he said, "I asked Aisha, "Who called Umar by the name of al-Faruq?", so Aisha replied "Rasulullah".
Imam Bukhari's hadith from Abu Hurairah, the Messenger of God said: "Indeed, there have been reformers from the nations before you, and if there is a reformer from my nation, it will surely be 'Umar." This hadith was authenticated by Imam Hakim. Similarly, Imam Tirmidhi has narrated from Uqbah bin Amir that the Prophet said, "If there was a Prophet after me, it would certainly be Umar bin al-Khatthab."
Narrated by Tirmidhi from Ibn Umar he said, "The Prophet said:
"Indeed, Allah has channeled the truth through Umar's tongue and heart." His son Umar (Abdullah) said, "Whatever my father (Umar) said about something will happen as my father predicted."
History from Ibn 'Asakir has narrated from Ali, he said, "I don't know anyone who emigrated in secret except Umar bi al-Khaththab who did it openly." Where Umar carried his sword and bow on his shoulders, he went to the Kaaba where the Quraysh were in the courtyard, then he performed Tawaf 7 times and prayed 2 rak'ahs at the station of Ibrahim.
Then he came to their group one by one and said, "Whoever has a mother whose mother accepts her death, whose child becomes an orphan and whose wife becomes a widow, then meet me at the back of the valley." This testimony shows the courage of Umar bin Khaththab Radhiyallahu'Anhu.
On the Wednesday of the month of Dzulhijah in the year 23 H he died, he was stabbed while doing the Fajr Prayer, he was stabbed by a Magian named Abu Lu'luah, a slave belonging to al-Mughirah bin Syu'bah, it is suspected that he received orders from the Magians. Umar was buried next to the Prophet and Abu Bakar ash Siddiq, he died at the age of 63.
Disalin dari Biografi Umar Ibn Khaththab dalam Tahbaqat Ibn Sa'ad, Tarikh al-Khulafa'ar Rasyidin Imam Suyuthi