Rabu, 25 Oktober 2023

Come on, read, this is the relationship between religion and society, here is the explanation


A. Definition of Religion and Society
Religion according to the Big Indonesian Dictionary is a system or principle of belief in God, or also called God or other names with devotional teachings and obligations related to that belief.
Meanwhile, the term community comes from the Arabic "Syaraka" which means taking part, participating or "musyaraka" which means getting along with each other. In English the term society is used, which previously came from the Latin "socius" meaning friend. Society is a social system that produces culture (Soerjono Soekanto, 1983). According to Abdul Syani, society comes from the word musyarak, which means together, then turns into society, which means gathering together, living together by interacting with each other and influencing each other, then getting an agreement to become a society.
In this case, community class can be interpreted as the classification of community members into a group that has the same or similar characteristics. Ary H. Gunawan also quoted the opinion of Patirim A. who stated that the classification of society according to strata (plural of stratum) hierarchy (level) is called social stratification. For example: farmers, laborers, student employees, teachers, lecturers, and so on. Brahma, kshatriya, syudra, pariah (in Hindu stratification).
In the sociology dictionary it is stated as a certain category of people, in a society based on certain mental characteristics. Soerjono Soekanto, stated that social stratification is the differentiation of the population or society into stratified classes or a multi-layered system in society. Based on the definition above, community classifications can be made based on similar characteristics. For example :

1. classification based on gender is male and female;

2. classification based on age is old and young;
3. classification based on education is intelligent and illiterate;
4. Classification based on occupation is farmers, fishermen, workers, craftsmen, civil servants, executives, and others. According to Hendropuspito, although it cannot be made based on the same social position, such as social layers, this classification is basically for the benefit of social observers in research on society.
Religion in Indonesia plays an important role in people's lives. This is stated in the ideology of the Indonesian nation, Pancasila: "Belief in One Almighty God". A number of religions in Indonesia have a collective influence on politics, economics and culture. In 2000, approximately 86.1% of Indonesia's 240,271,522 population were Muslims, 5.7% Protestants, 3% Catholics, 1.8% Hindus, and 3.4% other faiths.
Sociological understanding of religion is not drawn from the perspective of "revelations" that come from "another world, but is drawn from concrete experiences or experiences about religion collected from here and there, both from the past (history) and from current events. In short, the definition of religion according to sociology is an empirical definition. Sociology has never provided an evaluative definition. Sociology raises its hand regarding the nature of religion, the good or bad of the religion or religions it is observing. From this observation, sociology is only able to provide a descriptive definition (describing what is), which expresses what its adherents understand and experience.
According to the functionalist school, they view religion as another institution, which has the task (function) to ensure that society functions well, both locally, regionally and nationally. So in his review what is important is the effectiveness and influence of religion on society.
History reveals that humans strive and move in two areas of need, namely: the need for happiness now, and the need for happiness later. These two basic types of needs can be said in more abstract terms as well-being in the "real" empirical world and the supra-empirical world. One is located here and now, the other is described as above this world, a transcendent world, which is unreachable by human (empirical) experience, because it exists outside human experience.
If one follows the history of religion according to evolutionary theory, one will be introduced to the development of religious forms from simple forms to modern forms. Through the classical sequence, pre-animism emerged, which included magic, fetishism, animism, until religion or religion emerged. In pre-animism, humans used "magical" (supra-empirical) powers which were believed to be in inanimate objects, such as strange stones, iron (kris), etc. In animism, humans relate to animate creatures, especially spirits or spirits who are believed to have categorically higher powers than humans. For example, ancestral spirits, spirits who are believed to control springs, rivers, oceans, mountains, etc. In religion, humans enter into contact with (the highest spirit) who is believed to have unlimited power, which the major religions call GOD, who created and controls the universe.
With the explanation above, it can be defined that religion is a type of social system created by its adherents which pivots on non-empirical forces which they believe in and utilize to achieve salvation for themselves and the wider community in general.
From the description above, there are several elements that we can summarize, namely:
1. Religion is said to be a type of social system. Here it is explained that religion is a social phenomenon, a social event, a system that can be analyzed, because it consists of a complex of rules and regulations that are interconnected and directed towards certain goals.
2. Religion pivots on non-empirical forces. This expression states that typical religions deal with forces from the "outer world" which is inhabited by forces higher than human powers and which are believed to be spirits, spirits and supreme spirits.
3. Humans utilize the above powers for their own interests and those of the surrounding community. What is meant by interest (salvation) is safety in the present world and in the "other world" that humans enter after death.

B. Scope and Elements of Religion
Broadly speaking, the scope of religion includes:
1. Human relationship with God
Relationship with God is called worship. Worship aims to bring humans closer to God.
2. Human relations with humans
Religion has basic concepts regarding kinship and society. This basic concept provides an overview of religious teachings regarding human relations with humans or is also known as social teachings. For example, every religious teaching teaches mutual help towards fellow humans.

3. Human relationships with other creatures or their environment.
Every religious teaching teaches that humans always maintain harmony between living creatures and the surrounding environment so that humans can continue their lives.
According to Leight, Keller and Calhoun, religion consists of several main elements:
1. Religious belief, namely a principle that is considered true without any doubt
2. Religious symbols, namely the religious identity adhered to by its people.
3. Religious practices, namely the vertical relationship between humans and God, and horizontal relationships or relationships between religious believers in accordance with religious teachings
4. Religious experiences, namely various forms of religious experiences experienced by believers personally.
5. Religious people, namely adherents of each religion

C. Function and Role of Religion in Society
In terms of function, society and religion play a role in overcoming problems that arise in society which cannot be solved empirically due to limited capabilities and uncertainty. Therefore, it is hoped that religion will carry out its function so that society feels prosperous, safe, stable, and so on. . Religion in society can function as follows:
1. Educational function
Religion provides guidance and teaching through its officers (functionaries) such as shamans, shamans, prophets, kiai, priests, religious teachers and others, both in religious ceremonies (celebrations), sermons, reflection (meditation) for spiritual deepening, etc.
2. Rescue function
That every human being wants salvation both in this life and after death. They can only find this guarantee of safety in religion. Religion helps humans to know something "sacred" and "supreme being" or God and communicate with Him. So that in this relationship humans believe they can get what they want. Religion is able to reconcile people who have made mistakes with God through forgiveness and inner purification.
3. Social supervision function (social control)
The function of religion as social control is:
a. Religion confirms moral rules from customs which are considered good for the moral life of community members.
b. Religion secures and preserves moral rules (which are considered good) from the destructive invasion of new religions and the legal system of the modern state.
4. The function of fostering brotherhood
Fraternal unity based on sociological unity is the unity of humans founded on elements of similarity.
a. Fraternal unity based on the same ideology, such as liberalism, communism and socialism.
b. A fraternal union based on a common political system. Nations join together in large state systems, such as NATO, ASEAN etc.
c. Fraternal unity based on the same faith is the highest unity because in this unity humans not only involve a part of themselves but their whole person is involved in one deepest intimacy with the highest thing that is believed together.
5. Transformative function
The transformative function here is defined as changing a new form of life or replacing old values ​​by instilling new, more useful values. Meanwhile, according to Thomas F. O'Dea, he wrote six functions of religion and society, namely:
a. As support, solace and reconciliation.
b. A means of transcendental connection through worship and worship ceremonies.
c. Strengthening existing norms and values.
d. Correction of existing functions.
e. Giver of identity.
f. Religious maturation.
Meanwhile, according to Hendropuspito, it is even more concise, but the essence is almost the same. According to him, the functions of religion and society are educative, savior, social supervision, fostering brotherhood, and transformative. Religion has a very important role in human life and society, because religion provides a value system that is derived from societal norms to provide validation and justification in regulating human behavior patterns, both at the individual and societal levels. Religion is a guide to life in short. When looking at values, we can look at them from two points of view. First, religious values ​​are seen from an intellectual perspective which makes religious values ​​a norm or principle. Second, the value of religion is felt from an emotional point of view which causes an impulse within oneself which is called mysticism.
Discussing the role of religion in social life concerns two things that are of course closely related and have aspects that are maintained. Namely the influence of religious ideals and religious ethics in the lives of individuals from social classes and social groups, individuals and collectivities, and includes the habits and ways in which all foreign elements of religion are colored. The other also concerns the organization and function of religious institutions so that religion and society take the form of a collective expression of human values, which has a set of meanings including behavior as an individual's way of life with belief in and obedience to his religion.
The role of religion in society has a very important influence on the survival of society. Religion becomes a benchmark for society to do and evaluate things. In Indonesia there are various religions in society, but each religion has its own sovereignty. and everything has been regulated in law and Pancasila. Religion in society is a collection of norms and tolerance between fellow humans or society.

D. Institutionalization of Religion
Religion has been characterized as unifying humanity's most sublime aspirations; as a great measure of morality, the source of the order of society and the inner peace of the individual; as something that ennobles and makes humans civilized. In fact, religious institutions are concerned with matters that have a certain significance, concerning aspects of human life, which in their transcendence, include things that have an important and prominent meaning for humans. In fact, history shows that religious institutions are the form of human association most likely to continue to survive. In relation to social institutions that exist in society, sociological thinking should be focused on small and large institutions, as well as combinations of institutions that constitute sub-systems in society.
Sociologists tend to pay attention to at least 4 important groups of institutions (which can be broken down into smaller and more specific categories), namely:
1. Political institutions whose scope is the application of power and monopoly on the legitimate use of power.
2. Economic institutions that include the production and distribution of goods and services.
3. Integrative-expressive institutions
4. Kinship institutions include rules that regulate sexual relations and the direction of young people. Even though it appears that an institution focuses attention on a particular aspect of society, in reality these institutions are functionally related. Each institution participates and contributes in certain ways to the life of the local community ("community").

E. The Influence of Religion on Community Groups
To understand the influence of religion on society, there are three aspects that need to be studied, namely culture, social system and personality. These three aspects are social phenomena related to human behavior. In this regard, Nottingham explained in general about the relationship between religion and society, which according to him, is divided into types. It seems that this division follows August Comte's concept of the process of stages of society formation. The types referred to by Nottingham are as follows.
1. Underdeveloped society and sacred values. This type of society is small, isolated and backward. Community members adhere to the same religion. There is no other institution that is relatively developed apart from the family institution, religion is the main focus for the integration and unity of society as a whole. Therefore, the possibility of religion inserting a sacred influence into society's value system is absolute.
2. Developing preindustrial society. The state of society is not isolated, there is a higher technological development than the first type. Religion provides meaning and ties to the value system in this type of society. But, at the same time, the sacred and secular environments can still be more or less differentiated. For example, in certain phases of social life it is still filled with religious ceremonies, but on the other side of life, in daily activities, religion is less supportive. Religion only supports matters of customs. Religious values ​​in society place their main focus on integrating individual behavior, and the formation of personal image has important consequences for religion. One consequence is that members of society are increasingly accustomed to using empirical methods based on reasoning and efficiency in responding to humanitarian problems so that a secular environment is increasingly widespread.
Having the characters stated by Notting Ham, it seems that the influence of religion on people's lives, if seen from the character of each occupational group, will not be much different from the influence of religion on society as described by Notting Ham in general, because the system of society will reflect the culture of the community. .
a. Peasantry. In general, farmers are backward communities. The location is in an isolated area, the community system is still simple, social institutions have not developed much. Livelihoods primarily depend on nature which cannot be accelerated, slowed down or carefully calculated according to the farmer's wishes. Whether the land is fertile or not, etc. are factors that are beyond the reach of farmers, therefore, they look for strengths and abilities outside themselves that are deemed capable and able to overcome all the problems that have or will befall them. So, ceremonies or rites are held which are considered to reject evil or honor the gods. Providing offerings to Dewi Sri, who is believed to be the protector of rice fields and fields. With a cursory observation, the influence of religion on the farmer group is quite large. Their religious spirit is relatively greater because of their closeness to nature.
b. Fishermen group. The character of fishermen workers is almost the same as that of farmers. His livelihood depends on the kindness of nature. If the season is good, there are no storms, the fish catch may be abundant. Usually at certain times there is some kind of ceremony to honor the ruler of the sea, who in Indonesian society is known as Nyi Roro Kidul. Based on these facts, the influence of religion on the lives of fishermen can be said to be significant.
c. Craftsmen and small traders. The craftsmen and small traders live in a different situation to the farmers. The life of this group is not too concerned with natural situations and is not too dependent on nature. Their lives are based on an economic basis that requires rational calculations. They do not rely on the uncertain friendliness of nature, but rather believe in careful planning and definite direction. According to Weber, who studied the history of religions in the way that prevailed in his time, namely Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism and Confucianism, Taoism, the craftsmen and small traders, liked to accept a view of life that included an ethic of retribution. They adhere to moral rules and patterns of good manners and believe that good work done diligently and conscientiously will bring appropriate rewards.
d. The large trader group. The most prominent category of the large trader group is that they have a different attitude towards religion. In general, this group has a soul that is far from the idea of ​​moral compensation, as is the case with the lower middle class. They are more oriented towards real life (mundane) and tends to close down prophetic and ethical religion. Their religious feelings are more functional, their abilities are based on their economic strength.
e. Employee class. Weber calls the employee group bureaucrats. This can be seen from the clear division of work functions and the resolution of humanitarian problems based on reasoning and efficiency.
f. Labor group. What is meant by the labor class are those who work in modern industries or companies. The working class includes the proletarian class which is not included in the life of society, excluded from the current social system. This class is a group which is used as a cash cow to reap huge profits by the bourgeoisie. The religion that the working class needs seems to be a religion which can free itself from the consumption of labor immediately becomes excessive.
g. Young and old groups. Even though socially this classification of young and old exists, it is difficult to determine its boundaries practically. Based on this cursory observation, it can be said that religion in the older group is stronger than in the younger group. However, if this assumption is applied today, it turns out that it also has difficulties, because it is not uncommon for many people aged 40 and over to act like young people.
h. Male-female group. Psychologically, the general character of men and women is different. In dealing with a situation, men's characters are more dominant in using rational considerations, while women are more emotional/feeling.
If seen as a whole, a person's religious goal is generally to seek inner peace. In matters of religious appreciation, it seems that women are more dominant, because their nature generally tends to be emotional.

F. Interrelation (Reciprocal Relationship) between Religion and Society
In a sociological perspective, religion is seen as a belief system that is manifested in certain social behavior. It is concerned with human experience, both as individuals and as groups. So, every behavior he plays will be related to the belief system of the religious teachings he adheres to. Individual and social behavior is driven by internal forces which are based on previously internalized religious teaching values. Therefore, Wach further believes that religion, which is subjective, can be objectified in various kinds of expressions, and these expressions have a certain structure that can be understood.
In their book, American Piety: The Nature of Religious Commitment, CY Glock and R. Stark (1968: 11-19) mention five dimensions of religion. First, the dimension of belief which contains hope while adhering to certain theologies. Second, the dimension of religious practice which includes symbolic behavior from the religious meanings contained therein. Third, the dimension of religious experience which refers to all subjective and individual involvement with the sacred things of a religion. Fourth, the dimension of religious knowledge, meaning that religious people have knowledge about beliefs, rites, holy books and traditions. Fifth, the consequence dimension refers to identifying the consequences of a person's beliefs, practices, experiences and knowledge from day to day.
When revealing the interdependent relationship between religion and society, Wach shows the reciprocal influence between these two factors. First, the influence of religion on society, as seen in the formation, development and determination of new specific religious groups. Second, the influence of society on religion. In this case, Wach focuses his attention on social factors that provide nuance and diversity of religious feelings and attitudes found in a particular environment or social group.
Basically, the esoteric dimension of a religion or belief cannot stand alone, but is related to other dimensions outside itself. Apart from being shaped by the substance of the teachings, this dimension is also influenced by the social structure in which a belief is manifested by its adherents. So that in certain contexts, on the one hand, religion can also adapt, and on the other hand it can function as a means of legitimizing the process of change that occurs around the lives of its adherents.
In line with the thinking above, Peter L. Berger (1991) sees the relationship between humans and society dialectically. Berger provides an alternative to determinism which considers individuals to be solely shaped by social structures and has no role in the formation of social structures. He rejects one-sided causality. With this view, Berger wants to show that humans can change social structures, and humans will always be influenced and even shaped by their social institutions.
Furthermore, Berger said that the human relationship with society is a dialectical process consisting of three moments: externalization, objectivation, and internalization. Through externalization, humans express themselves by building their world. Through this externalization, society becomes a man-made reality. Reality becomes objective reality, a reality that is separate from humans and confronts humans. This process is called objectivation. Society, with all its social institutions, will influence and even shape human behavior. From this angle, it can be said that society is reabsorbed by humans through a process of internalization.
The relationship between religion and society is widely proven by religious knowledge which includes historical writing and the figure of the prophet in changing social life, rational arguments about the meaning and nature of life, about God and awareness of death giving rise to religion, and the precepts of belief in the Almighty God that reach the religious experience of the Sufism . The evidence above leads to the opinion that religion is a place to search for the final and ultimate meaning of life. Then, in order, religion is believed to be a source of motivation for individual action in social relations, and returns to the concept of the relationship between religion and society, where religious experience will be reflected in social action, and individuals and society should not be antagonistic.
Religion as a system includes individuals and society, such as religious emotions, beliefs about the nature of ideology, rites and ceremonies, as well as people or social units that are bound to their religion. Religion and society can also be realized in a symbol system that solidifies human roles and motivations, then structured regarding generally applicable laws and regulations, such as the many religious opinions about world life such as family issues, statehood, consumption, production, holidays, inheritance principles, and etc .
In this case, the relationship between humans and religion can be classified as follows.
1. Nature towards Religion
In simple society, many events occur and take place around humans and within humans, but cannot be understood by them. What is not understood is put into the unseen category. Because in their opinion there are many supernatural things or events, they feel that life and life are full of magic. Facing this supernatural event they feel weak and helpless. To strengthen themselves, they seek protection from the power that they think controls the supernatural world, namely Dewa or God. Because of this, their relationship with the gods or God becomes close. Intimate relationships with the Gods or God are intertwined in various aspects of life: social, economic, artistic and so on. This belief and system of human relationships with the Gods or Gods forms a religious system. Therefore, in simple society there is a close relationship with religion. This picture applies all over the world.
The fact that various religions have been found in society from the past until now proves that living under a belief system is a common human behavior. This character has existed since humans were born so that there is not the slightest contradiction from someone who grows up in a living system. Different religions grew and developed in this society.
The amazing structure of the universe has led humans to the existence of the Most Perfect Creator. The opinion that the emergence of nature was a chance process has been very dissatisfying to human hearts from time to time. Even theories about chance cannot answer the processes of creation in single-celled creatures, which are a very small part of creation. The existence of the Creator brings a sense of peace to the human intellect.
The characteristics that exist in all natural elements, both dead and alive, are even more amazing. The process of rain, the movement of planets around the sun, birds that fly lightly and travel to various parts of the world covering a distance of tens of thousands of kilometers, the uniqueness of bees in organizing their society and so on, seem to reflect an attitude of submission to the universal laws laid down The Creator of this universe. Therefore, human worship of the Creator is a part of the characteristics of creation itself, as is the creation of satellites orbiting the planet. Allah SWT says:
  •                         
"Don't you know that Allah glorifies what is in the heavens and the earth and (also) the birds by spreading their wings. Each one knows (the way of) his prayer and his tasbih and Allah is All-Knowing of what you do.” (QS: An-Nuur, 24:41)
The orderliness of all natural elements raises awareness that human life also requires this orderliness. Human acceptance of a system of rules of life continues from time to time. Religion is a form of this system whose presence has been going on for a long time in various corners of the earth in different forms. The peculiarities of human nature give rise to different dimensions of its laws. Deviations from natural laws cause physical destruction and deviations from human laws can cause physical and social destruction.
The dimensions of reward and sin as well as the day of retribution are found in almost all religions in the world. This dimension is widely accepted by humans, even in modern ways of thinking. The understanding of materialism which considers matter to be the eternal essence of nature has no place in the modern world. Bertrand Russell stated that the Theory of Relativity had broken through the traditional understanding of substance more powerfully than any philosophical argument. Matter in everyday terms is something that persists in time and moves in space. But for natural science, the relativity of this view can no longer be justified. A lump of matter is no longer a fixed object with varying states but is a system of events, which are interconnected. What was once thought to be the solid nature of things no longer exists, and also the qualities which make matter appear in the eyes of a materialist more real than the flash of the mind, also no longer exist. Alla SWT says:
“And they say: This life is nothing but life in this world, we die and we live and nothing destroys us but time. They have no knowledge about it, they are just guessing." (QS: Al-Jaasiyah, 45:24)
2. Human Search for Religion
Perfect reason will always demand satisfaction in thinking. Therefore, humanity's search for religious truth has never left the face of this earth. Deviations from religious teachings in the history of human life can be known in the end by fulfilling the satisfaction of thinking of humans who live later. It is said that Prophet Ibrahim (as) was very dissatisfied with seeing how humans deified inanimate objects in nature such as statues, the sun, moon and stars. Likewise, the Prophet Muhammad SAW, in the end needed to be imprisoned because his soul could not accept the rules of life developed by the Quraysh community in Mecca who claimed to still worship the God of Abraham. Allah says;
"And He found you confused and He gave you guidance." (QS: Ad-Dhuhaa, 93:7)
Along with these fundamental qualities in humans, the Qur'an in most of its verses challenges the ability of human thinking to find the true truth as presented in Islamic teachings. The natural order and history of past nations are recommended objects for thought. The Qur'an also puts forward a comparison of teachings between various religions in order to strengthen human opinion-making.
As a result of this thought process, whether it is progress or setbacks, there is a transfer (transformation) of religion in human life. When a person feels uneasy about the path he is taking and then finds enlightenment, then he will undoubtedly enter a world that is more satisfying to his mind and soul. Calmness is the basic capital in efforts to navigate personal life. However, society is a collection of individuals. A calm society, a bright nation is actually born from the decisions of its members in choosing a path in life. Allah says:
"The disbelievers said: "Why was not a sign (miracle) from his Lord revealed to him (Muhammad)?" Say: Indeed, Allah leads astray whom He wills and guides those who repent to Him. (namely) those who believe and their hearts are at peace by remembering Allah, remember, only by remembering Allah does the heart become at peace". (QS: Ar-Ra'd, 13:27-28)
3. Religious Consistency
Humans were created with a conscience that is fully capable of telling reality correctly and as it is. However, humans also have other psychological skills that can cover up what comes to their conscience, namely the nature of pretending. However, someone pretends only in certain situations that are temporal or accidental in nature. No pretense is permanent and essential. A person's consistent attitude towards his religion lies in his conscience' recognition of the religion he adheres to. This consistency will leave an impression on all aspects of life to form a view of life. However, forming an attitude of consistency is also not an easy matter.

Source: racmat

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