Definition of Pancasila, Background, Foundation and Objectives of Pancasila Education
The Indonesian nation has values that are believed to be true, and have universal characteristics, namely Pancasila. In the course of Indonesian history, it has been agreed that Pancasila is the basis of the Indonesian state. In this regard, the Indonesian people must understand the meaning of the values contained in Pancasila, so that in treading the next historical journey, as well as in efforts to shape national character, the noble values of Pancasila will not deviate.
Education is a conscious and planned effort to create a learning atmosphere and learning process so that students actively develop their potential to have religious spiritual strength, self-control, personality, intelligence, noble character, and the skills needed by themselves and society. Whereas Pancasila, etymologically the term Pancasila comes from Sanskrit. In Sanskrit, Pancasila has the following meanings: Panca means the five Syilas, which means the rock of the joints, the base/foundation of Syiila means the rules of good behavior. So Pancasila education itself is a set of educational materials and an introduction to Pancasila as the basis of the state, and to instill the ideology of Pancasila itself in students.
B. PROBLEM FORMULATION
1. What is the background of the importance of Pancasila Education?
2. What is the foundation of Pancasila?
3. What are the national goals, national education goals and Pancasila education goals?
The purpose of this discussion is:
1. To provide knowledge about the historical, cultural, juridical and philosophical foundations of Pancasila Education
2. To provide knowledge about national goals, national education goals and Pancasila education goals.
A. Background on the importance of Pancasila education
The Indonesian nation has values that are believed to be true and have universal characteristics, namely Pancasila. In the course of Indonesian history, it has been agreed that Pancasila is the basis of the Indonesian state. In this regard, the Indonesian people must understand the values contained in Pancasila, as an effort to shape national character and not deviate from Pancasila values.
As an effort to shape the nation's character, of course it cannot be separated from education because education is an effort to develop one's potential and creativity, namely religious values, Indonesian national culture.
As regulated in Law No. 20 of 2013 concerning the National Education System: Chapter 1 paragraph (2)
''National education is education based on Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia, which is rooted in religious values, Indonesian national culture and responsive to the demands of changing times''.
Pancasila has a very important role to shape the character of the Indonesian nation. Through learning Pancasila correctly, the Indonesian people will be strong in facing challenges as well as seizing opportunities. Efforts to implement the noble values of Pancasila have encountered obstacles, especially after the emergence of the 1998 reform movement. There is no doubt that Pancasila is the foundation of the state as well as the way of life of the Indonesian nation.
The Pancasila Education course is a course included in the Personality Development Course (MPK) group.
B. The definition of Pancasila
In Sanskrit, Pancasila consists of the word panca which means five and sila/sila which means the foundation stone or foundation. The word sila comes from the word susila, namely good behavior (Wreksosuhardjo in Muhdi et al, 2011: 1336). Pancasila which means five principles or five principles, is the name of the foundation of our country, the Republic of Indonesia. The name Pancasila itself is not actually contained in either the Preamble to the 1945 Constitution or in the body of the 1945 Constitution. However, it is clear that Pancasila is meant to be the five foundations of the Indonesian State contained in the fourth paragraph of the Preamble to the 1945 Constitution, namely:
1. Belief in the One and Only God
2. Just and Civilized Humanity
3. Indonesian Unity
4. Population led by wisdom in representative deliberations
5. Social justice for all Indonesian people
Pancasila was systematically presented for the first time by Ir. Soekarno at the first meeting of the BPUPK "Investigating Agency for Preparation for Independence" on June 1, 1945. Bung Karno stated that Pancasila was a gronslag philosofiche, a fundamental, deep idea, which was the foundation or foundation for a country to be founded. Furthermore, it was also found besides Pancasila which functions as a guiding star or laitstar, as a state ideology, as a nation's view of life, as a philosophy, as an glue or unifier for the nation and as an insight into the Indonesian nation in achieving national goals (PSG UGM, 2012: 1)
Based on the description above, Pancasila has an important position for the Indonesian people in the life of society, nation and state. Therefore, as Indonesian people, we should be able to accept, believe in, and implement the values contained therein in real life and be able to firmly maintain these basic ideas so that we can anticipate developments in the current global era.
Constitutionally, Pancasila is the foundation of the state. However, multidimensionally, Pancasila has various designations that are in accordance with its essence and existence as a crystallization of cultural values and the way of life of the Indonesian people. Because of that Pancasila is often referred to and understood as:
1. The Soul of the Indonesian Nation
2. The Personality of the Indonesian Nation
3. Outlook on the Life of the Indonesian Nation
4. The Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia
5. Sources of Law for the State of Indonesia
6. The Great Agreement of the Indonesian Nation
7. Ideology of the Indonesian Nation
8. Philosophy of Law that unites the Indonesian Nation (Darmodiharjo, 1975: 10-11)
a. Pancasila as the Foundation of the State
· Pancasila is indeed very appropriate as the basis of the state for the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia for the following reasons:
1. Pancasila was excavated from the customs and culture of the Indonesian nation
2. Pancasila has the potential to accommodate the pluralistic nature and conditions of the nation
3. Pancasila guarantees the freedom of citizens to worship according to their religion and beliefs.
4. Pancasila has the potential to guarantee the integrity of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia.
5. Pancasila provides the foundation for the Indonesian nation in anticipating threats, challenges, obstacles and disturbances in the life of society, nation and state.
Pancasila as the basis of the state has the following meanings:
1. Five precepts as the basis of the state are the foundation for the establishment of a nation-state;
2. Pancasila as the basis of the state is the ideals of the state and legal ideals that develop into staats fundamental norms that are constitutive and regulative in nature, so they must animate and become a reference to the legislation in force in the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia.
3. Pancasila as the basis of the state is the principle of positive law that applies in the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia.
4. Pancasila as the basis of the state animates the 1945 Constitution in regulating the administration of the state and managing the life of citizens in society, nation and state (PSG UGM, 2012:4)
Pancasila as the basis of the state has a fundamental or fundamental position and function, so that it is permanent, strong and cannot be changed by anyone, including the MPR and DPR as a result of general elections. Changing Pancasila means dissolving the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia which was proclaimed on August 17, 1945
b. Pancasila as the nation's way of life
Pancasila in this sense is often referred to as a way of life, weltanschauung, worldview, outlook on life, guidelines for life, guidelines for life. Pancasila as a way of life has the following roles and functions:
1. Making the Indonesian nation stand firm and have resilience against all threats
2. Indicate the direction and goals achieved in accordance with the ideals of the nation
3. Become a handle and guide in solving all problems
4. Encouraging the emergence of enthusiasm and ability to build the Indonesian nation
5. Shows ideas about the form of life that aspires to
6. Providing the ability to filter all ideas and influences of foreign culture
C. The foundation of Pancasila education
1. Historical Basis
The formation of the Indonesian nation through a historical process from the Kutai-Sriwijaya-Majapahit-colonial period and then achieving independence. In the life of the Indonesian nation, the principle of life is embodied in the view of life or philosophy of life of the nation (identity) which the founders of the nation/state formulated in a simple but profound formulation which includes five principles, namely Pancasila.
2. Cultural Foundation
The Indonesian nation has its own personality which is reflected in the long-existing cultural values formulated in Pancasila. Cultural values as the basic values of national and state life are formulated in Pancasila.
3. Juridical Basis
· The Director General of Higher Education issued Decree No. 356/Dikti/Kep/1995 concerning the Core Curriculum of the General Course of Pancasila Education at Higher Education in Indonesia.
· Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 2 of 1989 concerning the National Education System, Government Regulation Number 60 of 1999 concerning Higher Education.
· Decree of the Director General of Higher Education Number 265 of 2000 regulates the need for Pancasila Education courses.
4. Philosophical Foundation
Philosophically, before becoming a state, the Indonesian nation was a nation with God and humanity, so this is an objective fact that humans are God's creatures. The values of Pancasila are the basis of the philosophy of the State, so in the aspect of its implementation the State must be based on the values of Pancasila, including the legal system in Indonesia.
5. Basic sociology of Pancasila education
The Indonesian nation, which is full of diversity, consists of more than 300 ethnic groups spread across more than 17,000 islands in Indonesia. Pancasila as the basis that binds all citizens to obey instrumental values in the form of written and unwritten norms or laws such as customs, agreements, and conventions
D. The purpose of Pancasila education
1. PURPOSE OF PANCASILA
Facing the era of economic globalization, the latent threats of terrorism, communism and fundamentalism are a challenge for the Indonesian people. Lately, the Indonesian people should be wary of the grouping of ethnic groups in Indonesia which is getting stronger and stronger, namely when this nation is again tried by foreign influences to be compartmentalized not only by vertical conflict but also by views towards the One Supreme God.
Pancasila as the philosophy of the Indonesian nation is the great work of the Indonesian nation and is a symbol of the ideology of the Indonesian nation which is at the same level as other major ideologies in the world. The Indonesian nation uses Pancasila as a way of life in daily life, society, nation and state. Pancasila is also used as a guide in implementing government. For this reason, in terms of strengthening the unity and integrity of the Indonesian nation and state, Pancasila has 3 main objectives that include:
· National Goals
· National Education Goals
· The purpose of Pancasila Education
2. NATIONAL OBJECTIVES
The national goals of the Indonesian people are stated in the opening of the 1945 Constitution:
a. Form a government of the Republic of Indonesia which protects the entire Indonesian nation and all of Indonesia's bloodshed.
b. Promote the common or shared welfare.
c. Enrich the life of a nation
d. Take an active role and participate in carrying out world order based on freedom, eternal peace and social justice.
3. PURPOSE OF NATIONAL EDUCATION
National education is education that is based on Pancasila and the 1945 Indonesian Constitution which is rooted in religious values, Indonesian national culture and steps towards the demands of changing times.
The national goal of the Indonesian nation as stated in the Preamble to the 1945 Constitution is to protect the entire Indonesian nation and all of Indonesia's bloodshed and promote public welfare, educate the nation's life and participate in carrying out world order based on freedom, eternal peace and social justice.
Also in accordance with Article 3 of the 1945 2003 Constitution concerning the National Education System, it is emphasized that: National Education functions to develop capabilities and form dignified national character and civilization in the context of educating the nation's life, aiming to develop the potential of students.
Law no. 2 of 1989 article 4, national education aims to educate the life of the nation and develop the whole Indonesian human being, namely human beings who believe in and fear God Almighty and have noble character, have knowledge and skills, are physically and spiritually healthy, have a solid personality and independent as well as a sense of social and national responsibility. In article 15 of the same article it is written "...to continue and expand basic education and prepare students to become members of society who have the ability to reciprocate with the surrounding social, cultural and natural environment and to be able to develop further capabilities in the world of work or higher education".
To realize these national goals, national development is carried out in a planned, comprehensive, integrated, directed and sustainable manner. The goal of national development is to realize a just and prosperous society based on Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution within the framework of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia which is independent, sovereign, united and sovereign of the people in an atmosphere of safe, peaceful, orderly and dynamic national life and in an environment of world association. free, friendly, orderly and peaceful.
The above is in accordance with the 1945 Constitution article 31 paragraph 3:
"The government seeks and organizes a national education system, which increases faith and piety as well as noble character in the context of educating the nation's life, which is regulated by law.
4. OBJECTIVES OF PANCASILA EDUCATION
In essence, education is a conscious effort of a society and the government of a country to ensure the survival of its future generations, as citizens of society, nation and state in a useful and meaningful way.
To foster national insight and awareness, attitudes and behavior that love the motherland need to develop insight and resilience in every citizen.
In Law no. 2 of 1989 concerning the National Education system and is also contained in the Decree of the Director General of Higher Education. No.38/DIKTI/Kep/2003, it is explained that the purpose of Pancasila Education directs attention to the morals that are expected to manifest in everyday life, namely behavior that radiates faith and piety towards God Almighty in a society consisting of various religious, cultural groups. , and various interests, behavior that supports the people who prioritize common interests above individual and group interests so that different thoughts are directed at behavior that supports efforts to realize social justice for all Indonesian people.
Pancasila education aims to produce Indonesian people who have faith and are devoted to God Almighty, with the following attitudes and behaviors:
a. Have the ability to take a responsible attitude in accordance with his conscience.
b. Have the ability to recognize life and well-being problems and ways to solve them.
c. Recognize changes and developments in science, technology and art.
d. Having the ability to interpret historical events and the nation's cultural values to promote Indonesian unity.
e. Behavior that radiates faith and piety towards God Almighty;
f. Humane behavior that is just, civilized;
g. Cultural behavior, and
h. Various interests of behavior that support the people who prioritize common interests above individual and group interests.
5. The Pancasila education learning method
The choice of strategy for developing competency-based Pancasila education learning methods with the Student Active Learning approach has consequences for changing the paradigm of learning methods.
With this approach, students do more exploration than passively receive information conveyed by students. The advantage of students is not only acquiring knowledge and skills related to their field of expertise, but also developing communication skills, working in groups, initiative, sharing information, and respect for others. This student Active Learning approach method includes:
1. Case study: Students are given a case that needs to be solved according to the subject matter discussed.
2. Discussion: Students are assigned to discuss and exchange opinions on a particular topic or problem to gain a clearer and more thorough shared understanding
3. Seminar: Students are asked to prepare papers, then present in front of other students to obtain input and questions, either from the students themselves or from the teaching staff
4. Debate: Students are divided into several groups and each group consists of 4 people. In these groups students debate on certain topics.
5. Field work.: Students are immediately brought to the object or subject to be studied outside the classroom
6. Role play: one of the educational games used to explain feelings, attitudes, behaviors, and values with the aim of understanding the roles, viewpoints, and ways of thinking of others by playing the roles of other people.
7. Simulation: learning material mastery strategy through the development of imagination and student appreciation. The development of imagination and appreciation is carried out by students by acting as living figures or inanimate objects. This game is generally played by more than one person and depends on what is being played
8. Group assignments: giving assignments to students in groups, for example in the form of papers, clippings, or observing an event.
9. Games: students play games to gain an understanding of certain concepts. The game method can be done individually or in groups.
10. Collaborative Learning ( CL ) : a group learning process, in which each member contributes information, knowledge, experience, ideas, attitudes, opinions, abilities and skills they have, to then jointly enhance the mutual understanding of all members.
11. Problem-Based Learning (PBL): Learning methods using complex and real problems to trigger learning as a first step in gathering and integrating new knowledge.
12. Snowball (rolling snowballs): Students perform individual tasks and then in pairs. From this pair then look for another partner so that over time the group members get bigger. This method is used to get answers generated from students in stages. Starting from a small group, gradually moving to larger groups so that in the end there will be two or three answers that have been agreed upon by the students as a group.