Minggu, 19 Maret 2023

Social Science Learning Paper in SD/MI Complete


A. Background
For a teacher, mastering learning material is not enough. For him, special skills are needed to be able to convey the material more successfully. Mastery of the learning methodology that is in accordance with the characteristics of the subjects taught and in accordance with the characteristics of the students is a non-negotiable requirement.
One of the references in choosing an appropriate approach for social studies learning is to consider the objectives and scope of the study of social studies teaching in elementary schools. As is known, in many respects the goals of Social Studies learning in Indonesia have similarities with the goals of Social Studies in the United States and the goals of SOSE (Studies of Society and Environment) in Australia.
To achieve the goals of Social Studies, there are several principles that can be followed in social studies learning, namely:
1. Meaningful IPS learning;
2. Integrative social studies learning;
3. Value-based social studies learning;
4. Social studies learning is challenging;
5. Active social studies learning;
For this reason, an approach is needed that is suitable for students so that their learning is in accordance with the principles of social studies learning to achieve students' understanding of learning, especially social studies learning.

B. Problem Formulation

1. What is social studies learning?
2. What are the social studies learning principles?
3. What is meant by approach?
4. What approaches are suitable for social studies learning?


A. Definition of IPS Learning
Learning is related to how (how to) teach students or how to make students learn easily and are motivated by their own will to learn what (what to) is actualized in the curriculum as the needs (needs) of students. Therefore, learning seeks to describe the values ​​contained in the curriculum by analyzing the learning objectives and the characteristics of the content of the social studies field contained in the curriculum, which according to Sujana (1987) is called the ideal/potential curriculum.
Learning is an effort to teach students. The term learning is more appropriate to use because it describes efforts to arouse one's learning initiatives. In addition, learning expressions have a deeper meaning to express the purpose of the learning approach in an effort to teach students. [1] [1]

Learning is basically an engineering that seeks to help students grow and develop in accordance with the intent and purpose of their creation. In the context of the learning process in schools/madrasas, learning cannot just happen by itself, that is, students learn to interact with their environment as happens in the learning process in society (social learning). The learning process must be pursued and always tied to the goal (goal based). Therefore, all interaction activities, methods and learning conditions must be planned by always referring to the desired learning objectives.
IPS itself is the name of a subject at the elementary school level. The term IPS in elementary schools is the name of a subject that stands alone as an integration of a number of disciplinary concepts from social sciences, humanities, science and even various social issues and problems of life. The social studies material for the Elementary School level does not look at the disciplinary aspects because what is more important is the pedagogic and psychological dimensions as well as the characteristics of students' thinking skills which are holistic in nature. [2] [2]
So social studies learning is an effort to teach students in the social sciences, humanities, and social problems of life.
B. IPS Learning Principles
To achieve an effective and efficient learning process, there are several principles that can be followed in the IPS learning process, namely:
1. Social studies teaching and learning are powerful when they are meaningful or commonly called meaningful IPS learning.
2. Social studies teaching and learning are powerful when they are integrative.
3. Social studies teaching and learning are powerful when they are value-based or so-called values-based social studies learning

4. Social studies teaching and learning are powerful when they are challenging which can be called challenging social studies learning

5. Social studies teaching and learning are powerful when they are active or commonly called active social studies learning.
C. IPS Learning Approach
The Learning Approach is our starting point or point of view towards the learning process, which refers to the view of the occurrence of a process that is still very general in nature, in which it accommodates, inspires, strengthens, and underlies learning methods with a certain theoretical scope or the basis for the attitudes and perceptions of teachers about how learning activities will be carried out.
The point of view of the teacher's attitudes and perceptions will become the basis for the teacher's actions in carrying out the learning process activities.
A curriculum approach with a broad base, which provides more time for students for discussion, drama, various kinds of arts activities, and music and movement. Such activities provide the means to meet social, emotional, intellectual, physical, and creative developmental needs, which will promote self-confidence and more motivated approaches to other learning. [3] [3]
Referring to the principles of social studies learning, it is better to use an social studies learning approach that is CBSA and PAIKEM in nature. The CBSA approach can be interpreted as a model of learning that leads to optimizing the intellectual-emotional involvement of students in the learning process, with the physical involvement of students when necessary. Involving students' intellectual-emotional/physical as well as optimizing learning, is directed at teaching students how to learn to acquire and process their learning acquisition about knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values. While the PAIKEM approach in general has the following description:
1. Learners are involved in various activities that develop their understanding and abilities with an emphasis on learning by doing.
2. The teacher uses a variety of aids and ways to arouse enthusiasm, including using the environment as a learning resource to make learning interesting, fun and suitable for students.
3. The teacher organizes the class by displaying more interesting books and learning materials and providing a 'reading corner'.
4. The teacher applies a more cooperative and interactive way of teaching, including group learning.
5. The teacher encourages students to find their own way of solving a problem, to express their ideas, and to involve students in creating their school environment.
In PAIKEM it is necessary to pay attention to:
1. Understanding the nature of students.
2. Get to know the child as an individual.
3. Utilizing children's behavior in organizing learning.
4. Develop critical thinking skills, creative, and problem solving skills.

5. Developing the classroom as an interesting learning environment.
6. Utilizing the environment as a learning resource.
7. Provide good feedback to improve learning activities.
8. Distinguish between physically active and mentally active.
So in conclusion PAIKEM is a learning that is designed to be able to activate students, develop creativity which in the end is effective, but still fun for students.
Other IPS learning approaches include the following:
1. Environmental Approach
In the environmental approach, IPS as a subject that teaches students to socialize, needs to pay attention to the environment as a topic of study, both the socio-cultural environment and the physical environment. This approach can be started from the closest environment of students, namely the family, to instill moral values ​​and community activities. Teachers need to pay close attention to the environment as an aspect that plays a role in shaping the behavior of students, such as: the tribal environment, the trade environment, the agricultural environment and so on.
Elementary school-age children usually have a deep concern for their surroundings, which, if given support, will be able to think of imaginative ways to portray a 'green' environment. In addition, visiting open places around the school will increase children's awareness and provide ideas for them to develop it further at school. [4] [4]
2. Concept Approach
Concepts are generalizations that help classify and organize knowledge and experience and to predict. According to Florence Beetlestone, a concept is an element that represents the most important problem because it is often assumed to be something static. If people realize that the concept is constantly changing and continuously being adapted because of experiences, thoughts and feelings, then the importance of developing and expressing creativity will be seen.
The concept approach emphasizes that understanding concepts greatly influences student behavior. The concept of justice, welfare, democracy, cooperation, responsibility, etc. These are concepts that students must understand, not just know or memorize. This understanding will guide students to be able to appreciate what is ultimately able to practice it in their daily behavior.
3. Inquiry Approach
The inquiry approach is a learning approach that requires students to seek and find something new for themselves as a result of learning. [5] [5]
The inquiry approach is an extension of discovery processes used in a more mature way. [6] [6]
The inquiry approach begins with a question or problem that invites students to participate in thinking in solving problems. In the inquiry process, curiosity will grow and develop spontaneously and participate in problem solving through questions and answers designed by the teacher. In inquiry activities can produce an idea, idea, solution, or find something that he is looking for. This approach aims to guide students to find facts, concepts and their own understanding with the right intervention of the teacher at certain problem nodes with the right timing.
Through the inquiry approach it is hoped that teachers can make learning challenging so as to give birth to interactions between ideas previously believed by students and new evidence to achieve new, more scientific understanding through a process of exploring or testing new ideas.
4. Process Skills Approach
The process skills approach aims to cultivate skills related to a particular process that need to be trained. Instilling certain behaviors usually needs to be trained and accustomed so that later the expected behavior will appear in society. Process skills can be started from looking for information until later can inform it. Sources for cultivating process skills in social studies learning include maps, globes, pictures or photographs, graphs, diagrams, etc.
Awareness of the benefits that children will bring through the processes and outcomes of their activities will give us the ability to articulate these benefits and to use school displays and school staff meetings to promote examples of quality children's learning. [7] [7]
Some of the basic abilities or skills that have been identified as process skills include:

a. Observing Ability
b. Making a Hypothesis
c. Planning Experiments
d. Controlling Variables
e. Interpreting Data
f. Drawing up Temporary Conclusions
g. predict
h. Apply
i. communicate
5. Troubleshooting
The problem-solving approach will introduce students to problems in life in society. For example environmental problems that are not clean, school rules that have not been obeyed, drug problems, juvenile delinquency, poverty and so on, can be introduced to students and to reveal how students respond to problems that exist in society.

Moffit suggests that the problem-solving learning approach uses real-world problems as a context for students to learn critical thinking and problem-solving skills, as well as to acquire knowledge and concepts that are the essence of the subject matter. [8] [8]
6. Deductive-Inductive Approach
Deductive and Inductive approaches are included in the traditional type of approach. The traditional approach is an approach in which the teacher tends to be more active than the students and the method tends to be monotonous.
Traditional learning approaches or models tend to assume that students have the same needs, and learn in the same way at the same time, in a quiet classroom, with learning material activities that are strictly structured and dominated by the teacher. [9] [9]
As for the inductive approach, it starts with stating the facts that exist in society along with the facts and data. The teacher can raise concrete examples and realities that exist in society, then draw generalizations from these facts and data into a concept. For example about poverty, corruption, employment, welfare and so on. Meanwhile, inductive message processing starts from facts or special events, drafting concepts based on facts, compiling generalizations based on concepts, applying generalizations to new data, and drawing conclusions. [10] [10]
Deductive approach, starting from the concepts that have been understood by students then look for examples of facts and supporting data in the community. The inductive and deductive approaches support each other to instill concepts in students. For elementary school students, learning can start from the concrete to the abstract, from the simple to the complex, from the easy to the difficult and from the near to the far.
As for deductive message processing, the first begins with the teacher making generalizations, the second is an explanation regarding the concepts, and the third is data searches carried out by students. The data collection is useful for testing the truth of generalizations. [11] [11]
7. Value Approach
The value approach was developed to foster students' attitudes and tolerance in behaving in society, fostering sensitivity and a sense of social responsibility based on knowledge and social skills. Democratic attitudes and the spirit of cooperation and competition need to be cultivated from an early age.
Social studies learning contains values ​​that are relevant to one of the principles of the 2006 curriculum development which states that the curriculum content of all subjects must contribute to increasing faith, piety, and noble character.
Ethical development is carried out in the framework of cultivating scientific, social and moral attitudes and values, including respecting and promoting plurality values ​​and universal values. Examples of material in IPS lessons are about Individuals and Society, Humans and their Environment, Foreign Cultural Influences on Indonesian Culture, Indonesian Nation's Struggle Towards Independence, and Human Rights, Democracy, and Law Enforcement.

8. Communicative Approach
Communicative approach, prioritizing the effectiveness of teacher and student communication. This approach pays attention to the level of cognitive maturity of students and the sequential material or language terms used by the teacher is language that students can understand and understand. The language and terms used by the teacher must be understood and understood so that there are no misunderstandings or misunderstandings.
In this communicative approach, it is hoped that character communication will emerge, namely communication between two or more individuals that runs continuously for a long time, so that behavior appears as a character and is communicated in a domain. Character here includes physical behavior, such as polite, gentle, firm, hard, rough, and so on. [12] [12]
9. Historical Approach
The historical approach reveals past events that can be used as examples (good or bad) for students, so that students can take meaning and lessons from these past events. Learning from the historical values ​​of the struggle of the Indonesian people in achieving independence as well as other events in the past need to be developed to become examples of experience and guidelines for the future.
10. Thematic Approach
Elementary school children, especially at the lower level, need learning facilities not in the form of separate subjects but in themes which are the integration of material from all subjects. [13] [13]
The thematic approach was developed to provide students with comprehensive insight into the themes displayed. For example, the theme of the environment, the results of development, democratization and so on can be developed in a more comprehensive understanding of students.
11. The CTL (Contextual Teacher and Learning) Approach
This learning is a learning model that essentially helps teachers relate subject matter to real life and motivates students to link the knowledge learned and its application in their lives.
Contextual teaching is teaching that enables kindergarten to high school students to strengthen, broaden, and apply their knowledge and academic skills in various kinds of in-school and out-of-school settings in order to be able to solve real-world problems or problems that arise. simulate.
The learning components that must exist in the contextual approach include: (a) Constructivism (Constructivism), (b) Questioning (asking), (c) Inquiry (finding), (d) Learning Community (Learning Society), (e) Modeling (Modeling), (f) Reflection (Reflection), (g) Authentic Assessment (Actual Assessment) [14] [14], which during the learning process takes place in an atmosphere of problem solving. which uses examples and concrete problems that are current and relevant to the situational environment of students.
12. Project Based Approach
This approach is where students in the learning process solve a problem using procedures that require independence and an atmosphere of solid teamwork.
13. Quantum Teaching Approach
The Quantum Teaching Approach is a blend or assembly of various theories or views of cognitive psychology and neurology/neurolinguistic programming that existed long before. [15] [15]
This approach is carried out when students are placed on learning subjects in an attractive and communicative classroom management atmosphere so that the learning process becomes more challenging, fun and motivating.
The general characteristics of the Quantum Teaching Approach are:
a. Quantum learning is based on cognitive psychology
b. More humanistic
c. Constructivist
d. Attempting to integrate, synergize, and collaborate on human potential factors as learners with the environment as a learning context.
e. Focus on quality and meaningful interactions
f. Emphasizing on accelerating learning with a high success rate
g. Emphasize the naturalness and fairness of the learning process
h. Emphasizing the meaningfulness and quality of the learning process
i. Having a model that combines the context and content of learning
j. Focus on building academic skills
k. Emphasizes values ​​and beliefs as an important part of the learning process
l. Prioritize diversity and freedom
14. Integrating the totality of body and mind in the learning process The Community Technology Science Approach (ITM) put forward by Remy (1990) who argues that the implementation of social studies learning is inseparable from its relation to the development of developing social issues which are dominantly concerned with discussing the influence of technological developments on various aspects of community social life.
15. Cooperative Approach.
In the cooperative class, students study together in small groups consisting of 4-6 students, students are grouped heterogeneously. During cooperative learning they are taught cooperative skills so they can work well together in their groups.
This cooperative approach has 2 types, including:
a. Cooperative type Student Team-Achievement Divisions (Team of Student Achievement Groups)
1) Form a group of approximately 4 people;
2) The teacher presents the subject matter;
3) The teacher gives assignments to do, group members who know the answers give explanations to other group members;
4) The teacher gives questions/quizzes and students answer quiz questions without helping each other;
5) Discussion of quizzes;
6) Conclusion.
b. Jigsaw (Expert Team Model)
1) Students are grouped with approximately 4 members;
2) Each person in the team is given different materials and assignments;
3) Members from different teams with the same assignment form a new group (expert group);
4) After the expert group has discussed, each member returns to the original group and explains to the group members about the sub-chapter they are good at;
5) Each team of experts presented the results of the discussion;
6) Discussion;
7) Cover.
According to UUSPN No. 20/2003 which implies that learning must be carried out interactively, inspiring, fun, challenging, motivating students to participate actively, and providing sufficient space for initiative, creativity and independence, in accordance with the talents, interests and physical and psychological development of students.
Social studies learning does not use a conventional approach, because generally this approach only uses the left hemisphere of the brain, while the right brain receives less attention. To achieve effective social studies learning, it is necessary to optimize all the potential of students so that all students can achieve satisfactory learning outcomes in accordance with the personal characteristics they have.
The CBASA and PAIKEM approaches are intended to keep students' attention focused on the learning process.
The conventional learning paradigm that has been implemented so far needs to be changed with innovative learning models. This innovative learning needs to be implemented, because:
1. The amount of information and channels is increasing.
2. Not all potential students can be developed in one way only.
3. Target orientation of learning materials is only for the short term.
4. The learning process should depart from real problems in everyday life. [16] [16]

IPS learning is an effort to teach students in the social sciences, humanities, and social problems of life.
IPS learning principles:
1. Social studies teaching and learning are powerful when they are meaningful or commonly called meaningful IPS learning.
2. Social studies teaching and learning are powerful when they are integrative.
3. Social studies teaching and learning are powerful when they are value-based or so-called values-based social studies learning
4. Social studies teaching and learning are powerful when they are challenging which can be called challenging social studies learning
5. Social studies teaching and learning are powerful when they are active or commonly called active social studies learning.
The approach is our starting point or point of view towards the learning process which refers to the view of the occurrence of a process which is still very general in nature, in which it accommodates, inspires, strengthens, and underlies learning methods with a certain theoretical scope.
Approaches that are suitable for social studies subjects use traditional approaches such as Deductive and Inductive and those that are CBSA and PAIKEM, including:

1. Environmental Approach;
2. Concept Approach;
3. Inquiry Approach;
4. Process Skills Approach;
5. Problem Solving Approach;
6. Value Approach;
7. Communicative Approach;
8. Historical Approach;
9. Thematic Approach;
. CTL approach;
. Project Based Approach;
. Quantum Teaching Approach;
. ITM approach;
Cooperative Approach.

Beetlestone, Florence. 2012. Creative Learning. Bandung: Nusa Media.
Dimyati and Mudjiono. 2002. Learning and Learning. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.
Suderadjat Day. 2011. Thematic Learning Management. Bandung: Sekar Gambir Asri.
Hartono, et al. 2012. PAIKEM. Riau : Zanafa Publishing.
Drafting Team for the Department of Biology, Physics, Chemistry, FPMIPA UPI. Deepening Material and Methodology of Natural Science Learning SD/MI. 2010.
FPIPS UPI Social Knowledge Education Development Team. Deepening Material and Methodology of Social Science Learning SD/MI. 2010.
Masruri, 2011, Negative Learning, Solo:PT Era Adi Citra Intermedia.
Muhaimin. 2004. Paradigm of Islamic Education. Bandung: Rosdakarya Youth.
Riyanto, Orphan. 2010. New Paradigm of Learning. Jakarta: Prenada Media Group.
Sudirman, et al. 1990. Education Science. Bandung: Rosdakarya Youth.
Suhad, Idad. 2010. Social Studies Education in SD/MI. Bandung: Solo Press.

Package 1

1.1. Definition of Learning
Learning can be defined as a system or as a process of teaching students that is planned or designed, implemented and evaluated systematically so that students can achieve learning goals effectively and efficiently
Learning is seen as a system, meaning learning means an organized component including learning objectives, learning materials, learning strategies and models, learning media or teaching aids, class organization, learning evaluation, and learning follow-up

1.2. IPS MI Learning Objectives:
1. Develop basic concepts of sociology, geography, economics, history, and citizenship through pedagogical and psychological approaches.
2. Develop critical and creative thinking skills, inquiry, problem solving, and social skills
3. Building awareness commitment to social and human values.
4. Improving the ability to work together and competence in a pluralistic society

IPS learning principles
A. Integrated
Integration / integration. In IPS learning can. Conducted based on related topics. For example: Economy with geographical conditions.
B. Interaction
Humans as social beings. Humans need each other. Humans work together
C. Continuity
Human in life. Bound by custom/tradition. Culture of a society. Changing big and small then the community. Will experience changes
D. Contextual
In accordance with the conditions of society
E. Social Skills
Collaborate, Help, Gotong-royong

Package 2

Social Science Planning Component (IPS)
— Component Learning Objectives
— Components of Learning Materials
— Learning Media Components
Evaluation Component

Component Learning Objectives IPS
Types of Learning/Instructional Objectives
— Cognitive Area
— Affective Region
— Psychomotor Area

IPS Learning Material Planning Components:
— Is something that is presented by the teacher to be processed and then understood by students, in order to achieve Instructional goals.

MI IPS Learning Media Planning Components
— Definition of media
Media words: medius “middle” , 'intermediate' or 'introductory'. Arabic media: intermediary or delivery of messages from the sender to the recipient

The characteristics of learning media:
— Fixative Properties
— Manipulative Property
— Distributive Property

Kinds of Media IPS
Viewed by type:
— Auditive Media => audio-capable media only.
— Visual Media => only rely on the sense of sight.
— Media Auto Visual => has sound elements and picture elements
Judging from its folding power, it is divided into:
• Media with broad and simultaneous coverage. Example: Radio and television
• Media with coverage that. limited by space and place, such as: films, etc.
• Media for individual teaching such as: teaching via computer.
Judging from the material of manufacture, it is divided into:
— Simple media => the basic ingredients are easy to obtain and the price is cheap
— Complex media => materials and tools are difficult to obtain.

The steps for preparing social studies learning plans
— Basic Competency Mapping
— KD translation into Indicators
— Determine the material / subject matter
— Preparation of Syllabus
— Preparation of RPP

IPS Learning Evaluation Planning Components:
— Assessment of tests and non-tests in written and oral forms, observation of performance, measurement of attitudes,

basic teaching skills of IPS MI learning

The basic social studies teaching skills include:
¨ opening and closing skills;
¨ explaining skills;
¨ questioning skills;
¨ skills to provide reinforcement;
¨ skill variety of teaching styles
¨ discussion guiding skills; And
small group coaching skills

Open Lesson:
An activity carried out by the teacher to create mental readiness and optimally attract the attention of students
Component Open Lesson
Components related to opening lessons include:
• Attract students' interest
• Generate motivation
• Give reference, and
• Make links

Closing Lesson:
• An activity to find out the achievement of goals and understanding of students
Components Closing the lesson:
¨ Review the material that has been taught,
¨ Conduct evaluation, and
¨ Provide follow-up on the material that has been taught.

lExplaining Skills:
¨ Describe orally about something object, situation, facts and data in accordance with the time
Skills Component Explains:
¨ Presentation
¨ Language must be clear and pleasing to the ear.
¨ Use appropriate intonation
¨ Use good and correct Indonesian.
¨ Give a precise definition.
¨ Learners can receive, understand

Questioning skills;
Basic questioning skills include:
— clear and concise question,
— referencing, focusing attention,
— shift shift,),
— giving time to think, giving demands.

Skills Give Reinforcement:
— Reinforcement is a response to a behavior
Type of reinforcement
— 1. Verbal reinforcement in the form of words and sentences of praise.
— 2. Nonverbal reinforcement
Skills in Organizing Variation aims to:
¨ Increase the attention of students
¨ Provide opportunities for talent development
¨ Cultivate students' positive behavior towards learning.
¨ Provide opportunities for students to learn
Various variations of teaching:
— variations in teaching styles,
— variations in the use of media and learning resources,
— variations in interaction patterns, and
— variety in activities
Guide small group discussions
Things that need to be considered:
— Focus on the purpose and topic of discussion
— Expanding on a problem or argument
— Analyze the views of students
— Increase student participation
— Spread the opportunity to participate
— Closes the discussion

Teaching Various Skills in IPS;
— teach how to understand
— Teaches attitudes, interests and values
— teaches how to think
Teaches Concepts, Generalizations and Issues:
— Concept: simplified social sciences
— Generalization: The relationship between two or more concepts.
— Social issues: community problems that have yet to be resolved and attract attention
Teaching Small Groups and Individuals:
learning that allows the teacher to pay attention to each student
— Develop skills in organizing, motivating, and variety of tasks.
— Guiding and facilitating learning
How to teach concepts and generalizations
— Direct or new experience, real or simulated, but it must always be remembered that ideas must always be related to previous experience.
How to Teach Social Issues;
— Must be age-appropriate and developmental
— Conveys a social overview
— Delivering objective knowledge and experience in responding to social issues

Package 4

Learning is a deliberate process of changing behavior
towards a predetermined goal. The learning process takes place in the interaction of the components of the human self with its environment
According to Kosasih Djahiri and Somara, teaching and learning strategies are teaching plans from a teacher about how the teaching will be delivered
Social studies learning has practical value, which must foster creative, democratic and responsible individuals, and at the same time has the burden of cultivating a good, harmonious and dynamic culture and life.
In social studies teaching and learning strategies should pay attention to:
.1. Program aspect:
a. Is multi dimensional.
b. The structure of the social sciences is integrated with the lesson concepts and other materials.
c. The program should be clear enough and within the reach of students.
2. In terms of participants
1. Showing courage and interest in expressing opinions/thoughts and problems
2. Encouraging interest in learning.
3. Do not feel an atmosphere of coercion, pressure and fear
3. In terms of lecturers:
a. Trying to provide encouragement to learn and achieve
b. Applying the principle of "inquiry and program educators".
c. Have the ability to use various types of teaching variations.

IPS learning strategy
Expository strategy

conventional learning strategies

Heuristic Strategy

Students are more involved in the teaching and learning process to train logical, critical and analytical thinking

Old way social studies learning
Learning social studies in a new way

1. The teacher uses the classroom as the only place for children to learn
Weaknesses: boring, does not bring creativity, lack of enthusiasm, and so on.
Advantages: does not require a lot of money, facilities can be fewer, and so on
1. Teachers use varied learning places inside and outside the classroom
Weaknesses: expensive costs, must have more facilities, and so on.
Pros: raises creativity, not quickly bored, excited, and so on.

2. Teachers teach more using the lecture method
Weaknesses: boring, limited memory for children, tiring, and so on.
Advantages: all material can be conveyed, suitable for a large number of students, and so on
2. Teachers teach using various methods that support active and creative children
Weaknesses: demands more facilities, more complicated teaching preparation, and so on
Advantages: does not cause boredom, new ideas always appear, and so on

3. Teachers provide assistance and guidance services to children in general
Weaknesses: not effective in solving problems, causing misunderstandings, and so on
Advantages: faster handling time, service standards can be made, and so on
3. Teachers provide assistance and guidance services to children on an individual basis
Weaknesses: troublesome, requires a lot of time, and so on
Advantages: problems are solved effectively, generate confidence, and so on

[1] [1] Drs. Muhaimin, MAet.al. Paradigm of Islamic Education. 2001. Malang. PT. Remaja Rosda Karya, p. 164.
[2] [2] FPIPS UPI Social Knowledge Education Development Team. Deepening Material and Methodology of Social Science Learning SD/MI. 2010, p. 2.
[3][3] Florence Beetlestone, Creative Learning, Bandung: Nusa Media, 2012, hlm. 68.
[4] [4] Ibid., p. 232.
[5] [5] Idad Suhada, Social Studies Education at SD/MI, Bandung: Solo Press, 2010, p. 64
[6] [6] Sudirman et al, Education Science, Bandung: PT. Risdakarya Youth, 1990, p. 169.
[7] [7] Florence Beetlestone, op. cit, p. 119
[8] [8] Teacher Certification Region 10 Indonesian University of Education, Natural Science SD/MI, 2010, p. 149.
[9] [9] Idad Suhada, op. cit. p.60
[10] [10] Dimyati and Mudjiono, Learning and Learning, Jakarta: PT. Rineka Cipta, 2002, p. 185.
[11] [11] Ibid, p. 180.
[12] [12] Masruri, Negative Learning, Solo: PT Era Adi Citra Intermedia, 2011, p. 49.
[13] [13] Hari Suderadjat, Thematic Learning Management, Bandung: Sekar Gambir Asri, 2011, p. 4.
[14] [14] Yatim Riyanto, Learning Paradigm, Jakarta: Kencana Prenada Media Group, 2010, p. 163.
[15] [15] Hartono, PAIKEM, Riau: Zanafa Publishing, 2012, p. 50.

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