CONCEPTS AND PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
CONCEPTS AND PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
Supporting Lecturer: Afdhal Divine, S.Pd.I., M.Pd.
By Group 1:
Alwi Sagala : 22140156
Amelia Ulfah Sabrina Rambe : 22140157
Aminah Taubariah Sagala : 22140158
Gloria analysis : 22140159
ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM II-C
FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND LANGUAGES
SOUTH TAPANULI INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION
ACADEMIC YEAR 2022/2023
Gratitude Alhamdulilla for all the abundance of God Almighty's grace, blessings. Thanks to Him we were able to finish this paper on time. The purpose of writing this paper is to fulfill the task of the Learning Strategy Course entitled "Concepts and Principles of Learning in Elementary Schools.
Finally, we realize that this paper is full of flaws. Therefore, we really hope for constructive criticism and suggestions for the improvement of this paper. We hope that this paper can fulfill the coursework assigned to the author
Padangsidimpuan, February 2023
LIST OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS ii
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1
Problem Formulation 1
Writing Purpose 1
CHAPTER III DISCUSSION 2
Principles of Learning in SD 2
Understanding the principle of learning 2
Implications of learning principles for students in elementary schools and teachers 4
The Basics of Learning in SD 7
Definition of Learning Process 7
Objectives in the Learning Process 8
Basics of Learning 8
CHAPTER IV CLOSING 11
As we all know that learning is a mental and emotional process or a process of thinking and feeling. A person is said to learn when his thoughts and feelings are active. The activity of thoughts and feelings itself cannot be observed by other people, but can be felt by the person concerned (the person who is studying it). While learning is an effort to achieve goals or competencies that must be mastered by students in elementary school. The learning process needs to be adjusted to the level of development of students in elementary school. That is why the learning process in kindergarten is different from the learning process in elementary schools or at other levels of education.
In lesson planning, learning principles can reveal the limits of the possibilities in learning. In carrying out learning, knowledge of learning theories and principles can help students in elementary schools in choosing consistent actions. Teachers can avoid actions that seem good but in fact do not succeed in improving the learning process of students in elementary schools. In addition to the theory and principles of learning he has and develops the attitudes needed to support the improvement of student learning in elementary school. While knowing the principles of learning is no less important. Learning principles can also be used as a basis for the development of innovative learning programs.
Formulation of the problem
From the background above, it can be seen that the problems of this paper are:
What are the Learning Principles in Elementary School?
What are the Learning Principles in SD?
To Know the Principles of Learning in Elementary School
To Know the Principles of Learning in SD
Principles of Learning in SD
Understanding the principle of learning
Learning principles are concepts that must be applied in the teaching and learning process. A teacher will be able to carry out his duties well if he can apply a teaching method that is in accordance with the principles of people learning. In other words, in order to be able to control for themselves whether the teaching tasks they carry out are in accordance with the learning principles, the teacher needs to understand the learning principles.
Many theories and learning principles put forward by experts have similarities and differences with one another. From these various learning principles, there are several principles that are relatively generally accepted that we can use as a basis for learning efforts, both for students in elementary schools who need to improve their teaching. These principles relate to attention and motivation, activeness, direct/experienced involvement, repetition, challenge, feedback and reinforcement, as well as individual differences.
Attention and motivation
Attention has an important role in learning activities. From the study of information processing learning theory, it was revealed that there is no sign of attention when learning occurs (Gage and Berline, 1984: 335). Attention to the lesson will arise in students in elementary school if the subject matter is in accordance with their needs.
The purpose of learning is necessary for a directed process. Motivation is a condition of the learner to initiate activities, set the direction of these activities and maintain sincerity. Naturally, children are always curious and carry out assessment activities in their environment. This curiosity should be encouraged and not inhibited by setting the same rules for all children.
Learning cannot be forced by others nor can it be delegated to others. Learning is only possible when children actively experience it themselves. John Dewey argued that learning is about what students in elementary school have to do for themselves, so the initiative must come alone. The teacher is just a guide and director.
According to cognitive theory, learning shows the existence of a very active soul, the soul processes information, not just storing it without carrying out a transformation. According to this theory, children are active, constructive and able to plan something. In the process of teaching and learning children are able to identify, formulate problems, seek and find facts, analyze, interpret and draw conclusions.
In every learning process students in elementary schools always show activeness. This activity can be in the form of physical activity and psychological activity. Physical activity can be in the form of reading, listening, writing, practicing skills, and so on. While psychic activities, for example, use the repertoire of knowledge possessed in solving the problems encountered, comparing one concept with another, concluding the results of experiments and other psychic activities.
According to Edgar Dale, in the classification of learning experiences as outlined in the cone of his experience, he argued that the best learning is learning from direct experience. Learning directly in this case is not just observing directly but must live, be directly involved in actions, and be responsible for the results. The involvement of elementary school students in learning is not only physical involvement, but also emotional involvement, involvement with cognitive activities in achieving knowledge acquisition, and internalizing values in forming attitudes and values, and also when conducting skills formation exercises.
The teaching process should pay attention to individual differences in the class so that it can facilitate the achievement of the highest learning objectives. Teaching that only pays attention to one target level will fail to meet the needs of all students in SD. Therefore a teacher needs to pay attention to the background, emotions, encouragement and abilities of individuals and adjust the subject matter and learning assignments to these aspects. Students in SD are unique individuals, meaning that no two students in SD are exactly the same, each student in SD is different from one another. This learning difference affects the way and results of student learning in elementary school.
Classical learning that ignores individual differences can be corrected in several ways, for example:
The use of various teaching-learning methods or strategies;
Use of instructional methods;
Provide additional lessons or enrichment lessons for students in elementary schools and provide tutoring for children who are lacking
In giving assignments, it should be adjusted to the interests and abilities of students in elementary school.
Implications of learning principles for students in elementary schools and teachers
Implications of Learning Principles for Students in Elementary Schools
Students in elementary school as the "primus motor" (main motor) in learning activities, for whatever reason cannot simply ignore the existence of learning principles.
Attention and Motivation
The implication of the principle of motivation for students in elementary school is that students in elementary school realize that their motivation to learn must be generated and developed continuously. To be able to generate and develop their motivation to learn continuously, students in elementary school can do this by determining / knowing the learning goals to be achieved, responding positively to praise / encouragement from others, setting targets / targets for completing learning assignments, and other similar behaviors.
The implications of the principle of activeness for students in elementary school are in the form of behaviors such as finding the required information sources, analyzing experimental results, wanting to know the results of a chemical reaction, writing papers, making clippings, and other similar behaviors. The implications of the principle of activeness for students in elementary schools further demand direct involvement of students in elementary schools in the learning process.
The implication of this principle is demanded of students in elementary school so that they don't hesitate to do all the learning assignments given to them. Forms of behavior that are implications for the principle of direct involvement for students in elementary school, for example students in elementary discuss to make reports, students in elementary school carrying out chemical reactions, and similar behaviors. The behavior of direct involvement of students in elementary schools in learning activities can be expected to realize the activeness of students in elementary schools
Implications of Learning Principles for Teachers
The teacher as the second person in learning activities is inseparable from the existence of learning principles. Teachers as organizers and managers of learning activities are implicated by the existence of these learning principles.
Attention and motivation
The implications of the principle of concern for teachers appear in the following behaviors:
Teachers use a variety of methods
The teacher uses the media according to the learning objectives and the material being taught
The teacher uses a style of language that is not monotonous
The teacher poses guiding questions (direction questions)
While the implications of the principle of motivation for teachers appear in behaviors which include:
Choose teaching materials according to the interests of students in elementary school
Using teaching methods and techniques that are preferred by students in elementary school
Correct as soon as possible the work of students in elementary school and as soon as possible notify the results to students in elementary school
Give verbal or non-verbal praise to students in elementary schools who respond to the questions given
Tells the use value of the lessons being studied by students in elementary school
To be able to cause active learning in students in elementary schools, teachers, among others, can carry out the following behaviors:
Using multimethod and multimedia
Give assignments individually and in groups
Provide opportunities for elementary school students to carry out experiments in small groups (no more than 3 members)
Giving assignments to read study materials, noting things that are not clear
Hold questions and answers and discussions
The implication of the existence of the principle of direct/experienced involvement for the teacher is the ability of the teacher to act as a manager/manager of learning activities who are able to direct, guide and encourage students in SD towards the set teaching goals.
Teacher behavior which is an implication of the challenge principle includes:
Designing and managing experimental activities that provide opportunities for students in SD to do them individually or in small groups (3-4 people)
Giving assignments to students in elementary school to solve problems that require information from other people outside the school as a source of information
Assign students in elementary school to conclude the contents of the lessons that have been presented
Develop learning materials (texts, handouts, modules, etc.) that pay attention to the needs of students in elementary schools to get challenges in them, so that all learning messages do not have to be presented in detail without giving students in elementary schools the opportunity to seek from other sources.
Guiding elementary school students to find their own facts, concepts, principles, and generalizations.
Principles of Learning in SD
Definition of Learning Process
The learning process contains two activities, namely learning and teaching. Learning is defined as a change in behavior through activity, practice and experience and teaching is defined as the activity of organizing or managing the environment as well as possible so as to create opportunities for students in elementary school to carry out an effective learning process.
Teuku Zahara Djaafar (2001: 1) states that in the concept of educational technology, the terms learning (instruction) and teaching (teaching) are distinguished. Learning is also called instructional activities (Instructional) only, namely efforts to deliberately manage the environment so that someone learns to behave in a certain way under certain conditions. Teaching is an attempt to guide and direct learning experiences to students which usually take place in formal (formal) situations. Furthermore, Teuku Zahara Djaafar stated that according to Cagne and Bigg, learning is a series of events that affect students in elementary school in such a way that the learning process can take place easily.
Learning is a change in personality as manifested in changes in mastery - mastery of new response patterns or behaviors that may take the form of skills, attitudes, habits and abilities (Witherington, 1950).
Learning brings change (change in behavior, both actual and potential), the change is basically the acquisition of new skills, the change occurs because of effort (intentionally). (Sumadi, 1984).
Objectives in the Learning Process
The purpose of the learning process for teachers is to lead students or as facilitators in mastering the competencies needed through the teaching and learning process. The learning objective for students in elementary schools is to be able to master the competencies taught by the teacher so that satisfactory learning outcomes (grades) can be obtained.
Fundamentals of Learning
This section describes 13 learning principles that can be used as a basis for developing innovative learning programs. The thirteen principles are:
Five basic principles in fulfilling children's rights:
the best interests of the child (best interests of the child);;
the right to live and develop (right to life, continuity of life and to develop);
right to protection (right to protection);
respect for the opinions of children.
Learning is not an automatic consequence of pouring information into the minds of students in elementary school
Learning requires the mental involvement and work of students in SD itself.
Only active learning activities can produce lasting learning outcomes.
In order to learn something well, we need to hear, see, ask questions, and discuss it with others.
Learning activities for students in elementary schools are characterized by:
what I hear, I forget;
what I heard and saw, I little remember;
what I hear, see, and question or discuss with others, I begin to understand;
what I hear, see, discuss, and apply, I gain knowledge and skills;
what I teach others, I master.
John Holt (1967) learning process will improve if students in SD are asked to do things:
Restate the information in your own words,
Recognizing it in various forms and situations,
Seeing the connection between the information and other facts or ideas,
Using it in various ways,
Predicting some of the consequences,
Mention the opponent or vice versa.
The brain not only receives information, but also processes it by discussing information with other people and also asking questions about the things discussed.
Our brains need to make connections between what we are taught with what we already know and with the way we think.
The learning process must accommodate the types of student learning in elementary schools (auditory, visual, kinesthetic;
From the discussion above it can be concluded that the principles of learning are related to attention and motivation, activeness, direct involvement/experience, repetition, challenge, feedback and reinforcement, as well as individual differences. Learning principles that have implications for students in elementary schools and teachers, in one activity carried out by students in elementary schools and teachers, we can find the embodiment/appearance of more than one learning principle. The fact that in one learning activity there is more than one learning principle seems to require the teacher to really master and especially mark the embodiment of learning principles in learning activities. The purpose of the learning process for teachers is to lead students or as facilitators in mastering the competencies needed through the teaching and learning process. The goal of learning for students in elementary school is to be able to master the competencies taught by the teacher so that satisfactory learning outcomes (grades) can be obtained. Therefore in relation to this, it is also necessary to know the principles of the learning itself, so that a learning process will be obtained. teaching based on applicable learning principles.
Rothwell, A.B., Learning Principles, dalam Clark L.H. Strategies and Tactics in secondary School Teaching: A Book of Readings, Toronto: the Mac Millan, Co., 1968